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Texas Tech University

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Section I:
Lateral Earth Pressure
Priyantha Jayawickrama,
Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Lateral Earth Pressure Theories

Outline:

Earth pressure at rest


Rankines theory for active and passive earth
pressures
Coulombs theory for active and passive
earth pressures

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest

Coefficient of earth pressure at rest, Ko


'h
Ko
'o

Where
o = z
h = Ko(z)

Note:
Kofor most soils ranges between 0.5 and 1.0
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

For coarse-grained soils

K0 = 1 sin

( - drained friction angle)

(Jaky, 1944)

For fine-grained, normally consolidated soils

PI (%)
K o 0.44 0.42

100

(Massarch, 1979)
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

For overconsolidated clays


K o (OC ) K o ( NC ) OCR
Where

Pc
OCR
'o

pc is pre-consolidation pressure
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

Distribution of earth pressure at rest is


shown below

Total force per unit length, P0


1
P0 k 0H 2
2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)


Partially submerged soil

Pressure on the wall can be found from


effective stress & pore water pressure
components

k 0z
'
h

z H1:

- Variation of h with depth is

shown by triangle ACE


- No pore water pressure component
since water table is below z

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)


z H 1:

k0 {H1 ' ( z H1 )}
'
h

Lateral pressure from water

u w ( z H1 )
- Variation of h with depth is shown by CEGB
- Variation of U with depth is shown by IJK
Total Lateral pressure is

h u

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

'
h

Rankines Active Earth Pressure

A' L A

'
a

o'

'a

'

z
A
B
'L

B'

Frictionless wall
Before the wall move the, stress
condition is given by circle a
State of Plastic equilibrium represented
by circle b. This is the Rankines active
state
Rankines active earth pressure is given
CE
Design of Earth Retaining Structures
a'
by5331-013:

Rankines Active Earth Pressure


(Cont.)

With geometrical manipulations we get:

1 sin
cos

2c '
1 sin
1 sin
'
a

'
o

a' z tan 2 45 2 2c' tan 45 2

For cohesionless soil, c=0


'

a' 0' tan 2 (45 )


2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Rankines Active Earth Pressure


(Cont.)
Rankines Active Pressure Coefficient, Ka

The Rankines active pressure coefficient is


given by:
'

2
K a ' tan 45 2
o

The angle between the failure planes /slip


planes and major principal plane
(horizontal) is: 45

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Rankines Active Earth Pressure


(Cont.)

The variation of a
with depth:
'

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

The slip planes:

Rankines Passive Earth Pressure


L
A

'
p

o'

Frictionless wall
Circle a gives initial state stress
condition
Rankines passive state is represented
by circle b
Rankines passive earth pressure is given
'
CE 5331-013:
by p Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Rankines Passive Earth Pressure


(Cont.)

Rankines passive pressure is given by:

1 sin
cos

2c'
1 sin
1 sin
'
p

'
o

z tan
'
p

45 2c' tan 45

For cohesionless soil, c=0


'

'p 0' tan 2 (45 )


2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Rankines Passive Earth Pressure


(Cont.)
Rankines Passive Pressure Coefficient Kp

The Rankines passive' pressure coefficient is


p
given by:

Kp

'
o

tan 45

The angle between the failure planes /slip


planes and major principal plane
(horizontal) is:

45

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Rankines Passive Earth Pressure


(Cont.)

The variation of
with depth:

'
p

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

The slip planes:

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls

There are three different cases


considered:

Horizontal backfill

Sloping backfill

Cohesionless soil
Partially submerged cohesionless soil with
surcharge
Cohesive soil
Cohesionless soil
Cohesive soil

Walls with Friction

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil

1. Active Case

a k az

1
pa k aH 2
2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil
2. Passive Case

p k pz
1
p p k pH 2
2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil
1. Active

Case

a' k a {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil
1. Passive Case

'p k p {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil
1. Active Case

a k az 2c ' k a

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

The depth at which the active pressure becomes equal to zero


'
(depth of tension crack) is

2c
z0
ka

For the undrained condition, = 0, then ka becomes 1 (tan245 = 1)


and c=cu . Therefore,

2cu
z0

Tensile crack is taken into account when finding the total active force.
I.e., consider only the pressure distribution below the crack
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

Active total pressure force will be

'2
1
2
c
Pa k aH 2 2 k a c ' H
2

Active total pressure force when = 0


2
2
c
1
Pa H 2 2cu H u
2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil
2. Passive Case

Pressure

1
Pp k pH 2 2 k p c ' H
2
Passive force

p k pz 2c ' k p
Passive force when = 0

Pp

1
H 2 2cu H
2

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil
Earth pressure acts an angle of to
the horizontal
1. Active case (c=0)

a' k az

1
k aH 2
2
This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal
pa

K a cos

cos cos 2 cos 2


cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.2 in page 359 gives ka values for various combinations of and )
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil
2. Passive case (c=0)

'p k pz
1
p p k pH 2
2
This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal

K p cos

cos cos 2 cos 2


cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.3 in page 360 gives kp values for various combinations of and )
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesive soil
1. Active case

a' zk a zk a" cos


ka
k
cos
"
a

Depth to the tensile crack is given by

2c ' 1 sin '


z0
1 sin '
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesive soil
2. Passive case

'p zk p zk "p cos


k
"
p

kp
cos

c'
1

2
cos ' sin '
k ,k
* 2 cos 2
cos 2 '

"
a

"
p

c'
c'
cos 2 '8
cos 2 sin ' cos '
4 cos cos cos ' 4

z
z
2

(Table 11.4 in page 361 gives variation of k a" and

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

"
p

with ,

c'
z

and )

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Rough retaining walls with granular backfill. Angle of friction between the
wall and the backfill is

1. Active case
Case 1: Positive wall friction in the active case (+)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls

Downward motion of soil

Wall AB
AB
causes a downward motion of soil relative to
wall. Causes downward shear on the wall (fig. b)

Pa will be inclined to the normal drawn to the back face of the


retaining wall

Failure surface is BCD (advanced studies): BC curve & CD straight

Rankines active state exists in the zone ACD

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Case 2: Negative wall friction in the active case (-)
- Wall is forced to a downward motion relative to the backfill

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
2. Passive case
Case 1: Positive wall friction in the passive case (+)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls

Downward motion of wall

Wall AB
AB
causes a upward motion of soil relative to wall.
Causes upward shear on the wall (fig. e)

Pp will be inclined to the normal drawn to the back face of the


retaining wall

Failure surface is BCD: BC curve & CD straight

Rankines passive state exists in the zone ACD

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Case 2: Negative wall friction in the passive case (-)
- The wall is forced to a upward motion relative to the backfill

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory

Failure surface is assumed to be plane. Also, wall friction is taken


into account
Active case

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)

BC is a trial failure surface and the probable failure wedge is ABC

Forces acting: W - effective weight of the soil wedge; F resultant


of the shear and normal force on the surface of failure BC; P a
active force per unit length

Angle of friction between soil and wall is

The force triangle for wedge is shown in figure b


From the law of sines,

W
Pa

sin 90 ' ' sin '

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)
Pa
or

Pa

sin '
W
sin 90 ' '

1
cos cos sin '
H 2

2
cos

sin

sin
90

'

'

, H, , , , and are constants and is the only variable.


determine the critical value of for maximum Pa

dPa
0
d
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

To

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)
After solving

1
pa k aH 2
2

Ka Coulombs active earth pressure coefficient and given by

ka

cos 2 ( ' )

cos 2 cos ' 1

sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )

cos( ' ) cos( )

Note: =0, =0, =0 then

1 sin '
ka
1 sin '
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Same as Rankines earth


pressure coefficient

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)
The variation of ka for retaining walls with vertical back (=0) and
horizontal backfill (=0) is given in table 11.5 in page 367

Tables 11.6 (pages 368 & 369) and 11.7 (pages 370 & 371) give
the values of ka for = and = /2 respectively (useful in
retaining wall design)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)

Passive case

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory


(Cont.)

Similarly in the active case

1
p p k pH 2
2

Kp Coulombs passive earth pressure coefficient and given by

kp

cos 2 ( ' )
sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )
cos cos ' 1

cos(

'

)
cos(

Note: =0, =0, =0 then


1 sin '
kp
1 sin '

Same as Rankines earth


pressure coefficient

Table 11.8 in page 373 gives variation of kp with and (for =0 & =0)
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures