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Lecture Three

The Problem “Best Practices”, a possible approach – ITIL ITIL Stage 1 – Service STRATEGY ITIL Stage 2 – Service DESIGN

The Problem – (1/4)

PROJECT & PRODUCE …

The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •
The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •

… ?

The Problem – (1/4) PROJECT & PRODUCE … … ? … & then MANAGE ! •

… & then MANAGE !

Longer time (20+ years vs. 9 months) • More & more complex relations (school/companions/b-g.friend/… vs. gynecologist) • More expensive (… ask your father …) • More risks (car/drugs/alcohol/depression/unemployment/… vs. abortion)

• … • Less & weaker “instructions”
• …
• Less & weaker “instructions”

!!!

The Problem – (2/4)

Managing an ICT Factory … how much experience achieved?

The Heroic Years Becoming an Industry
The Heroic Years
Becoming an Industry

The Problem – (3/4)

Is ICT an exact science or still an “artistic handicraft”? An example:

Capacity Planning …

… in theory … … actually … Trans. Rate Bandwidth Transactions? What kind? From where? When?
… in theory …
… actually …
Trans. Rate
Bandwidth
Transactions?
What kind?
From where?
When? How
many? …
CPU
DB W/R Ratio
Users? What channel through?
What trend? What service? …
DB access? How
many records?
How much big?
What update
frequency? …
NOW … and
tomorrow?
… and next
year? …
RAM
# Users

The Problem – (4/4)

Ever-Increasing

Ever-Increasing

Complexity

Complexity

The Problem – (4/4) Ever-Increasing Ever-Increasing Complexity … … … … under a a more and
The Problem – (4/4) Ever-Increasing Ever-Increasing Complexity … … … … under a a more and

under

under aa more

more

and

and more

more easy

easy

skin,

skin, atat everyone’s

everyones

fingertips!

fingertips!

The Problem – (4/4) Ever-Increasing Ever-Increasing Complexity … … … … under a a more and

“Best Practices”, a possible approach

What is not defined cannot be controlled What is not controlled cannot be measured What is not measured cannot be improved

DEFINE  CONTROL  MEASURE  IMPROVE Quality & Control Models Process Frameworks • ISO 900x
DEFINE  CONTROL  MEASURE  IMPROVE
Quality & Control
Models
Process Frameworks
• ISO 900x
• COBIT
• TQM
• EFQM
• Six Sigma
• COSO
• Deming
• etc ..
• IT Infrastructure Library
• Application Service Library
• Gartner CSD
• IBM Processes
• EDS Digital Workflow
• Microsoft MOF
• Telecom Ops Map
• etc ..

Models and Framework applicability

COCO COSO COBIT ITIL Strategy Finance Applications Operations
COCO
COSO
COBIT
ITIL
Strategy
Finance
Applications
Operations

Models and Framework “trendiness

Models and Framework “ trendiness ”

What is ITIL? (1/5)

What is ITIL? (1/5)

What is ITIL? (2/5)

Systematic approach to high quality IT service delivery

Documented best practice for IT Service Management

Provides common language with well- defined terms

Developed

in 1980s

by what is now The Office of Government Commerce

Information

Technology

Infrastructure

Library (5 Books)

What is ITIL? (2/5) • Systematic approach to high quality IT service delivery • Documented practice
What is ITIL? (2/5) • Systematic approach to high quality IT service delivery • Documented practice

What is ITIL? (3/5)

ITIL is a best-practice process framework.

Service delivery Service support Others (application management, security management)

Initiated by the U.K.'s government Central Computing and Telecommunication Agency

(CCTA). CCTA is merged into the Office of Government Commerce.

Shows the goals, general activities, inputs and outputs of the various processes.

Does not "cast in stone" every action you should do on a day-to-day basis.

ITIL Refresh: now "Version 3" is in delivered.

What is ITIL? (4/5)

The “good” …

… and the “bad”

Core Benefits:

Core

Benefits:

Standard

Standard process

process language

language

Emphasis

Emphasis onon process

process vs.

vs. technology

technology

Process

Process integration

integration

Standardization

Standardization enables

enables cost

cost and

and

quality improvements

quality

improvements

Focus

Focus onon customer

customer ((SERVICE

SERVICE))

What is ITIL? (4/5) The “good” … … and the “bad” Core Benefits: Core Benefits: 

Limitations:

Limitations:

Not

Not aa process

process improvement

improvement

methodology methodology

Specifies

Specifies ""what

what"" but

but not

not "how"

"how"

Doesn't

Doesn't cover

cover all

all processes

processes

Doesn't

Doesn't cover

cover organization

organization issues

issues

Hype driving

Hype

driving unrealistic

unrealistic expectations

expectations

What is ITIL? (5/5)

Is NOT a TOOL … and “Assuming Tools Will Not Solve Your Problems

Be wary of vendor hype Focus on process first Tools can be enablers or inhibitors Assess capabilities of your current tools Review new tools where they would pay significant dividends

Buy what you need, as you need it

What is ITIL? (5/5) Is NOT a TOOL … and “ Assuming Tools Will Not Solve

ITIL Key Concepts (1/5)

SERVICE

Delivers value to customer by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without ownership of the specific costs and risks

e.g. a “backup service” means that you don’t have to care about how much tapes, disks or robots cost and you don’t have to worry if one of the staff is off sick or leaves

Service Level

Measured and reported achievement against one or more service level targets. E.g.:

Red = 1 hour response 24/7 Amber = 4 hour response 8/5 Green = Next business day

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Written and negotiated agreement between Service Provider and Customer documenting agreed service levels and costs

ITIL Key Concepts (2/5) 4 P’s of Service Management:

People – skills, training,

communication

Processes – actions, activities,

changes, goals, improving paths

Products – tools, monitors,

measures, documents

Partners – specialist suppliers

ITIL Key Concepts (3/5)

Process

Structured

set of activities designed to

accomplish a defined objective

Inputs & Outputs Measurable

Function

Team or group of people and tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities

Own practices and knowledge body

ITIL Key Concepts (4/5)

OWNER vs. MANAGER:

Process Owner

Ensures Fit for Purpose

Process Manager

Monitors and Reports on Process

Service Owner

Accountable for Delivery

Service Manager

Responsible for initiation, transition and maintenance.

Lifecycle!

ITIL Key Concepts (5/5)

The Service Lifecycle & the 5 Lifecycle Stages

ITIL Key Concepts (5/5) The Service Lifecycle & the 5 Lifecycle Stages

ITIL Stage 1 – Service

STRATEGY

STRATEGY

STRATEGY

STRATEGY

What

What are

we going

going toto provide?

provide?

are we

Can

Can we

we afford

afford it?it?

Can

Can we

we provide

provide enough

enough of

of it?it?

How

How dodo we

we gain

gain competitive

competitive advantage?

advantage?

Perspective

Perspective

Vision,

Vision, mission

mission and

and strategic

strategic goals

goals

Position

Position

Plan

Plan

Pattern

Pattern

Must

Must fit

fit organisational

organisational culture

culture

Service

Service Strategy

Strategy has

has four

four activities

activities

Service

Service Assets

Assets

Resources

Things

Things you

you buy

buy or

or pay

pay for

for

ITIT Infrastructure,

Infrastructure, people,

people, money

money

TTangible

angible Assets

Assets

Capabilities

Things

Things you

you grow

grow

Ability

Ability toto carry

carry out

out anan activity

activity

Intangible

Intangible assets

assets

Transform

Transform resources

resources into

into Services

Services

Service Portfolio

Service

Portfolio Management

Management

Prioritises

Prioritises and

and manages

manages investments

investments and

and resource

resource

allocation

allocation

Proposed

Proposed services

services are

are properly

properly assessed

assessed

Business

Business Case

Case

Existing

Existing Services

Services Assessed

Assessed..

Replace

Replace

Rationalise

Rationalise

Renew

Renew

Retire

Retire

Outcomes:

Outcomes:

Demand

Demand Management

Management

Ensures

Ensures we

we don’t

don’t waste

waste money

money with

with excess

excess capacity

capacity

Ensures

Ensures we

we have

have enough

enough capacity

capacity toto meet

meet demand

demand at

at

agreed quality

agreed

quality

Patterns

Patterns of

of Business

Business Activity

Activity toto bebe considered

considered

E.g.

E.g. Economy

Economy 77 electricity,

electricity, Congestion

Congestion Charging,

Charging,

ITIL Stage 2 – Service

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

How are we going to provide it? How are we going to build it? How are we going to test it? How are we going to deploy it?

DESIGN DESIGN • How are we going to provide it? • How are we going to

Processes in Service Design

  • 1. Service Catalogue Management

  • 2. Service Level Management

  • 3. Capacity Management

  • 4. Information Security Management

  • 5. Availability Management

  • 6. ITSCM (disaster recovery)

  • 7. Supplier Management

P#1 – Service Catalogue

P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue
P#1 – Service Catalogue

P#2 – Service Level Management

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Operational Level Agreements

Internal

Underpinning Contracts (“SLAs are for service

management, contract is for the court

...

”)

External Organisation Supplier Management

Generally an annexe to a contract

Should be clear and fair and written in easy-

to-understand, unambiguous language

Success of SLM: Key Performance Indicators

(KPIs)

How many services have SLAs?

How does the number of breaches of SLA

change over time (we hope it reduces!)?

Things you might find in an SLA

SLA – A few examples (1/2)

Online Services Availability

Minutes of service unavailability Period 1 definition: MON-FRI 8-18 Period 2 definition: other Observation interval 1 YEAR:

Inappropriate” SL: more than 523 min/year in period 1,

more than 680 in period 2

Insufficient” SL: more than 756 min/year in period 1,

more than 983 in period 2

Unsuitable” SL: more than 1.047 min/year in period 1,

more than 1.361 in period 2

Observation interval 1 MONTH:

Inappropriate” SL: n/a

Insufficient” SL: n/a

Unsuitable” SL: more than 209 min/month in period 1,

more than 272 in period 2

SLA – A few examples (1/2)

Online Services Performance

Transactions mean response time ≤ 2,5 sec

Maximum percentage of transactions ending in more than 1 sec = 5%

DR Service

RTO (Recovery Time Option):

Applications A, B, C,

...

restarting in 2 hours after the

disaster formal statement

Applications X, Y, Z,

...

restarting in 24 hours after the

disaster formal statement

RPO (Recovery Point Option):

No data loss for applications A, B, C, ...

Maximum data loss for applications X, Y, Z,

...

updates in

the last hour before the disaster

P#3 – Capacity Management

Right Capacity, Right Time, Right Cost!

Balances Cost against Capacity so minimises costs while maintaining quality of service

P#4 – Information Security Management

Confidentiality

Making sure only those authorised can see data

Integrity

Making sure the data is accurate and not corrupted

Availability

Making sure data is supplied when it is requested

P#5 – Availability Management

Ensure that IT services are available … minimum at the

agreed targets

Lots of Acronyms

Mean Time Between Service Incidents

Mean Time Between Failures

Mean Time to Restore Service

Resilience increases availability

Service can remain functional even though one or more of its

components have failed

P#6 – ITSCM

IT Service Continuity Management

Ensures resumption of services within agreed timescale

Business Impact Analysis informs decisions about

resources

E.g. Stock Exchange can’t afford 5 minutes downtime but 2

hours downtime probably wont badly affect a departmental

accounts office or a college bursary

Standby for liftoff ...

Cold

Accommodation and environment ready but no IT equipment

… WEEKS

Warm

As cold plus backup IT equipment to receive data

48 HOURS

Hot

… 24

Full duplexing, redundancy and failover … MINUTES

COUPLE of HOURS

Not to be confused … (1/2)

Business Continuity

Today IT is often a vital mechanism of the whole complex “business machine” … but business’ proper functioning also needs: People, building, no-IT tools, rules and procedures, documents, money, decisions, … and more and more …

“Business Continuity” is a set of MAINLY ORGANIZATIONAL measures to ensure that Business can go on (downgraded at worst) with one or more unavailable assets

IT Continuity

A set of MAINLY TECHNICAL measures to reduce the unavailability of the IT services

Part of business continuity

Not to be confused … (2/2)

IT Availability Management

The process that defines SLA on IT Services availability and provides their compliance

IT Continuity Management

The process by which PROACTIVE measures are put in place and managed to ensure that IT Services can continue should an incident occur

Disaster Recovery

A set of REACTIVE processes activated to recover IT Services after a serious incident has occurred

Contingency Plan

A set of business emergency procedures to be used during missing or severe defecting IT Services

P#7 – Supplier Management

To ensure that all contracts with suppliers support the needs of the business, and that all suppliers meet their contractual commitments:

Providing the Supplier Management Framework Evaluation of New Suppliers and Contracts Establishing New Suppliers and Contracts Processing of Standard Orders Supplier and Contract Review Contract Renewal or Termination