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Hard Drive

2.5 Identify appropriate hard drive for a


computer system

Storage media hold the data being access, as well as the


files the system needs to operate and data needs to be
saved
Type of storage
- Hard disk
- Floppy (Diskette)
- Compact disc (CD)
- Backup-tape
- SD and other memory cards

Storage

A hard disk is a thick magnetic disk encased in a thicker


protective shell
Typically install inside the computer
Can hold more information compare to other storage
devices

Hard Disk

IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)


EIDE (Enhanced IDE) /PATA
SATA (SerialATA)
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) SCUZZY

* ATA Advanced Technology Attachment

Type of hard drive interface

Integrated drive electronics


Most common type of hard drive interface found in
computers
The official name for the technology is ATA
Its also popular interface for other drive such as CDROM, DVD-ROM

EIDE

ATA speed measurements are defined in MHz. Earlier


ATA speeds were 33MHz and then 66MHz. Newer ATA
devices can run at 100 MHz, and 133MHz, with the
newest devices running as fast as 166 MHz.
1 PATA connector can connect up to 2 devices
Because both devices share the same channel, devices
must be configured properly to avoid conflicts by set up
the Jumper

Considerations when selecting a standard


Use fastest standard appropriate for range of the
system and size of the drive
Must be supported by the OS, system BIOS on
motherboard, and firmware on the drive
Ultra ATA/100: most popular
EIDE (PATA) have a slower speed than SATA in term
of transferring data

Parallel ATA technology (PATA)

IDE Cabling method

IDE standards (PATA) support two IDE connections,


a primary and a secondary
Each connection can support up to two IDE devices
for a total of four devices on a system
Primary IDE channel, master device
Primary IDE channel, slave device
Secondary IDE channel, master device
Secondary IDE channel, slave device

Jumper setting

A serial ATA cable is thinner and has fewer pins than an


IDE cable.
Serial transfer rates begin at 1.5 Gbps (150 MB/s), the
latest SATA can up to 3Gbps
The cable length can be up to one meter.
Each SATA drive has its own channel, with a single drive
connected to each cable and port.

SATA

Hot-Swappable support, allowing drives to be added and


removed while the system is running.
SATA devices have a special power connector. Some
power supplies include SATA power connectors. If not,
use a converter to attach to a normal drive power cable

Supports external devices through the External


SATA (also called eSATA) standard. eSATA is
faster than USB and Firewire.

Few

PCs use Small Computer System


Interface (SCSI) drives
SCSI drives are generally faster and
more expensive, so they usually
show up only in high-end PCs such as
network servers or graphics
workstations

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface


Internal or external
50 pin ribbon cable similar to IDE (PATA) cable
Assign a unique device number ( SCSI address)
Use terminator devices to keep the signal

Is typically used in servers that have high availability and


speed requirements.
Connects multiple devices onto a single bus or chain.
Provides better performance than PATA or SATA.
Though SCSI devices are most commonly used for tape
storage devices and hard disks, they can also be used for
devices such as CD-ROM drives, scanners, and printers

Active and passive terminator


Active terminator uses voltage regulators, better than
passive terminator
Passive terminator works with resistors driven by small
amount of electricity
SCSI support up to 7 drives per interface
Support internal, external and even combination of
internal and external interface.

Head
The mechanism and mechanical arm that physically moves
across tracks and sectors to read or write data. There are
usually two (one on each side) of these per platter.
Disk/Platter
Magnetic disk to write the data, every hard disk have
different amount of disks
Spindle
The motor to spin the disk when the writing and reading
process executes.

HD Components

Cylinder
The platter or set of platters that magnetically hold data.
Track
The spaces between concentric circles emanating from
near the center of the platter and outward.
Sector
The spaces (pie shaped) in between equally spaced lines
that emanate from the center to the outside edge of the
platter.

The drive must physically fit into the computer. With the
exception of an external drive, the most common sized
drives are as follows:
2.5" for notebooks
3.5" (most common)
5.25" (older drives)
Note: When installing a hard disk in the system case, use
brackets to install a 3.5" drive into a 5.25" bay.

Form Factors

Performance is probably more important than capacity


when judging the value of a hard drive. The following
concepts and measurements define a hard drive's overall
performance:
RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) identifies how fast a hard
disk spins. Common IDE drives rotate their disk's at 5400
rpm or 7200 rpm.
Seek time is the amount of time required to find data. A
7200 rpm drive should take around 8 to 9 milliseconds.

HD Performance

SSD stands for Solid State Drive


Like a memory stick, there are no moving parts to an
SSD. Rather, information is stored in microchips.
NAND Based flash memory -> non volatile

SDD

HDD

SSD

Information is store in storage platter

Information is stored in microchips

Have mechanical arm to read and


write data

Used embedded controller to perform


write and read

Cheaper

Expensive

Spinning of the platters can result in


vibration

No sound and vibration

Discussion
Which of the two is the better choice, an SSD or HDD?

SSD VS HDD

Redundant Array of Independent Disks


A technology that allowed computer users to achieve
high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less
reliable PC-class disk-drive components, via the
technique of arranging the devices into arrays for
redundancy

RAID

A Web Server shown with removable hard drives


configured to RAID 5

Computer data storage schemes that can divide and


replicate data among multiple hard disk drives.
Two key design goals:
a.
b.

increased data reliability.


increased input/output performance.

When multiple physical disks are set up to use RAID


technology, they are said to be in a RAID array.
This array distributes data across multiple disks, but the
array is seen by the computer user and operating system as
one single disk.

RAID 0,1,5

combined which produces a two-digit RAID level, such


as RAID 10, sometimes identified (and more
appropriately so) as RAID 1+0.
RAID 10 works by striping and mirroring your data
across at least two disks.
It improves performance because the computer can get
data off more than one disk simultaneously.
RAID 10 is secure because mirroring duplicates all your
data. It's fast because the data is striped across two or
more disks, meaning chunks of data can be read and
written to different disks simultaneously.

RAID 10