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MOTOR BAKAR

( 3 SKS)
Jurusan Teknik Mesin
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Angkatan Laut
(STTAL)

Combustion

Combustion

Particlediagramequation

C2 + 2O2
C
+
C

2CO2

O
O

O C O

O
O

O C O

Hydrocarbon Oxidation
methane (CH4), the primary constituent of liquefied or
compressed natural gas
propane (C3H8), the primary constituent of liquid
petroleum gas

isooctane (C8H18), typical of the

molecules found in gasoline

(C16H34), typical
of diesel fuel

Hydrocarbon Oxidation
If sufficient oxygen is available, a hydrocarbon fuel can be completely
oxidized, the carbon is converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) and the hydrogen
is converted to water (H2O).
The overall chemical equation for the complete combustion of one mole of
propane (C3H8) with oxygen is:
C3 H 8 aO2 bCO2 cH 2O
# of moles

Elements cannot be created or destroyed, so

C balance:
3=b
b= 3
H balance:
8 = 2c
c= 4
O balance:
2a = 2b + c a= 5
Thus the above reaction is:
C3 H 8 5O2 3CO2 4 H 2O

species

Hydrocarbon Oxidation
Air Composition
Oxygen : 21%
Nitrogen : 79%

1

3.76

C3 H 8 5 O2 3.76 N 2 3CO2 4 H 2O 18.8 N 2

Combustion Stoichiometry
Air contains molecular nitrogen N2, when the products are low temperature
the nitrogen is not significantly affected by the reaction, it is considered inert.
The complete reaction of a general hydrocarbon CxHy with air is:

C x H y a (O2 3.76 N 2 ) bCO2 cH 2O dN 2

C balance:
H balance:
O balance:
N balance:

x=b b=x
y = 2c c = y/2
2a = 2b + c a = b + c/2 a = x + y/4
2(3.76)a = 2d d = 3.76a/2 d = 3.76(x + y/4)

y
y
y

C x H y x (O2 3.76 N 2 ) xCO2 H 2O 3.76 x N 2

4
2
4

The above equation defines the stoichiometric proportions of fuel and air.

Combustion Stoichiometry
The stoichiometric quantity of oxidizer is just that
amount needed to completely burn a quality of fuel.

If more than a stoichiometric quantity of oxidizer

is supplied, the mixture is said to be fuel lean
While supplying less than the stoichiometric
oxidizer result in fuel rich

Combustion Stoichiometry
The stoichiometric mass based air/fuel ratio for CxHy fuel is:

A/ F s

ni M i air
m
air
m fuel ni M i fuel

x y M 3.76 x y M

N
4
4

xM C yM H
2

Substituting the respective molecular weights and dividing top and bottom
by x one gets the following expression that only depends on the ratio of the
number of hydrogen atoms to hydrogen atoms (y/x) in the fuel.

A/ F s

( F / A) s

4
12 y x *1

Example: For Octane (C8H18), y/x = 2.25 (A/F)s = 15.1

Benzene (C8H16), y/x = 2.0 (A/F)s = 14.7

MO2 : 32
MN2 : 28
MC : 12
MH : 1

Fuel Lean Mixture

Fuel-air mixtures with more than stoichiometric air (excess air) can burn
With excess air you have fuel lean combustion
At low combustion temperatures, the extra air appears in the products in
unchanged form:

y
y
C x H y ( x )(O2 3.76 N 2 ) xCO2 H 2O dN 2 eO2
4
2
for a fuel lean mixture have excess air, so > 1

Fuel Rich Mixture

Fuel-air mixtures with less than stoichiometric air (excess fuel) can burn.
With less than stoichiometric air you have fuel rich combustion, there is
insufficient oxygen to oxidize all the C and H in the fuel to CO 2 and H2O.
Get incomplete combustion where carbon monoxide (CO) and molecular
hydrogen (H2) also appear in the products.

y
y
C x H y ( x )(O2 3.76 N 2 ) xCO2 H 2O dN 2 eCO fH 2
4
2
where for fuel rich mixture have insufficient air < 1

Off-Stoichiometric Mixtures
The equivalence ratio, , is commonly used to indicate if a mixture is
stoichiometric, fuel lean, or fuel rich.

A/ F s
F / A mixture

A / F mixture
F / A s
stoichiometric = 1
fuel lean
<1
fuel rich
> 1
Stoichiometric mixture:

y
C x H y x (O2 3.76 N 2 ) Products
4

Off-stoichiometric mixture:

1
y
C x H y x (O2 3.76 N 2 ) Products

Off-Stoichiometric Conditions
Other terminology used to describe how much air is used in combustion:
110% stoichiometric air = 110% theoretical air = 10% excess air
8
C3 H 8 (3 )(O2 3.76 N 2 )
1.1 mixture is fuel lean
4
Example: Consider a reaction of octane with 10% excess air, what is ?
Stoichiometric :

10% excess air is:

C8 H18 1.1(12.5)(O2 3.76 N 2 ) 8CO2 9 H 2O aO2 bN 2
16 + 9 + 2a = 1.1(12.5)(2) a = 1.25,

b = 1.1(12.5)(3.76) = 51.7

A/ F s
12.5(4.76) / 1

0.91
A / F mixture 1.1(12.5)(4.76) / 1

Example
A small stationary gas turbine engine operates at full load (3950 kW) at an
equivalence ratio of 0.286 with an air flow rate of 15.9 kg/s. The equivalent
composition of the fuel is C1.16H4.32. Determine the fuel mass flow rate and
operating air fuel ratio for the engine

Solution
A/ F s

1 y x (32 3.76 * 28) 1 4.32 1.16 (32 3.76 * 28)

1
4
4

16.85
( F / A) s
12 y x *1
12 4.32 1.16 *1

A/ F
m fuel

mixture

A/ F

16.85
58.9
0.286

mair
15.9

0.27 kg / s
A / F mixture 58.9

Example
A natural gas (methane / CH4) fired industrial boiler operates with an oxygen
concentration of 3 mole percent in the flue gases. Determine the operating airfuel ratio and the equivalence ratio.

Solution
3% of O2 in flue gases Fuel lean mixture
If all fuel C is found in CO2 and all fuel H is found in H2O

CH4 + a(O2 + 3.76N2) 1CO2 + 2H2O + bO2 + 3.76a N2

O balance ; 2a = 2 + 2 + 2b b = a - 2
Mole fraction of O2

O2

NO2
b
a2

0.03

a2
1 4.76a

a = 2.368

Air Fuel Ratio

( A / F ) mixture

( A / F ) mixture

N air MWair
N fuel MW fuel

MWair = 21% x 32 + 79% x 28 = 28.84

MWfuel = 12 + 4 x 1 = 16

4.76a 28.84
20.3
1
16

A/ F
s

( F / A) s

y x (32 3.76 * 28) 1 4 1 (32 3.76 * 28)

4
12 y x *1

Equivalence ratio

A / F s 17.1

0.84
A / F mixture 20.3

4
12 4 1 *1

17.1

Example
Determine the operating air-fuel ratio, the
equivalence ratio and the air flow rate, if:
1.

O2 Concentration in flue gases is 8 mole

percent on oxidation of 200 kg/h diesel
fuel

Solution 1
O2 Concentration in flue gases is 8 mole percent on oxidation of 200 kg/h diesel
fuel
8% of O2 in flue gases Fuel lean mixture
If all fuel C is found in CO2 and all fuel H is found in H2O

C16H28 + a(O2 + 3.76N2) 16CO2 + 14H2O + bO2 + 3.76a N2

O balance ; 2a = 32 + 14 + 2b b = a - 23
Mole fraction of O2

O2

NO2
b
a 23

a 23
0.08
7 4.76a

a = 30.05

Air Fuel Ratio

( A / F ) mixture

( A / F ) mixture

N air MWair
N fuel MW fuel

MWair = 21% x 32 + 79% x 28 = 28.84

MWfuel = (12 x 16) + (28 x 1) = 220

4.76a 28.84
23.74
1 220

A/ F s

( F / A) s

y x (32 3.76 * 28) 1 28 16 (32 3.76 * 28)

4
12 y x *1

Equivalence ratio

A / F s 14.35

0.604
A / F mixture 23.74

4
12 28 16 *1

14.35

Air flow rate

mair = mfuel x (A/F)mixture
mair = 200 x 23.74
= 4748 Kg/h

Heat of Combustion

The maximum amount of energy is released from a fuel when reacted with a
stoichiometric amount of air and all the hydrogen and carbon contained in the
fuel is converted to CO2 and H2O
y
y
y

4
2
4

This maximum energy is referred to as the heat of combustion or the heating

value and it is typically given per mass of fuel
HR(298K)

alcohols

Fuel

Energy
density
(MJ/L)

Airfuel
ratio

Specific
Heat of
energy
vaporizatio
(MJ/kg air)
n

Gasoline and
biogasoline

32

14.7

2.9

0.36 MJ/kg

Butanol fuel

29.2

11.2

3.2

0.43 MJ/kg

Ethanol fuel

19.6

9.0

3.0

0.92 MJ/kg

Methanol

16

6.5

3.1

1.2 MJ/kg

Heat of Formation

Example

Example

Example

Example