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Improving Wellbore Stability Predictions at Well and

Reservoir Scale using 3D Geomechanical Model


Bagus Arief Wibowo

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Geologist Consultant
Reservoir Software and Technology

2 01 4 B A KE R H U G H E S I N C O R PO R ATE D . A LL R I G H TS R E S ERV E D . TE R M S A N D C O N D I TI O N S O F U S E: B Y AC C EP TI N G TH I S D O C U M E N T, T H E R E C I PI E N T AG R E ES T H AT TH E D O CU M EN T TO G E TH ER WI T H A L L I N FO R MATI O N I N C L U D E D TH E R E I N I S TH E


C O N FI D EN T I A L AN D PR O P R I E TA RY PR O P ERT Y O F B A KE R H U G H E S I NC O R P O R ATE D AN D I N C L U D E S VAL U A B L E TR AD E S EC R ET S A N D / O R P R O P R I E TARY I N FO R M ATI O N O F B AK E R H U G H ES (C O L L E C TI V E LY " I N F O R M ATI O N ") . B A KE R H U G H E S R ETA I N S A L L R I G H T S
U N D ER C O P Y R I G H T L AWS A ND T R A D E SE C R E T L AW S O F T H E U N I TE D S TATE S O F A M ER I C A AN D O TH E R C O U N T RI ES . TH E R EC I P I E N T F U RT H ER A G R EE S TH AT T H E D O C U M E N T M AY N O T BE D I S TR I BU T ED , TR A N SM I T TE D , C O PI ED O R R E PR O D U C E D I N WH O L E O R
I N PA RT BY AN Y M EA N S, E L E C TR O N I C , M E C H A N I C A L, O R O TH E RW I SE , W I TH O U T TH E E XP R E S S P R I O R WR I TTE N C O N S EN T O F BA K ER H U G H E S , AN D MAY N O T B E U SE D D I RE C T LY O R I N D I R E C TLY I N AN Y WAY D E TR I M E N TAL TO BA K ER H U G H E S I N T ER E S T.

Why Geomechanics?
Todays reservoirs are more difficult to access and develop :
Most reservoir approach depletions and many are compartmentalized
Onshore reservoirs are deeper and manifest HPHT conditions
Offshore reservoirs are in deep water and at greater depth
Heavy oil recovery requires high temperature operations
Unconventional resources exploitations (tight gas/oil, etc.)

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Geomechanics is a KEY enabling technology for


Todays technically challenged reservoirs

Advanced technology is required to optimally drill,


complete, stimulate and produce these reservoirs

Accurate Geomechanical models required throughout


the Life of a Reservoir
DRILLING
Optimize mud weight
Optimize well trajectory
Choose casing points
Pore pressure prediction
Real time wellbore stability

COMPLETION

EXPLORATION

Reservoir
Leakage & migration analysis
Geomechanical
Determining fault seal properties
Model
Pore pressure from seismic

Sand production
prediction
Hydraulic fracturing
Reservoir compaction
and productionInduced faulting

EXPLOITATION
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Determine fault sealing


properties and
Leakage & migration analysis
Fractured reservoirs
Reservoir compaction and
production-induced faulting
3

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Why Geomechanics?

Why Geomechanics?

37
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

% of drilling NPT due to Pore


Pressures & Wellbore Stability
issues.1,2,3

1.
2.
3.

Welling & Co. (2009); Industry Survey


Dodson et al. (2004); Incidences from 549 GoM shelf wells (<600f ft water depth) between 1993-2002
Sweatman, R., Deepwater: Drilling Trouble Zones and Well Integrity, RPSEA Forum at University of Southern California, November 29, 2006

Kick

Surprise
s
Optimizing drilling
direction

Stuck
pipe

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Thinking
About
Drilling Your
Next well?

Wellbore
failure

NPT

Safe Mud
Window
Salt Exit

Lost Circulation
Unplanned
Sidetrack

Optimizing casing
point

Well-Centric Geomechanical Model


Initial Input Data:
Hi-Res. Wireline, MWD and LWD data
Seismic interval velocity
Calibration with

Well tests (LOT, FIT, RCI, etc.)


Drilling events
Laboratory rock tests
Interpreted borehole image data

Results:
Hi-Res. Base Geomechanical model:
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Rock mechanical properties


Pore Pressure model
Stresses and Fracture gradients model

JewelSuiteTM GeoMechanics
PressCheck

Wellbore Stability Analysis


Initial Input Data:
Base Geomechanical model
Pore pressure,
Stress & Fracture Gradient Model
Rock mechanical properties

Goal: Reduce problems/NPT

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Optimized safe mud weight window


Optimized casing depth
Time dependent wellbore stability issues
Optimized wellbore trajectories
Quantitative Risk Assessment

JewelSuiteTM GeoMechanics
WellCheck

Wellbore Stability Optimized Save Mud Weight


the mud needs a certain density (weight) to
hold back the pore pressure and support the
wellbore wall.

Pore
Pressure

However the weight cant be too high


because that would fracture the wellbore wall
(frac gradient).
Therefore the safe mud weight window has
always a lower and an upper bound.
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

How do we know which mud weight is high


enough to hold back the wellbore wall, but
doesnt fracture the wellbore wall ?
Geomechanical Analysis!
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Collapse Pressure

Fracture
Gradient

Wellbore Stability Analysis


Initial Input Data:
Base Geomechanical model
Pore pressure,
Stress & Fracture Gradient Model
Rock mechanical properties

Results:

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

10

Optimized safe mud weight window


Optimized casing depth
Time dependent wellbore stability issues
Optimized wellbore trajectories
Quantitative Risk Assessment to reduce uncertainty

JewelSuiteTM GeoMechanics
WellCheck

Pre-Drill Geomechanics
Selecting
your Target

Pre-drill Geomechanics

After drilling

Before drilling

Offset Well(s)
Well data
1D Model
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

1D Stability

Real time

Field
calibration
calibration

Seismic Data

3D Geomechanical Model

While drilling

Planned Well

Drilled Well

Pseudo Well data

Drilling data

1D Model

update
update

1D Stability
plus 4D Geomechanics Simulation

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Planned
TD

1D Model
1D Stability

Pre-Drill Geomechanics
How Do You Fill the 3-D Space ?

After drilling

Before drilling

Offset Well(s)
Well data
1D Model
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

1D Stability

Field

calibration

Seismic Data

3D Geomechanical Model

While drilling

Planned Well

Drilled Well

Pseudo Well data

Drilling data

1D Model

update

1D Stability
plus 4D Geomechanics Simulation

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1D Model
1D Stability

Modeling Approach
Meaningful Geomechanics

Depth Stretching
3-D Seismic

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

3-D Modeling

How Do You Fill the 3-D Space?

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Modeling Approach
Meaningful Geomechanics

Depth Stretching
3-D Seismic

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

3-D Modeling

How Do You Fill the 3-D Space?

14

1D Depth Stretching
Depth stretching is only valid for settings with little topography,
and predominantly vertical wells. For deviated wells it is vital to
include as many formation markers as possible to minimize the
error in the depth stretching process.
The application of depth stretching assumes constant
properties in a lateral direction no structural information is
included.

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

In the following cases a 3D model is favorable over the 1D


depth stretching method:
Cases with significant topography (mountains, valleys,
submarine canyons, delta bodies)
Substantial lateral changes of properties (e.g. density)
Situations with unconformities, geobodies (salt intrusions,
reef bodies, facies changes) and folds requires a full 3D
approach
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Modeling Approach
Meaningful Geomechanics

Depth Stretching
3-D Seismic

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

3-D Modeling

How Do You Fill the 3-D Space?

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3D Pore Pressure Analysis - Workflow


Interval Velocity

Density

Well-based Pp analysis

Overburden

Velocity vs Density

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Pore pressure

Effective Stress

Well-based Pp analysis

Velocity vs Effective Stress


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Modeling Approach
Meaningful Geomechanics

Depth Stretching
3-D Seismic

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

3-D Modeling

How Do You Fill the 3-D Space?

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3D Static Geomechanical Model


WELL & RESERVOIR CENTRIC | HIGH RESOLUTION BASE MODEL

1D Geomechanical Model

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

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Rock Mechanical Properties

Pore Pressures
Stresses

3D Geomechanical Model

Structural Framework
Structural Quality
Seismic Coverage

Rock Mechanical Properties


Pore Pressures (w/ 3D Seismic)
In-situ Stresses

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Workflow Streamlined

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Static 3D Geomechanical Model Advantages

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Honors structural constraints


Uses existing subsurface models
Integrates multiple data sources (wells, seismic horizons and volumes)
Fast and cost efficient 3D model
High resolution model (~1m)
Model built in an integrated environment (multiple user input)
A number of applications possible wellbore stability, fault/fracture slip

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Well-based 3D Geomechanical Modeling


3D Geomechanical Model Development

Top Basement Structure

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Structural Model Development

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Well-based 3D Geomechanical Modeling


3D Overburden Volume

LOG-BASED OVERBURDEN

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

DENSITY

OVERBURDEN STRESS
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Well-based 3D Geomechanical Modeling


3D Rock Strength Volume

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

SONIC VELOCITY

UCS
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Rock Mechanical Properties


from Log Data

UCS

Well-based 3D Geomechanical Modeling


3D Pore Pressure Volume

Psand>Pshale at crest
Psand<Pshale at trough

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

three stacked sands

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Well-based 3D Geomechanical Modeling


3D Horizontal Stress Magnitudes and Orientation

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Shmin
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SHmax

Pre-Drill Geomechanics

After drilling

Before drilling

Offset Well(s)
Well data
1D Model
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

1D Stability

Field
calibration
calibration

Seismic Data

3D Geomechanical Model

Planned Well
Pseudo Well data
1D Model
1D Stability

plus 4D Geomechanics Simulation


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Planned Well

Results of 3D Geomechanics Analysis


Stress and strain through the reservoir and
overburden
The strain calculated predicts the amount of
subsidence which is an important parameter for
long term
field development:
Platform and production facilities design
Legal & permitting

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

The strain field can be used as input for sub-model


to model casing and
screen deformation:

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Results of 3D Geomechanics Analysis


3D stress field over time.
The stress field is an important input parameter for:

2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Wellbore stability calculation in


depleted reservoirs

Fault stability over the lifetime


of the field

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2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

You can now create a well-centric &


reservoir-centric Pre-Drill Base
Geomechanical Model to better
understand rock behavior, pore
pressures, in-situ stresses and
wellbore stability and more.

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