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# Mathematical Logic

Propositions
These are statements which are either true or

## false but not both.

Examples:
Declarative sentences
Mathematical equations or inequalities
Today is a sunny day.
Strawberry is a vegetable.
2 + 7 = 9
8 > 10

Propositions
Not Propositions

1.
3.
4.

## Truth Value of Propositions /

Statements
If the statement is true, then its truth value

is T.
If the statement is false, the truth value is
F.
Determine the truth values of the following:
1. Today is a sunny day.
2. Strawberry is a vegetable.
3. 2 + 7 = 9
4. 8 > 10

Classification of Statements
Simple statement makes only one

assertion.
Compound statement makes more than
one assertion
Note: All the examples listed earlier are
simple statements

## Symbol: Letters are often used to represent

simple statements.
p: Today is a sunny day.
q: Strawberry is a vegetable.

Operations on Statements
1. Negation
2. Conjunction
3. Disjunction
4. Conditional
5. Biconditional

1. Negation
Symbol: The negation of p is denoted by

~p.
To negate a proposition means to change

## its truth value.

This can be done by replacing the adjective

## in the statement by its antonym.

Or putting It is not the case at the

## beginning of the statement.

Examples of Negating a
Proposition
p: Today is Friday.
~p: Today is not Friday. Or Today is Saturday.
q: Our class is scheduled during lunch time.
~q: Our class is not scheduled during lunch
time.
r: UAP is in Pasig City.
~r: UAP is not in Pasig City.

Negation
The truth value of the statement is

~p

2. Conjunction
Symbol:

## The conjunction of p and q is

denoted by
.

Examples:

p: Today is Friday.
q: Today is a rainy day.
: Today is Friday and Today is a rainy day.
or
Today is a rainy Friday.

Conjunction
Other words used for conjunction are

moreover
furthermore
but
yet
still
however
also
nevertheless
although
Both can be used to emphasize.

Conjunction
The truth value of a conjunction

## of two statements is T if both

statements are true.
p
T
T
F
F

q
T
F
T
F

T
F
F
F

3. Disjunction

Symbol:
The disjunction of p and q is denoted by

. (Read as p or q)
Examples:

p: Today is Friday.
q: Today is a rainy day.
: Today is Friday or Today is a rainy day.
The word unless is also used for disjunction.

Disjunction
The
truth value of a disjunction of two

## statements is T if at least one of the two

statements is true.

p
T
T
F
F

q
T
F
T
F

T
T
T
F

## This is the inclusive or.

The exclusive or, denoted by is T if exactly

## Words and Symbols

Either introduces the first disjunct in a disjunction.
It punctuates some compound statements.
More stringent antipollution measures will be

## enacted (A) and the laws will be strictly enforced (L)

or the quality of life will be degraded still further (Q).
In symbols: A L Q
(A L) Q
Placing either right after the word and: A (L
Q)
Placing either at the beginning:

## Words and Symbols

Negation of a Disjunction
Neither nor
Symbol:

~ (p q)

or (~p) (~q)

Example:
A: Alice will be elected.
B: Betty will be elected.
Neither Alice nor Betty will be elected is
symbolized as
~ (A B) or (~A) (~B)

## Words and Symbols

Both can also be used to punctuate statements.

Example:
Alice and Betty will not both be elected.
Alice and Betty will both not be elected.
Which one is symbolized by:
(~A) (~B)?
~ (A B)?

## Words and Symbols

Both can also be used to punctuate

statements.
Example:
Alice and Betty will not both be elected.
~ (A B)
Alice and Betty will both not be elected.
(~A) (~B)

4. Conditional

## or hypothetical or implication or implicative

statement.
Symbol:
(Read as If p then q.)
p is called the antecedent.
q is called the consequent.

Example:
p: It is raining.
q: The ground is wet.
: If it rains, then the ground will be wet.

Conditonal
Other common expressions for
If p, then q.
P implies q
If p, q
P only if q
P is sufficient for q.
Q if p
Q whenever p.
Q is necessary for p.

Example:
Let p be the statement Maria learns discrete
mathematics and q the statement Maria will find a good
job. Express the statement p q as a statement in
English.
Solution:
Let p be the statement Maria learns discrete
mathematics.
q be the statement Maria will find a good job.
Then p q represents the statement
If Maria learns discrete mathematics, then she will find a
good job.

## Other ways to express this conditional

statement in English:
Maria will find a good job when she learns

discrete mathematics.
For Maria to get a good job, it is sufficient
for her to learn discrete mathematics.
and
Maria will find a good job unless she does
not learn discrete mathematics.

Examples:
Write each of these statements in the form if p,
then q in English
a. It snows whenever the wind blows from the
northeast.
b. The apple trees will bloom if it stays warm for a
week.
c. That the Pistons win the championship implies
that they beat the Lakers.
d. It is necessary to walk 8 miles to get to the top
of Longs Peak.
e. To get tenure as a professor, it is sufficient to be
world- famous.

Continuation
If you drive more than 400 miles, you will
g. Your guarantee is good only if you bought
your CD player less than 90 days ago.
h. Jan will go swimming unless the water is
too cold.
f.

## 23. a) If the wind blows from the

northeast, then it snows. b) If it stays
warm for a week, then the apple trees
will bloom. c) If the Pis- tons win the
championship, then they beat the
Lakers. d) If you get to the top of
Longs Peak, then you must have
walked 8 miles. e) If you are worldfamous, then you will get tenure as a
professor. f) If you drive more than
400 miles, then you will need to buy
gasoline. g) If your guarantee is good,
then you must have bought your CD
player less than 90 days ago. h) If the
water is not too cold, then Jan will go
swimming.

Conditional
The truth value of a conditional is T always

## except when the antecedent is T and the

consequent is F.

p
T
T
F
F

q
T
F
T
F

T
F
T
T

Example:
Determine whether each of these
conditional statements is true or false.
a. If 1+1 = 2, then 2+2 = 5.
b. If 1+1 = 3, then 2+2 = 4.
c. If 1+1 = 3, then 2+2 = 5.
d. If monkeys can y, then 1+1 = 3.

## Other Forms of the

Conditional

Implication:

Converse:
Contrapositve:
Inverse:
Example: For the statement,
If it rains, then the ground will be wet.
Give the converse, contrapositive and
inverse of the implication.

5. Biconditional
Symbol:
Read as p if and only if q.
Biconditional statements are also called bi-

implications.
p is necessary and sufficient for q.
if p then q, and conversely
p iff q.

Biconditional
The biconditional statement p q is true

## when p and q have the same truth values,

and is false otherwise.

p
T
T
F
F

q
T
F
T
F

T
F
F
T

Examples
Determine whether these biconditionals
are true or false.
a. 2+2 = 4 if and only if 1+1 = 2.
b. 1+1 = 2 if and only if 2+3 = 4.
c. 1+1 = 3 if and only if monkeys can y.
d. 0 > 1 if and only if 2 > 1.

Exercise 1
Let p: Swimming at the New Jersey shore is

allowed and
q: Sharks have been spotted near the shore
Express each of these compound propositions as an
English sentence.
a. ~q
b. p q
c. ~p q
d. p ~ q
e. ~q p
f. ~p ~ q
g. p q
h. ~p (p ~q)

Exercise 2
Let p :You drive over 65 miles per hour.
q :You get a speeding ticket.
Write these propositions using p and q and
logical connectives (including negations).
a. You do not drive over 65 miles per hour.
b. You drive over 65 miles per hour, but you do
not get a speeding ticket.
c. You will get a speeding ticket if you drive
over 65 miles per hour.
d. If you do not drive over 65 miles per hour,
then you will not get a speeding ticket.

Exercise 2
Let p :You drive over 65 miles per hour.
q :You get a speeding ticket.
Write these propositions using p and q and
logical connectives (including negations).
e. Driving over 65 miles per hour is sufficient for
getting a speeding ticket.
f. You get a speeding ticket, but you do not
drive over 65 miles per hour.
g. Whenever you get a speeding ticket, you are
driving over 65 miles per hour.