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PHYSICAL OF FLUID

Outline
Physical of fluid
Definition
Properties of physical fluid
Classification of fluid
Classification of fluid flow

DEFINITIONS

A simple way to classify matter is as either a

solid or a fluid.
Solids are objects with a definite size and
shape.
Fluids include liquids and gases - distinct from
solids because of their abilities to flow and
change shape.
Fluid
Solid

MATTER

E.g.: liquids
& gases

What is fluid mechanics?


It is a branch of physics that study the behavior of

materials in fluid form (e.g.: water, oil).


The study in fluid mechanics are classified into 2
different categories, that is :Fluid statics :- study the behavior of fluid that is
static, (not in motion) for example :- water in the tank
reservoir, water inside the lake, air inside the balloon,
etc.
Fluid dynamics :- study the behavior of fluid that is in
motion, for example :- water flowing in the river,
wind blowing, water flowing inside the piping line, etc.

PROPERTIES OF
PHYSICAL FLUIDS

Not resisting deformation, or resisting

it only lightly (viscosity)


The ability to flow (also described as

the ability to take on the shape of the


container).

NO-SLIP CONDITION
WHAT IS NO-SLIP CONDITION?

Fluid in direct contact with a solid stick to the

surface, and there is no slip


The fluid properties responsible for this - viscosity
No slip condition responsible for development of
velocity profile
Boundary Layer The flow region adjacent to the
wall in which the viscous effect are significant
No-slip condition also create surface drag/skin
friction drag

VISCOSITY
The situation when a fluid moves relative to a

solid or when two fluids move relative to each


other.
We move with relative ease in air but not so in
water. Moving in oil would be more difficult.
Slower downward of a glass ball dropped in
tube filled with oil.
The property that represent the internal

resistance of a fluid to motion or the fluidity =


Viscosity

VISCOSITY

Viscosity experiments

VISCOSITY
To obtain relation of viscosity, consider a fluid layer between

two very large parallel plate


Constant parallel force applied on the top plate while lower
plate held fix
The fluid in contact with upper plates sticks to the plate surface
and move with the same velocity.
The Shear stress acting on the fluid layer is =F/A

VISCOSITY
The fluid contact with the lower plates assume the velocity of plate

which is zero, The fluid velocity between the plates varies linearly

Thus the velocity profile and velocity gradient is

y
u( y) V

du V

dy

VISCOSITY
The side rotate trough angle B while the upper plate move da = V dt

da Vdt du
d tan(d )

dt

dy
Re arranging
d du

dt dy

VISCOSITY
Shear Stress
du

(N/M2)
dy
= Coefficient of viscosity @ dynamic viscosity
Unit kg/m.s or equivalent N.s/m2 (poise) = 0.1 Pa.s

Shear Force
du
F A
dy

F A

V
l

Kinematic viscosity

Unit m2/s or stoke (1 stoke = 1 cm 2/s = 0.0001 m2/s)

VISCOSITY
Viscosity of a fluid depends both on temperature & pressure (weak)
For liquid both dynamic & kinematic viscosities independent of

pressure (except extremely high pressure)


For gases same case for dynamic viscosity (at low to moderate

pressure) but not for kinematic viscosity since density of gases


proportional to pressure
The viscosity of fluid is a measure of resistance to deformation
Viscosity is due to the internal frictional force that develop between

different layer of fluids as they are force to move relative to each


other

VISCOSITY
Viscosity is caused by cohesive forces between molecules in

liquids and the molecular collision in gases and its varies


greatly with temperature
Viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature, whereas the

viscosity of gases increases with temperature. WHY???


Because in a liquid the liquid possess more energy at higher

temperature and they can oppose the large cohesive


intermolecular forces more strongly
On the other hand, the intermolecular in gases is negligible, and
the gas molecules at higher temperature moves randomly at
higher velocities. This result in more molecular collisions per
unit volume per unit time and therefore greater resistance.

2r L
4 R nL
T FR

Example 9-4
Determine the viscosity of a fluid
The viscosity of a fluid is to be measured by a viscometer constructed
of twp 40-cm-long concentric cylinders. The outer diameter of the
inner cylinder is 12 cm, and the gap between two cylinders is 0.15cm.
The inner cylinder is rotated at 300rpm, and the torque is measured to
be 1.8N.m. Determine the viscosity of the fluid
Solution
The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given.
The viscosity of the fluid is to be determined.
Assumption
1.
2.

The inner cylinder is completely submerged in the fluid


The viscous effects on the two end of the cylinder are negligible

Example 9-4 (Continues)


Analysis
The velocity profile is linear only when curvature effects are
negligible, and the profile can be approximated as being linear in
this case since l/R = 0.025<< 1

4 2 R 3 nL
T
T
@

4 2 R 3nL

(1.8 N .m)(0.0015m)
4 2 (0.06m) 3 (300 / 60)(0.4m)

0.158 N .s / m 2
Discussion
Viscosity is a strong function of temperature. And a viscosity value
without corresponding temperature is of little usefulness.
Therefore, the temperature of the fluid should have also been
measured during this experiment, and reported with this
calculation

CLASSIFICATION OF
Newtonian Fluid
FLUID
Non-Newtonian Fluid

Pseudoplastic (Shear Thinning)

Dilatant

(Shear Thickening)

Bingham

Plastic

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
Newtonian Fluid
The rate of deformation is proportional to the shear stress
E.g. water, air, gasoline, oil
Non- Newtonian Fluid
Pseudoplastic (Shear Thinning)

The apparent viscosity is decrease with the rate of deformation (The fluid
becoming less viscous as it is sheared harder)
E.g. Some paints, Polymer solutions, fluids with suspended solutions

Dilatant (Shear Thickening)

The apparent viscosity is increase with the rate of deformation


E.g. Starch, Sand

Bingham Plastic

Material can resist a finite shear stress and thus behave like solid but deform
continuously when the shear stress exceed the yield stress.
E.g. toothpaste

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID FLOW
Viscous VS Inviscid region
Internal VS External Flow
Compressible VS Incompressible
Laminar VS Turbulent
Natural VS Forced
Steady VS Unsteady

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Viscous VS
Inviscid
region
Viscous Flow Flow

which frictional effects


are significant
Inviscid region Viscous
flow are negligibly small
compared to inertia/
pressure forces

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID FLOW
Internal VS External Flow
Internal Fluid flow in confining space
Flow

in pipe, duct fluid is completely


bounded by a solid surfaces

External Fluid flow over a surface


Flow

wire

an unbounded over a surface plate,

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID FLOW
Compressible VS Incompressible
Depending on the level of variation of
density during flow
Incompressible If density remain nearly
constant throughout
The volume fluid remain unchanged

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID FLOW
Compressible VS Incompressible
Flow speed is often expressed in dimensionless No. - Mach Number

Speed of sound = 346 m/s


Sonic Ma = 1
Subsonic Ma < 1
Supersonic > 1,
Hypersonic >>1

Speed of flow v
Ma

Speed of sound c

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID FLOW
Compressible VS Incompressible
Liquid flows are incompressible to a high level of accuracy
Approximation of incompressible of gases is depend on the Mach No.
Gas flow can be approximated incompressible if the density change <5% in

the case when Ma< 0.3.


Compressible effects of air at room temperature can be neglected at speed
under about 100 m/s

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Laminar VS Turbulent
Laminar

highly ordered fluid motion characteristic by


smooth layers of fluid
The flow of high viscosity fluids such as oil at low
velocities typically laminar
Turbulent

- highly disordered fluid motion typically at high


velocities & is characterized by velocity fluctuations.
The flow of low viscosity fluids such as air at high
velocities typically turbulent
Transitional-

The flow of low viscosity alternates between


laminar and turbulent.

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Laminar VS Turbulent
(a)

(b)

Figure of (a) Laminar flow (b) Turbulent flow

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Natural VS Forced
Forced

flow is force to flow by external


means such as pump or fan

Natural

Fluid flow is due to natural means


such as buoyancy effect.

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Steady VS Unsteady
Steady

No change at a point with time

Unsteady

Opposite of steady

Uniform-

No change with location over a


specific region

Transient Steady

typically used for developing flow

flow condition devices that are


intended for continuous operation

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLUID
FLOW
Dimensional Flows
A

flow is best characterized by its velocity


distribution

typical fluid flow in 3-D V(x,y,z)


(rectangular)/ or V(r,, z) (cylindrical)
coordinates.

Assignment 1
1.

Define internal, external and open-channel flows

2.

Define incompressible flow and incompressible fluid

3.

What is the non-slip condition? What causes it?

4.

What is forced flow? How does it differ from natural flow?

5.

What is viscosity? What is the cause of it in liquids and in


gases? Do Liquids or gases have higher dynamic
viscosities?

6.

What is Newtonian fluid? Is water a Newtonian fluid?

7.

How does the dynamic viscosity of (a) Liquid (b) gases


varies with temperature?

Assignment 2
2.

The viscosity of a fluid is to be measured by a viscometer


constructed of two-75-cm long concentric cylinders. The outer
diameter of the inner cylinder is 15cm, and the gap between
the two cylinders is 0.12cm. The inner cylinder is rotated at
200rpm, and the torque is measured to be 0.8N.m. Determine
the viscosity of the fluid