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Pumps and Pumping Stations

Pumps add energy to fluids and therefore are accounted


for in the energy equation
Energy required by the pump depends on:
Discharge rate
Resistance to flow (head that the pump must overcome)
Pump efficiency (ratio of power entering fluid to power supplied
to the pump)
Efficiency of the drive (usually an electric motor)

v12 p1
v22 p2
z1 H pump

z2 H L
2g
2g
H L h f hminor

v2
h f Ki
2g

Pump Jargon
(Total) Static head difference in head between suction
and discharge sides of pump in the absence of flow;
equals difference in elevation of free surfaces of the fluid
source and destination
Static suction head head on suction side of pump in
absence of flow, if pressure at that point is >0
Static discharge head head on discharge side of pump
in absence of flow

Static
discharge
head

Total static
head
Static suction
head

Pump Jargon
(Total) Static head difference in head between suction
and discharge sides of pump in the absence of flow;
equals difference in elevation of free surfaces of the fluid
source and destination
Static suction lift negative head on suction side of
pump in absence of flow, if pressure at that point is <0
Static discharge head head on discharge side of pump
in absence of flow

Total static
head

Static
discharge
head
Static suction
lift

Pump Jargon

Static
discharge
head

Total static
head (both)

Static
discharge
head
Static suction
lift

Static suction
head

Total static head Static discharge head Static suction head


Static discharge head Static suction lift
Note: Suction and discharge head / lift measured from pump centerline

Pump Jargon

(Total) Dynamic head, dynamic suction head or lift, and dynamic


discharge head same as corresponding static heads, but for a
given pumping scenario; includes frictional and minor headlosses
Energy Line

Total
dynamic
head

Dynamic
discharge
head

Dynamic
suction lift

Example. Determine the static head, total dynamic head (TDH), and
total headloss in the system shown below.
El = 730 ft

ps =6 psig
El = 640 ft

pd =48 psig

El = 630 ft

Total static head 730 ft 630 ft 100 ft


2.31 ft
TDH 48 6 psi
124.7 ft
psi

H L TDH Static head 124.7 100 ft 24.7 ft

Example. A booster pumping station is being designed to transport


water from an aqueduct to a water supply reservoir, as shown below.
The maximum design flow is 25 mgd (38.68 ft3/s). Determine the
required TDH, given the following:
H-W C values are 120 on suction side and 145 on discharge side
Minor loss coefficients are
0.50 for pipe entrance
0.18 for 45o bend in a 48-in pipe
0.30 for 90o bend in a 36-in pipe
0.16 and 0.35 for 30-in and 36-in butterfly valves, respectively
Minor loss for an expansion is 0.25(v22 v12)/2g
30 to 48
expansion
El = 6127 to
6132 ft

Short 30 pipe w/30


butterfly valve

4000of 48 pipe
w/two 45o bends

8500of 36 pipe
w/one 90o bend and
eight butterfly valves

El = 6349 to
6357 ft

1. Determine pipeline velocities from v = Q/A..


v30= 7.88 ft/s, v36= 5.47 ft/s, v48= 3.08 ft/s
2. Minor losses, suction side:

Entrance:

2
v30
hL 0.50
0.49 ft
2g

Butterfly valve:

2
v30
hL 0.16
0.16 ft
2g

Expansion:

2
v302 v48

hL 0.25
0.21 ft
2g

Two 45o bends:

v48
hL 2* 0.18 0.05 ft
2 g

L ,minor

0.91 ft

3. Minor losses, discharge side:

8 Butterfly valves:
One 90o bend:

v362
hL 8* 0.35 1.30 ft
2 g

2
v36
hL 0.30
0.14 ft
2g

L ,minor

1.90 ft

4. Pipe friction losses:

hf

L 0.43CD 2.63

1.85

hf L
2.63
0.43CD

1.85

38.7

h f , suction 4000

2.76 ft

0.43 120 48 / 12

2.63

1.85

38.7

h f ,discharge 8500

1.85

0.43 145 36 /12

2.63

16.77 ft

5.

Loss of velocity head at exit:

Exit:
6.

v362
hL
0.46 ft
2g

Total static head under worst-case scenario (lowest water


level in aqueduct, highest in reservoir):

Static head 6357 6127 ft 230 ft


7.

Total dynamic head required:

TDH H static hL ,minor h f hL ,exit


230 0.91 1.90 2.76 16.77 0.46 ft
252.8 ft

Pump Power
Q TDH
P
CF E p
P = Power supplied to the pump from the shaft; also called brake
power (kW or hp)
Q = Flow (m3/s or ft3/s)
TDH = Total dynamic head
= Specific wt. of fluid (9800 N/m3 or 62.4 lb/ft3 at 20oC)
CF = conversion factor: 1000 W/kW for SI, 550 (ft-lb/s)/hp for US
Ep = pump efficiency, dimensionless; accounts only for pump,
not the drive unit (electric motor)
Useful conversion: 0.746 kW/hp

Example. Water is pumped 10 miles from a lake at elevation 100 ft to a


reservoir at 230 ft. What is the monthly power cost at $0.08/kW-hr,
assuming continuous pumping and given the following info:

Diameter D = 48 in; Roughness = 0.003 ft, Efficiency Pe =80%


Flow = 25 mgd = 38.68 ft3/s
El = 230 ft
2
T = 60o F
Ignore minor losses
10 mi of 48 pipe,

=0.003 ft
El = 100 ft

v12
p1
v22
p2

z1 H pump

z2 H L
2g

2g

H pump TDH

z2 z1 H stat

TDH H stat h f

H L hf

El = 230 ft

10 mi of 48 pipe,

=0.0003 ft
El = 100 ft

TDH H stat h f
H stat 230 100 ft 130 ft
L v
hf f

D 2 g
2

v Q / A 3.08 ft/s

Find f from Moody diagram

vD 3.08 ft/s 4 ft
6
Re

1.01x10

1.22x105 ft 2 /s

0.003 ft

7.5x104
D
4 ft

El = 230 ft

10 mi of 48 pipe,

=0.0003 ft
El = 100 ft

Re 1.01x106

f 0.0185

7.5x104
D

3.08
ft/s

10*5280 ft
36.4 ft

2
4 ft 2 32.2 ft/s

h f 0.0187

TDH H stat h f 130 36.4 ft 166.4 ft


Q TDH
P

CF E p

3
3
38.68
ft
/s
166.4
ft
62.4
lb/ft

ft-lb/s
550
0.80

hp

kW
Daily cost 918 hp 0.746
hp

918 hp

$0.08
hr

24 $1315 / d
kW-hr
d

Pump Selection
System curve indicates TDH required as a function of Q
for the given system
For a given static head, TDH depends only on HL, which is
approximately proportional to v2/2g
Q is proportion to v, so HL is approximately proportional to Q2 (or
Q1.85 if H-W eqn is used to model hf)
System curve is therefore approximately parabolic

Example. Generate the system curve for the pumping scenario shown
below. The pump is close enough to the source reservoir that suction
pipe friction can be ignored, but valves, fittings, and other sources of
minor losses should be considered. On the discharge side, the 1000 ft
of 16-in pipe connects the pump to the receiving reservoir. The flow is
fully turbulent with D-W friction factor of 0.02. Coefficients for minor
losses are shown below.

K values
40 ft

6 ft

Suction

Discharge

1 @ 0.10

1 @ 0.12

1 @ 0.12

1 @ 0.20

1 @ 0.30

1 @ 0.60

2 @ 1.00

4 @ 1.00

The sum of the K values for minor losses is 2.52 on the suction side
and 5.52 on the discharge side. The total of minor headlosses is
therefore 8.04 v2/2g.
An additional 1.0 v2/2g of velocity head is lost when the water enters
the receiving reservoir.
2
2

L v
v2
1000 ft v
0.02
15
The frictional headloss is: h f f

D 2g
2g
1.33 ft 2 g

Total headloss is therefore (8.04+1.0+15.0)v2/2g = 24.04 v2/2g. v can be


written as Q/A, and A = D2/ 4 = 1.40 ft2. The static head is 34 ft. So:

TDH H stat

v2
H L 34 ft 24.04
2g

Q /1.40 ft

34 ft 24.04
2 32.2 ft/s

2 2
2

s 2
34 ft 0.19 5 Q 2
ft

s 2
TDH 34ft 0.19 5 Q 2
ft

System curve

Static head

Pump Selection
Pump curve indicates TDH provided by the pump as a
function of Q;
Depends on particular pump; info usually provided by manufacturer
TDH at zero flow is called the shutoff head

Pump efficiency
Can be plotted as fcn(Q), along with pump curve, on a single graph
Typically drops fairly rapidly on either side of an optimum; flow at
optimum efficiency known as normal or rated capacity
Ideally, pump should be chosen so that operating point corresponds
to nearly peak pump efficiency (BEP, best efficiency point)

Pump Performance and Efficiency Curves


Shutoff head

Rated hp

Rated capacity

Pump Selection

Pump Efficiency

Pump curves depend on pump geometry (impeller D) and speed

Pump Selection

At any instant, a system has a single Q and a single TDH, so both


curves must pass through that point; operating point is intersection
of system and pump curves

Pump System Curve

System curve may change over time, due to fluctuating reservoir levels,
gradual changes in friction coefficients, or changed valve settings.

Pump Selection: Multiple Pumps

Pumps often used in series or parallel to achieve desired pumping


scenario
In most cases, a backup pump must be provided to meet maximum flow
conditions if one of the operating (duty) pumps is out of service.
Pumps in series have the same Q, so if they are identical, they each
impart the same TDH, and the total TDH is additive
Pumps in parallel must operate against the same TDH, so if they are
identical, they contribute equal Q, and the total Q is additive

Adding a second
pump moves the
operating point up
the system curve,
but in different ways
for series and
parallel operation

Example. A pump station is to be designed for an ultimate Q of 1200


gpm at a TDH of 80 ft. At present, it must deliver 750 gpm at 60 ft.
Two types of pump are available, with pump curves as shown. Select
appropriate pumps and describe the operating strategy. How will the
system operate under an interim condition when the requirement is for
600 gpm and 80-ft TDH?
120
110
Pum
p

100
90

Pu
m
p

Bo
nly

on
ly

70
60

curve
System

50
40

Efficiency, %

TDH (ft)

80

30
20
10
0

200

70

Pump B

60
Pump A

50
40

400

600

800

Flow rate (gpm)

1000

1200

Either type of pump can meet current needs (750 gpm at 60 ft); pump
B will supply slightly more flow and head than needed, so a valve
could be partially closed. Pump B has higher efficiency under these
conditions, and so would be preferred.
120
110
Pum
p

100
90

Pu
m
p

Bo
nly

on
ly

70
60

cur
System

50
40

Efficiency, %

TDH (ft)

80

30
20
10
0

200

ve

70

Pump B

60
Pump A

50
40

400

600

800

Flow rate (gpm)

1000

1200

The pump characteristic curve for two type-B pumps in parallel can be
drawn by taking the curve for one type-B pump, and doubling Q at
each value of TDH. Such a scenario would meet the ultimate need
(1200 gpm at 80 ft), as shown below.
120
110
100

Bo
nly

90

on

Two
Bs

ly

70
60

curve
System

50
40

Efficiency, %

TDH (ft)

80

30
20
10
0

200

70

Pump B

60
Pump A

50
40

400

600

800

Flow rate (gpm)

1000

1200

A pump characteristic curve for one type-A and one type-B pump in
parallel can be drawn in the same way. This arrangement would also
meet the ultimate demand. Note that the type-B pump provides no
flow at TDH>113 ft, so at higher TDH, the composite curve is identical
to that for just one type-A pump. (A check valve would prevent reverse
flow through pump B.) Again, since type B is more efficient, two typeB pumps would be preferred over one type-A and one type-B.
120

One A and one


B in parallel

110
100

Bo
nly

90

on

Two
Bs

ly

70
60

cur
System

50
40

Efficiency, %

TDH (ft)

80

30
20
10
0

200

ve

70

Pump B

60
Pump A

50
40

400

600

800

Flow rate (gpm)

1000

1200

At the interim conditions, a single type B pump would suffice.


A third type B pump would be required as backup.
120

One A and one


B in parallel

110
100

Bo
nly

90

on

Two
Bs

ly

70
60

cur
System

50
40

Efficiency, %

TDH (ft)

80

30
20
10
0

200

ve

70

Pump B

60
Pump A

50
40

400

600

800

Flow rate (gpm)

1000

1200

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