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The Passive

Voice
( By C. Alpzar
N.)
http://www.egrammar.org/passive-

Characteristics
It is used in formal
(academic, scientific)
readings and writings.
It is rarely used when
speaking. It can be used, but
it is not as common as in
readings or formal writings.

Components
1. a transitive verb
(allows a direct object)
2. a subject
3. a direct object (or a
by agent)
4. the preposition by
(not all the time)
5. the verb be as an
auxiliary

Simple Present Active


John writes articles for La
Nacin every day.
John = subject
writes = transitive verb
articles = direct object

Simple Present Passive


Articles are written by John
every day for La Nacin.
Articles = new subject
are written = auxiliary be
in present + past participle
by John = By agent (not
always necessary / present in

Important Note
John writes articles =
singular subject
Articles are written by
John = plural subject.

On-line Exercises
Simple Present Passive
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/grammar/passive/exercises?
simple-present
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/active_pas
sive/sentences_simple_present.h
tm

Simple Past Active


Mozart composed the
operaThe Magic Flute
in 1773.
Mozart = subject
composed = transitive
verb
the operaThe Magic

Simple Past Passive


The operaThe Magic Flute
was composed by Mozart in
1773.
The operaThe Magic Flute
= new subject
was composed = auxiliary
be in past + past participle

Important Note
Mozart composed many
symphonies = singular
subject
Many symphonies were
composed by Mozart =
plural subject

On-line Exercises
Simple Past Passive
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/grammar/passive/exercises?
simple-past
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/active_pas
sive/sentences_simple_past.htm

Present Continuous Active


Researchers are launching
(*) a new rocket today.
Researchers = subject
are launching = transitive
verb
a new rocket = direct
object

Present Continuous Passive


A new rocket is being
launched by researchers
today.
A new rocket = new subject
is being launched = auxiliary
be in present (is) +
auxiliary be in present
continuous (being) + past

Important Note
Researchers are
launching a new rocket
today. = plural subject
A new rocket is being
launched by researchers
today. = singular subject

On-line Exercises
Present Continuous Passive
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/grammar/passive/exercises?
present-progressive
http://www.englishexercises.org/
makeagame/viewgame.asp?
id=4945

Present Perfect Active


Scientists have improved
technology in the last
century.
Scientists = subject
have improved =
transitive verb
technology = direct

Present Perfect Passive


Technology has been
improved by Scientists in the
last century.
Technology = new subject
has been improved =
auxiliary has + past
participle of be (been) +
another past participle

Important Note
Scientists have improved
technology in the last
century. = plural subject
Technology has been
improved by Scientists in
the last century. =
singular subject

On-line Exercises
Present Perfect Passive
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/grammar/passive/exercises?
present-perfect
http://www.englishexercises.org/
makeagame/viewgame.asp?
id=4946

Simple Future Active


People will drink Coca
Cola in the 21st century.
People = subject
will drink = transitive
verb
Coca Cola = direct object

Simple Future Passive


Coca Cola will be drunk by
people in the 21st century.
Coca Cola = new subject
will be drunk = auxiliary
will + auxiliary-infinitive
be + past participle the
verb
by people = By agent (not

Important Note
People will drink Coca
Cola in the 21st century. =
plural subject
Coca Cola will be drunk
by people in the 21st
century. = singular
subject

Modals and Active Voice


1. Astronauts (subject) could
launch (modal auxiliary +
transitive verb)
space stations (direct object)
2. Humanity (subject) should
start (modal auxiliary +
transitive verb)
space colonies (direct object)
3. Scientists (subject) will
perfect (modal auxiliary +

Modals and Passive Voice


1. Space stations (new subject)
could be launched (modal
auxiliary + auxiliary be + past
participle) by Astronauts (by
agent)
2. Space colonies (new subject)
should be started (modal
auxiliary + auxiliary be + past
participle) by Humanity (by
agent)
3. The necessary technology

On-line Exercises
Modal Auxiliaries and
Passive Voice
http://www.learnamericanenglish
online.com/Green
%20Level/G8%20Modal
%20Passive.html
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cramup/grammar/passive/exercises?

Passive Voice Review


http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.
htm
http://www.myenglishgrammar.c
om/exercise-15-passivevoice.html
http://www.englishexercises.org/

On-line Exercises
Active VS Passive Voice
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passiv
e/active_or_passive.htm
http://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/activepassive.html
http://www.englishgrammar.org/acti
ve-passive-voice-exercise-ii/