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HARMONIC TREATMENT IN INDUSTRIAL

POWER SYSTEMS

Presented by
Stefanos Manias

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

CONTACT INFORMATION
Stefanos N. Manias
National Technical University of Athens
Phone: +3010-7723503
FAX: +3010-7723593
E-mail: manias@central.ntua.gr
Mailing Address
National Technical University of Athens
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
9, Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Zografou
Athens, Greece

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

PLAN OF PRESENTATION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

DEFINITIONS
CATEGORIES OF POWER QUALITY VARIATIONS
HARMONIC DISTORTION SOURCES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER
SYSTEMS
EFFECTS OF HARMONICS ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
HARMONIC MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS
HARMONIC STANDARDS
HARMONIC MITIGATING TECHNIQUES
GENERAL PASSIVE AND ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN PROCEDURES
DESIGN EXAMPLES
CONCLUSIONS

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WHY HARMONIC ANALYSIS ?


When a voltage and/or current waveform is distorted, it causes
abnormal operating conditions in a power system such as:

Voltage Harmonics can cause additional heating in induction and


synchronous motors and generators.
Voltage Harmonics with high peak values can weaken insulation in
cables, windings, and capacitors.
Voltage Harmonics can cause malfunction of different electronic
components and circuits that utilize the voltage waveform for
synchronization or timing.
Current Harmonics in motor windings can create Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).

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Current Harmonics flowing through cables can cause higher


heating over and above the heating that is created from the
fundamental component.
Current Harmonics flowing through a transformer can cause
higher heating over and above the heating that is created by the
fundamental component.
Current Harmonics flowing through circuit breakers and switchgear can increase their heating losses.
RESONANT CURRENTS which are created by current harmonics
and the different filtering topologies of the power system can
cause capacitor failures and/or fuse failures in the capacitor or
other electrical equipment.
False tripping of circuit breakers ad protective relays.

IEEE PESC-02

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HARMONIC SOURCES
a) Current Source nonlinear load

Thyristor rectifier for dc drives,


heater drives, etc.

Per-phase equivalent circuit


of thyristor rectifier

b) Voltage source nonlinear load

Diode rectifier for ac drives,


electronic equipment, etc

IEEE PESC-02

Per-phase equivalent circuit


of diode rectifier

JUNE 2002

INPUT CURRENT OF DIFFERENT


NOLINEAR LOADS

TYPE OF
NONLINEAR LOAD

TYPICAL WAREFORM

THD%

1.0

80%
(high 3rd
component)

0.5

C u r en t

1-
Uncontrolled
Rectifier

0.0

-0.5
-1.0

10

20

30

40

Time (mS)

1.0
0.5
0.0

C ur r e nt

1-
Semicontrolled
Rectifier Bridge

2nd, 3rd, 4th ,......


harmonic
components

-0.5
-1.0

10

20

30

40

Time (mS)

1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0

80%

C ur r e nt

6 Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and without
input reactor filter

10

20

30

40

5, 7, 11, .

Time (mS)

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JUNE 2002

1.0
0.5
0.0

40%
5, 7, 11, ..

C u r ent

6 - Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and with 3%
reactor filter or with
continues output
current

-0.5
-1.0

10

20

30

40

Time (mS)

1.0
0.5
0.0

C ur r e n t

6 - Pulse Rectifier
with large output
inductor

28%
5, 7, 11, ..

-0.5
-1.0

10

20
Time (mS)

30

40

1.0
0.5
0.0

15%
11, 13, ..

C u r e nt

12 - Pulse Rectifier

-0.5
-1.0

10

20
Time (mS)

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30

40

JUNE 2002

CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 6-PULSE CSI CONVERTERS


HARMONIC

P.U PULSE

1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23

1.00
0.2
0.143
0.09
0.077
0.059
0.053
0.04

CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 12-PULSE CSI CONVERTERS

HARMONIC

P.U PULSE

IEEE 519 std

1
5
7
11
13
THD

1.00
0.03-0.06
0.02-0.06
0.05-0.09
0.03-0.08
7.5%-14.2%

5.6%
5.6%
2.8%
2.8%
7.0%

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

RECENT CURRENT MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN AN


INDUSTRIAL PLANT WITH 600 KVA, 20 KV/400 V
DISTRIBUTION TRANFORMER

Current waveform and its respective spectrum


at the inputs of a motor drive system

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Current waveform and its respective spectrum


at the inputs of a motor drive system

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Current waveform and its respective spectrum


at the secondary of the distribution transformer
( i.e. at the service entrance)

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DEFINITIONS

f (t) = Fourier Series of a periodic function f (t) =

Co C h cos ht h
h 1

1 T
C h A 2h B2h
C o o f ( t )dt ,
T
2 T
A h o f ( t ) cos(ht )dt
T
2 T
B h o f ( t ) sin( ht )dt
T

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

h = harmonic order

13

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THD % Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of


a nonsinusoidal voltage waveform

h 2

THDi %

Vh
V1

100

Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of


a nonsinusoidal current waveform

Ih

h 2

I1

100

Vh hth

harmonic component of the voltage

I h hth

harmonic component of the current

~
VH RMS value of the voltage distortion

14

(5)

IEEE PESC-02

(6)

~2
V
h

h 2

JUNE 2002

~
IH

RMS value of the current distortion

~
I

RMS value of a nonsinusoidal current =

~
V

~2
Ih

h 2

(7)

h 1

RMS value of a nonsinusoidal voltage =

~2
Vh

(8)

h 1

THD % HF

Drive kVA
100
SC kVA

HF Harmonic Factor =

15

~2
Ih

h 2 I 2h

h 5

IEEE PESC-02

(9)

/ I1

(10)

JUNE 2002

Drive kVA Full load kVA rating of the Drive system


SC kVA Short Circuit kVA of the distribution system at
the point of connection

SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT

~~
P V Ii,1 cos 1

(11)

~~
~~
Q V Ii,1 sin 1 , S V I
D Distortion VA S2 P 2 Q 2

16

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(12)
(13)

JUNE 2002

~ ~
~
D S V 2 Ii,21 V 2
2

~2
Ii,h

(14)

h 2

P Ii,1
cos 1
True Power Factor
S I

(15)

Distortion Factor Displace ment Factor


NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT

~ ~
~ ~
P Vh Ih cos h , Q Vh Ih sin h
h 1

D Distortion Power

17

h 1

SnmS*nm
n m
n m

IEEE PESC-02

(16)

*
S
S
n m

(17)

n m
n m

JUNE 2002

(18)

S2 P 2 Q 2 D 2

~ 2~ 2
~~ 2 ~~
V
I

V
h h 1 I1 V1 IH
h 1

~ ~
VH IH

2 V~H ~I1 2

S12 S2N

(19)

~~
S1 Fundamental Apparent Power V1 I1
S N Nonfundamental Apparent Power

~~ 2 ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ 2
S2N V1 IH VH I1 VH IH

18

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~~
V1 IH Current Distortion Power

(20)

~ ~
VH I1 Voltage Distortion Power

(21)

~ ~
VH IH Harmonic Apparent Power

(22)

S2H PH2 N 2H Total Harmonic Active Power


Total Harmonic Non Active Power

(23)

X C Reactance of the capacitor VL-L 2 / VAR 3phase

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Harmonic sequence is the phase rotation relationship with respect to the


fundamental component.
Positive sequence harmonics ( 4th, 7th, 10th , . (6n+1) th ) have
the same phase rotation as the fundamental component. These
harmonics circulate between the phases.
Negative sequence harmonics ( 2nd, 5th, 8th (6n-1) th ) have
the opposite phase rotation with respect to the fundamental component.
These harmonics circulate between the phases.
Zero sequence harmonics ( 3rd, 6th, 9th, .. (6n-3) th ) do not produce
a rotating field. These harmonics circulate between the phase and neutral
or ground. These third order or zero sequence harmonics, unlike positive
and negative sequence harmonic currents, do not cancel but add up
arithmetically at the neutral bus.

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EXAMPLE 1
SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE-NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
A periodic, sinusoidal voltage of instantaneous value v 200 2 sin t
Is applied to a nonlinear load impedance. The resulting instantaneous current is

i 2 20 sin t 45o 10 sin 2t 60o 10 sin 3t 60o

given by:

Calculate the components P, Q, D of the apparent voltamperes and hence


calculate the displacement factor, the distortion factor and the power factor.

Solution

v 200 2 sin t

i 2 20 sin t 45o 10 sin 2t 60o 10 sin 3t 60o

The presence of the nonlinearity causes frequency components of current (i.e. the
second and third harmonic terms) that are not present in the applied voltage.
The rms voltage and current at the supply are:

~
V 200V
~2
I 20 2 10 2 102
6 102 A 2

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The apparent voltamperes at the input is therefore given by

~ 2~ 2
S V I 2002 6 10 2 24 106 VA 2
2

In this example only the fundamental frequency components are common to


both voltage and current. Therefore, the real power P and the apparent
power Q are

~~
P V I1 cos 1
1 = displacement angle between the fundamental of
the voltage and the fundamental of the current

200 20 cos 45o

4000
W
2

~~
Q V I1 sin 1
200 20 sin 45o

22

4000
VA
2

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~I ~I
~I ~I
200 10 10 8 10

~
D2 V2
~
V2

2
1
2
3

VA 2

~ ~
P2 Q2 D2 V2 I 2

~~
~
P V I1 cos 1 I1
cos 1
PF power factor

~~
S
VI
I
1
Displacement factor cos 1
0.707
2
I
20
Distortion factor 1
0.817
I
600
Therefore, the power factor is

PF

23

1 2
0.577
2 6

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EXAMPLE 2
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE-RL LOAD

A periodic, sinusoidal voltage given by v 2 200 sin t 200 sin 5t 30o


is applied to a series, linear, resistance-inductance load of resistance 4 and

fundamental frequency reactance 10.


Calculate the degree of power factor improvement realizable by capacitance
Compensation when

f1 50HZ.

Solution. The rms terminal voltage V is given by

~ ~2 ~2
V V1 V5

200 2 200 2
Therefore

~
V 283V
Z1 4 j10

Z1 10.8

1 tan 1 10 / 4 68.2o

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5 51 50
Z5 4 j50

Z5 50

5 tan 1 50 / 4 85.4o
The instantaneous load current is given by

200
200

sin t 68.2 o
sin 5t 30o 85.4o
50
10.8

~
The rms load current I
is therefore given by
i 2

~ 2 ~

~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 V1
V5
I I1 I5

Z
Z1
5

18.52 2 4 2 359A 2

25

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Apparent voltamperes S at the load terminals in the absence of capacitance is


therefore

~ ~
2
S2 V 2 I 2 28.72 10 6 VA

Average power

In this case is

~ ~
~~
~ ~
P Vn In cos L V1 I1 cos 1 V2 I2 cos 2 ...
1

200 18.52 cos 68.2o 200 4 cos 85.4o


1440 W
The power factor before compensation is therefore

PF

26

P
S

1440
28.72 10

0.27

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EXAMPLE 3
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT

A periodic, nonsinusoidal voltage with instantaneous value given by

v 2 200 sin t 200 sin 2t - 30o is applied to a nonlinear impedance.


The resulting current has an instantaneous value given by

i L 2 20 sin t 45o 10 sin 2t 60o 10 sin 3t 60o


Calculate the components SLR , SLX , SLD of the load apparent voltamperes
and compare thee with the classical values PL , Q L , D L respectively.
Solution.

2 20 sin t 45 10 sin 2t 60 10 sin 3t 60

v 2 200 sin t 200 sin 2t - 30o

iL

Note that the presence of the load nonlinearity causes a frequency component of
load current (I.e. the third harmonic term) that is not present in the supply
voltage.

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The rms voltage and current at the supply are given by

~
V 2 200 2 200 2 8 10 4 V 2

~2
IL 202 102 102 6 102 A 2
~
~
The load apparent voltamperes SL therefore has a value defined in terms V and I
L
~ ~
2
S2L V 2 IL2 48 106 VA

Instantaneous expressions of the hypothetical currents

iR , iX , iD

i R 2 20 cos 45o sin t 10 cos 300 sin 2t 30o

2
~2
ILR
20 cos 45o 10 cos 30 o

11
10 2 A 2
4

are given by

i X 2 20 sin 45o cos t 10 sin 300 cos 2t 30o

2
2
9
~2
ILX
20 sin 45o 10 sin 30 o 10 2 A 2
4

i D 2 10 sin 3t 60 o

~2
ILD
10 2 A 2

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Note that current components i R , i X contain only those harmonic terms which
are common to both voltage and current. These are therefore consistent with the
n1 terms.

The rms load current components ILR , ILX , ILD are found, as expected to sum

~
to the total rms load current IL

11 9
~2 ~2 ~2
~

ILD ILR ILD 10 2 1 6 10 2 IL2


4 4

Components

2
LR

of the apparent voltamperes can now be obtained

~ 2 ~ 2 11 2
2
V ILR 10 8 10 4 22 10 6 VA
4

2
LX

~ 2~ 2 9 2
2
V ILX 10 8 10 4 18 106 VA
4

2
LD

~ 2~ 2
2
V ILD 10 2 8 10 4 8 10 6 VA

29

SLR , SLX , SLD

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The component voltamperes are seen to sum to the total apparent voltamperes

S2LR S2LX S2LD 106 22 18 8


48 106 VA 2
S2L
Components

~ ~
V
n1 In1 cos n1

PL2

PL , Q L , D L of SL are found as follows:

200 20 cos 45 200 10 cos 30


2

100 20 2 10 3

10 6 2 2

30

o 2

106 8 3 4 6 20.8 10 6 S2LR

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Q 2L

~ ~
V
n1 In1 sin n1

200 20 sin 45o 200 10 sin 30o

10 6 2 2 1 14.6 10 6 S2LX

D 2L S2L PL2 Q 2L

48 20.8 14.6 106 12.6 106 VA 2 S2LD


From the possible compensation viewpoint it is interesting to note that SLX
and Q L differ by significant amount.
SLX could be defined as that component of the load apparent voltamperes that
Is obtained by the combination of supply voltage harmonics with quadrature
Components of corresponding frequency load current harmonics.

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Similarly the definition of active voltamperes

SLR

could be given by that

component of the load apparent voltamperes that is obtained by the combination


of supply voltage harmonics with in-phase components of corresponding
frequency load current harmonics.
Both

SLR and SLX

are entirely fictitious and non-physical. The active

SLRIs not to be compares in importance with the average power


PL which is a real physical property of the circuit. Term SLR Is merely the
analytical complement of term SLX
voltamperes

Term

SLX

the energy-storage reactive voltamperes, is that component

of the load apparent voltamperes that can be entirely compensated (for sinusoidal
supply voltage) or minimized (for nonsinusoidal supply voltage) by energy-storage
methods.

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Voltage and current profiles in a


commercial building

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HARMONIC STANDARDS

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) European


Standards.
- EN 61000-3-2 Harmonic Emissions standards were first published
as IEC 55-2 1982 and applied only to household appliances. It was
revised and reissued in 1987 and 1995 with the applicability
expanded to include all equipment with input current 16A per
phase. However, until January 1st, 2001 a transition period is in
effect for all equipment not covered by the standard prior to 1987.
- The objective of EN 61000-3-2 (harmonics) is to test the equipment
under the conditions that will produce the maximum harmonic
amplitudes under normal operating conditions for each harmonic
component. To establish limits for similar types of harmonics current
distortion, equipment under test must be categorized in one of the
following four classes.

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CLASS-A: Balanced three-phase equipment and all other equipment


except that stated in one of the remaining three classes.
CLASS-B: Portable electrical tools, which are hand held during normal
operation and used for a short time only (few minutes)
CLASS-C: Lighting equipment including dimming devices.
CLASS-D: Equipment having an input current with special wave shape
( e.g.equipment with off-line capacitor-rectifier AC input
circuitry and switch Mode power Supplies) and an active
input power 600W.
- Additional harmonic current testing, measurement techniques and
instrumentation guidelines for these standards are covered in IEC
1000-4-7.

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IEEE 519-1992 United States Standards on harmonic limits

IEEE limits service entrance harmonics.


The IEEE standard 519-1992 limits the level of harmonics at the
customer service entrance or Point of Common Coupling (PCC).
With this approach the costumers current distortion is limited based
on relative size of the load and the power suppliers voltage
distortion based on the voltage level.
IEEE 519 and IEC 1000-3-2 apply different philosophies, which
effectively limit harmonics at different locations. IEEE 519 limits
harmonics primarily at the service entrance while IEC 1000-3-2 is
applied at the terminals of end-user equipment. Therefore, IEC limits
will tend to reduce harmonic-related losses in an industrial plant
wiring, while IEEE harmonic limits are designed to prevent
interactions between neighbors and the power system.

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POWER QUALITY STANDARDS


IEEE 519-1992 STANDARDS

TABLE I
CURRENT DISTORTION LIMITS FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
(120-69000 V)

37

Isc/IL

<11

11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35

35<h

TDD

<20*

4.0

2.0

1.5

0.6

0.3

5.0

20<50

7.0

3.5

2.5

1.0

0.5

8.0

50<100

10.0

4.5

4.0

1.5

0.7

12.0

100<1,000

12.0

5.5

5.0

2.0

1.0

15.0

>1,000

15.0

7.0

6.0

2.5

1.4

20.0

Source: IEEE Standard 519-1992.


Note: Even harmonics are limited to 25 percent of the odd harmonic limits above.
Current distortions that result in a direct current offset; for example, half wave
converters are not allowed.
Table I is for 6-pulse rectifiers. For converters higher than 6 pulse, the limits for
characteristic harmonics are increased by a factor o f q/6 , where q is the pule number,
provided that the
amplitudes of noncharacteristic harmonics are less than 25 percent.
*All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of
actual ISC/IL.
Where ISC =
Maximum short circuit at PCC.
And IL
=
Average Maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency
component at PCC).

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TABLE II
LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION AND DISTORTION LIMITS
IEEE 519-1992 STANDARTS

Special
Applications

General
System

Dedicated
System

Notch Depth

10%

20%

50%

THD (Voltage)

3%

5%

10%

Notch Area
(AN)*

16,400

22,800

36,500

Source: IEEE Standard 519-1992.


Note:
The value AN for another than 480Volt systems should be
multiplied by V/480 .
The notch depth, the total voltage distortion factor (THD) and
the notch area limits are specified for line to line voltage.
In the above table, special applications include hospitals and
airports. A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to converter load.
*In volt-microseconds at rated voltage and current.

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TABLE III
LIMITS OF THD%
IEEE 519-1992 STANDARDS

39

SYSTEM
Nominal Voltage

Special
Application

General
Systems

Dedicated
Systems

120-600V

3.0

5.0

8.0

69KV and below

5.0

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TABLE IV
PROPOSED IEC 555-2 CLASS D STANDARDS for power from 50 to 600W

40

Harmonic

Relative limits
Milliamps/Watt

Absolute Limits
Amps

3.4

2.30

1.9

1.14

1.0

0.77

0.5

0.40

11

0.35

0.33

13

linear
extrapolation

0.15 (15/n)

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METHODOLOGY FOR
COMPUTING DISTORTION
Step 1: Compute the individual current harmonic distortion at each
dedicated bus using different Software programs (i.e. SIMULINK,
SPICE, e.t.c.) or tables that provide the current distortion of
nonlinear loads.
Step 2: Compute the voltage and current harmonic content at the Point of
Common Coupling (PCC) which is located at the input of the
industrial power system.
- Each individual harmonic current at the PCC is the sum of
harmonic current contribution from each dedicated bus.
- The load current at PCC is the sum of the load current
contribution from each dedicated bus.
- The maximum demand load current at PCC can be found by
computing the load currents for each branch feeder and multiply
by a demand factor to obtain feeder demand. Then the sum of all
feeder demands is divided by a diversity factor to obtain the
maximum demand load current.

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Step 3: Choose a base MVA and base KV for the system use the following
equations in order to compute individual and total current and
voltage harmonic distortions at PCC and any other point within the
power system.
3
MVA

10
b
(24)
Ib= Base current in Amps
Amps
3kVb

Zs = System impedance =
MVAb= Base MVA,

MVA b
MVA sc

p.u.

(25)

MVAsc= short circuit MVA at the point of interest

VH= Percent individual harmonic voltage distortion =

I
h h Zs 100 Volts
Ib

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(26)

JUNE 2002


THD %

2 1
Vh 2
h 2

V1

100

2
2
Ih

THD i % h 2 100
I1

(27)

h = harmonic order
IH = Percent individual harmonic distortion =

Ih
100
IL

(28)

Isc = Short Circuit current at the point under consideration.


IL = Estimated maximum demand load current

Isc MVA sc

S.C. Ratio = Short circuit Ratio


I L MVA D

(29)

MVAD = Demand MVA

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K Factor = Factor useful for transformers design and


specifically from transformers that feed
Adjustable Speed Drives

h 1

Ih


IL

2
(30)

ONCE THE SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO IS KNOWN, THE IEEE CURRENT


HARMONIC LIMITS CAN BE FOUND AS SPECIFIED IN TABLE I OF
THE IEEE 519-1992 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS
USING THE ABOVE EQUATIONS VALUES OF IDIVINDUAL AND
TOTAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION CAN
BE COMPUTED AND COMPARED WITH THE IEEE LIMITS

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Step 4: If the analysis is being performed for CSI-type drives then the area
of the voltage notch AN should also be computed.
-

At this point an impedance diagram of the under analysis


industrial power system should be available.
The Notch Area AN at the PCC can be calculated as follows.

AN = AN1 + AN2 + . V . microsec

(31)

AN1 , AN2 , are the notch areas contribution of the different busses

A N1

Source inductance
A NDR1
Source inductance the sum of inductances from PCC to the drive
(32)

ANDR1 : Notch area at the input of the drive

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Step 5: Determine preliminary filter design.

Step 6: Compute THDv and THDi magnitudes and impedance versus


frequency plots with filters added to the system, one at a time.
SIMULINK or PSPICE software programs can be used for final
adjustments.
Step 7: Analyze results and specify final filter design.

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EXAMPLE OF A SYSTEM ONE LINE


DIAGRAM

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System impedances diagram which can be used to


calculate its resonance using PSPICE or SIMULINK
programs

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JUNE 2002

TYPES OF FILTERS
1) Parallel-passive filter for current-source nonlinear loads

Harmonic Sinc
Low Impedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = VT (Load Harmonic current + reactive current of the filter)

49

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

2) Series-passive filter for voltage-source nonlinear loads

Harmonic dam
High-impedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = Load current (Fundamental drop across filter + Load Harmonic Voltage)

50

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

3) Basic parallel-active filter for current source in nonlinear loads

51

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

4) Basic series-active filter for voltage-source in nonlinear loads

52

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

5) Parallel combination of parallel active and parallel passive

6) Series combination of series active and series passive

53

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

7) Hybrid of series active and parallel passive

8) Hybrid of parallel active and series passive

54

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

9) Series combination of parallel-passive and parallel-active

10) Parallel combination of series-passive and series-active

55

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

11) Combined system of series-active and parallel-active

12) Combined system of parallel-active and series-active

56

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

A SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF AN INDUSTRIAL


POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

57

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

HARMONIC LIMITS EVALUATION WHEN


POWER-FACTOR-CORRECTION CAPASITORS
ARE USED
-

As it can be seen from the power distribution circuit the power-factorcorrection capacitor bank, which is connected on the 480 Volts bus, can
create a parallel resonance between the capacitors and the system
source inductance.
The single phase equivalent circuit of the distribution system is shown
below.

Rtot
VS

Ltot

IS

If

Ih

AC Source

Harmonic
Load

Z in

Using the above circuit the following equations hold:

58

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

2
kVLL

X
R sys
cos tan 1
,
MVA sc
R

2
kVLL

1 X
Xsys
sin tan
,
MVA sc
R

R sys
Xsys

R sys

Xsys

(33)

(34)

= The turns ratio of the transformer at PCC


2
1000 kVLL
R tr R pu
kVA tr

2
1000 kVLL
X tr X pu
kVA tr

59

IEEE PESC-02

(35)

(36)

JUNE 2002

R tot R sys R tr

(37)

X tot Xsys X tr
Xc

2
1000 kVcap

(39)

kVAR cap
1
X c

Xc

(40)

1
C

X tot
L tot

60

(38)

(41)

X tot

2 f

IEEE PESC-02

(42)

JUNE 2002

The impedance Zin looking into the system from the load, consists of the
parallel combination of source impedance R
and the
jX tot
tot
capacitor impedance

Zin

R tot jL tot j / C

1
R tot jL tot j
C
1
1
o L tot
,
fo
o C
2 o

(43)

(44)

The equation for Zin can be used to determine the equivalent system
impedance for different frequencies. The harmonic producing loads can
resonate (parallel resonance), the above equivalent circuit. Designating
the parallel resonant frequency by (rad/sec)
or (HZ)
f o and equating the
o
inductive and capacitive reactances.

61

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

Harmonic current components that are close to the parallel resonant frequency are amplified.
Higher order harmonic currents at the PCC are reduced because the capacitors are low
impedance at these frequencies.
The figure below shows the effect of adding capacitors on the 480 Volts bus for power factor
correction.

This figure shows that by adding some typical sizes of power factor correction capacitors will
result in the magnification of the 5 th and 7th harmonic components, which in turns makes it
even more difficult to meet the IEEE 519-1992 harmonic current standards .

62

- Power factor correction capacitors should not be used without turning reactors in case the
adjustable speed drives are >10% of the plant load.

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

EXAMPLE
Let us examine an industrial plant with the following data:
Medium voltage = 20KVLL
-

Low voltage = 0.4 KVLL

Utility three phase short circuit power = 250 MVA


X
For asymmetrical current, the
ratio of system impedance 2.4

The Transformer is rated:


1000 KVA, 20 KV-400 Y/230 V
Rpu = 1%, Xpu = 7%
- The system frequency is: fsys = 50 HZ.

63

- For power factor correction capacitors the following cases are examined:
a.
200 KVAR
b.
400 KVAR
c.
600 KVAR
d.
800 KVAR

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

The parallel resonant frequencies for every case of power factor correction is calculated as
follows:

20

sin tan
250

2.4 1.4769

20 2
R sys
cos tan 1 2.4 0.6154
250
2

X sys

20
50
0.4

R sys 0.6154 50 2 0.000246

Xsys 1.4769 50 2 0.000591


1000 0.4 2
R tr 0.01
0.00160
1000
1000 0.4 2
X tr 0.07
0.0112
1000

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IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

R tot 0.000246 0.0016 0.001846


X tot 0.000591 0.0112 0.011791
0.011791
L tot
37.55 10 6 H
2 50
Case a:

1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.8
200
1
C
3.98 10 3 F
2 50 0.8

fo

1
2 37.50 10 6 3.98 10 3

412.18HZ

For 200 KVAR, the harmonic order at which parallel resonance occurs is:

h 412.18 50 8.24

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IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

Case b:

1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.4
400
C 7.96 10 3 F
f o 291.45HZ
h 5.83

Case c:

1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.267
600
C 11.94 10 3 F
f o 237.97 HZ
h 4.76

66

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

Case d:

1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.2
800
C 15.92 10 3 F

f o 206.08HZ
h 4.12
It is clear for the above system that in the 600 KVAR case, there
exists a parallel resonant frequency f o close to the 5th harmonic.

67

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION AND


HARMONIC TREATMENT
USING TUNED FILTERS
-

Basic configuration of a tuned 3- capacitor bank for power factor


correction and harmonic treatment.

Simple and cheap filter


Prevents of current harmonic magnification

68

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

IN ORDER TO AVOID HARMONIC MAGNIFICATION WE CHOOSE A


TUNED FREQUENCY < FITH HARMONIC (i.e 4.7)
The frequency characteristic of the tuned filter at 4.7 is shown below

As it can be seen from the above figure significant reduction of the 5 th


harmonic is achieved. Moreover, there is some reduction for all the other
harmonic components.

69

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

The single phase equivalent circuit of the power distribution system


with the tuned filter is shown below

Using the above circuit the following equations hold:

70

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

f os

1
1

= Resonant frequency of the series filter (45)

2 Lf C 2
2
f

1000
kV
1
2 f X c
cap
Lf

C 2 f os 2 2 f os 2 2 f os 2 kVAR cap

(46)

The new parallel combination is having resonant frequency when

1
o L tot o L f
0
o C
fo

2 L tot Lf C 2

(parallel resonance)

= resonance frequency of the


(47)
equivalent distribution circuit

Also

R tot jL tot
If I h
R tot j L tot L f 1 C

71

IEEE PESC-02

(48)

JUNE 2002

Is I h

j Lf 1 / C
R tot j L tot Lf 1 C

Vh Is R tot jL tot

R tot jL tot

(49)

(50)


Zin
1
R tot jL tot jLf j
C

R tot jL tot

R tot j

72

j L f j

1
L tot L f

C
jL f j

IEEE PESC-02

(51)

JUNE 2002

As it was discussed before Selecting f o 235HZ or 4.7 th harmonic


With

Lf

KVcap= 0.4 ,
2

50 1000 0.4

2 235 2 600

KVARcap= 600

68.45 10 6 H 38.45H

The new parallel combination is having resonant frequency:

fo
with

fo

L tot Lf C

L tot 37.55 10 6 H
L f 38.45 10 6 H

C 11.94 103 F
1

2 76 10 6 11.94 103

h 167.16 / 50 3.43

73

we have

167.16HZ

(without Lf was 4.76)

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

The following table shows the variation of Parallel resonant frequency


With and without resonant inductor
Parallel Resonant f0

74

KVAR

C(mF)

Without Lf

200

3.98

8.80

115.3H

4.08

400

7.96

6.22

57.7H

3.66

600

11.94

5.08

38.45H

3.43

800

15.92

4.40

29.5H

3.08

IEEE PESC-02

With Lf

JUNE 2002

SIMULATED RESULTS USING


MATLAB/SIMULINK
T1

i
-

motor

+
v
-

380kw/490rpm

compens

Bus Bar (horiz)2

T
Ground (i nput)

200m cabl e 4x240

V1
Ground (output)1

Current Measurement4

Vol tage Measurement3


+
v
-

Gnd

+
v
-

50m cabl e 4x1

voltage
Series RLC Bra nch
Scope3

Source
Scope1

itot
Scope2

i
-

Scope4
Scope

Current Measu rement6


Bus Bar (hori z)3

Source1

chock2%5
chock2%3

chock2%1

AC Voltage Source
Ground (input)8
Ground (input)4

Ground (input)5
Ground (output)

Current Measurement5
i
-

i
-

Current Measurement3
Bus Bar (hori z)7
AC Current Source7

Bus Bar (hori z)5

AC Current Source4

Series RLC Branch3

Series RLC Branch2

AC Current Source5

AC Current Source8
AC Current Source6

AC Current Source3
Bus Bar (hori z)6

Bus Bar (horiz)4

Ground (input)2

Ground (input)3
Current Measurement1

Bus Bar (hori z)1


AC Current Source1
AC Current Source2

Series RLC Branch1

AC Current Source
Bus Bar (horiz)

Ground (input)1

75

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SIMULINK RESULTS

76

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SIMULINK RESULTS

77

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

ACTIVE FILTERING

Parallel type

78

Series type

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

RESULTS OF ACTIVE FILTERING


2500
1500

25

500

20
[% I1]

I
[A]

30

-500

15
10

-1500

5
0

-2500
0

10

15

20
25
Time [ms]

30

35

40

11

14
17
Harmonics

20

23

Input current of a 6-pulse Rectifier driving a DC machine without any input filtering
35%
30%

2500

25%
[%I1]

I Dynacomp [A]

5000

20%
15%
10%

-2500

5%

-5000

0%

10

20

30

40

Time [ms]

Input current with Active Filtering

79

IEEE PESC-02

11

14

17

20

23

Harmonics

JUNE 2002

1000

14
12
10
[% U1]

U [V]

500
0

8
6
4

-500

2
-1000
0

10

15

20
25
Time [ms]

30

35

40

11

14
17
Harmonics

11

14
17
Harmonics

Typical 6-pulse drive voltage waveform


1000

23

14
12

500

10
[% U]

U [V]

20

8
6
4

-500

2
-1000
0

10

15
20
25
Time [ms]

30

35

40

0
2

20

23

Voltage source improvement with active filtering

80

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SHUNT ACTIVE FILTERS


By inserting a parallel active filter in a non-linear load location we can
inject a harmonic current component with the same amplitude as that of
the load in to the AC system.

LF

Equivalent circuit

81

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

ADVANTAGES OF THE SHUNT OR PARALLEL


ACTIVE FILTER

Low implementation cost.

Do not create displacement power factor problems and utility loading.

82

Supply inductance LS, does not affect the harmonic compensation of


parallel active filter system.
Simple control circuit.

Can damp harmonic propagation in a distribution feeder or between


two distribution feeders.

Easy to connect in parallel a number of active filter modules in order to


achieve higher power requirements.

Easy protection and inexpensive isolation switchgear.

Easy to be installed.

Provides immunity from ambient harmonic loads.

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

WAVEFORMS OF THE PARALLEL ACTIVE


FILTER

Source voltage

Load current

Source current

A. F. output current

83

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

PARALLEL ACTIVE FILTER EQUATIONS

IC GI L

G1 0

(52)

G h 1

ZL
VS
I LH
ZL
ZL
ZS
ZS
1 G
1 G
ZL
1
VS
1 G
IL
I LH

ZL
1 G Z ZL
ZS
S
1 G
1 G
IS

If

ZL
ZS h
1 G h

(53)

(54)

(55)

Then the above equations become

I C I Lh

(56)

ISh 1 G I LHh 1 G

84

VSh
0
ZL

IEEE PESC-02

(57)

JUNE 2002

I Lh I LHh

VSh
ZL

(58)

Equation (55) is the required condition for the parallel A.F. to cancel
the load harmonic current. Only G can be predesign by the A.F. while
Zs and ZL are determined by the system.

For pure current source type of harmonic source Z L ZS


and consequently equations (53) and (55) become

IS
I LH

(59)

1 G

(60)

1 G h 1
ZS

= Source impedance

I LH

= Is the equivalent harmonic current source

Z L = Equivalent load impedance


G = equivalent transfer function of the active filter

85

Equation (59) shows that the compensation characteristics of the A.F. are not
influenced by the source impedance, Zs. This is a major advantage of the A.F.
with respect to the passive ones.

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

VdC
C

The DC bus nominal voltage, VdC, must be greater than or equal to line voltage
peak in order to actively control i C .
The selection of the interface inductance of the active filter is based on the
compromise of keeping the output current ripple of the inverter low and the same
time to be able to track the desired source current.
The required capacitor value is dictated by the maximum acceptable voltage
ripple. A good initial guess of C is:

2
VdC Vn
t
max i Cdt
3
Also
LF
0
di L
C
max
v Cmax

dt
Vn = peak line-neutral voltage

VdC = DC voltage of the DC bus of the inverter


i L = Line phase current

v Cmax = maximum acceptable voltage ripple,

i C = Phase current of the inverter

86

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

P-Q THEORY
For identifying the harmonic currents in general the method of computing
instantaneous active and reactive power is used.
Transformation of the three-phase voltages v u , v v and v w and the threephase load currents i Lv , i Lu and i Lw into - orthogonal coordinate.

v
v

i L
i
L

87

2 1

3 0

1/ 2

2 1

3 0

1/ 2

3/2

3/2

IEEE PESC-02

1/ 2

vu
v
v
v w

3 / 2

1/ 2
3 / 2

i Lu
i
Lv
i Lw

JUNE 2002

Then according to p - q theory, the instantaneous real power p L and the


instantaneous imaginary (reactive) power q L are calculated.

v
pL
q v

v i L
v i L

where

88

p L pL p L ~
pL

DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.

q L qL q L ~
qL

DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

The conventional active power is corresponding to pL, the conventional reactive


~
power to q L and the negative sequence to the 2 f components of p L and q L.
The commands of the three-phase compensating currents injected by the
shunt active conditioner, iCu , iCv and iCware given by:

iCu

i Cv
i
Cw

2
3

1
1/ 2
1/ 2

3/2
- v

3 / 2

v
v

p

q

p = Instantaneous real power command


q = Instantaneous reactive power command

89

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

Substituting

p ~
pL
Current Harmonics compensation is achieved

~
q q L

p ~
pL
Current Harmonics and low frequency variation

~
Components of reactive power compensation
q q L q L

p p L ~
pL
Current Harmonics and low frequency variation

Components of active and reactive power compensation


q q L ~
q L

90

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

HARMONIC DETECTION METHODS

i)

Load current detection iAF= iLh


It is suitable for shunt active filters which are installed near
one or more non-linear loads.

ii)

Supply current detection iAF= KS iSh


Is the most basic harmonic detection method for series
active filters acting as a voltage source vAF.

iii) Voltage detection


It is suitable for shunt active filters which are used as
Unified Power Quality Conditioners. This type of Active
Filter is installed in primary power distribution systems. The
Unified Power Quality Conditioner consists of a series and a
shunt active filter.

91

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER CONTROL


a) Shunt active filter control based on voltage detection

92

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

Using this technique the three-phase voltages, which are detected at the point of
installation, are transformed to v d and v q on the dq coordinates. Then two first
~
~
order high-pass filters of 5HZ in order to extract the ac components vd
and vq
from v d and v q
. Next the ac components are applied to the inverse dq
transformation circuit, so that the control circuit to provide the three-phase
harmonic voltages at the point of installation. Finally, amplifying each harmonic
voltage by a gain Kv produces each phase current reference.

iAF K V v h
The active filter behaves like a resistor 1/KV ohms to the external circuit for
harmonic frequencies without altering the fundamental components.

The current control circuit compares the reference current i AF with the actual
current of the active filter i AF and amplifies the error by a gain KI . Each phase
voltage detected at the point of installation, v is added to each magnified error
signal, thus constituting a feed forward compensation in order to improve current
controllability. As a result, the current controller
yields three-phase voltage

references. Then, each reference voltage v i is compared with a high frequency


triangular waveform to generate the gate signals for the power semiconductor
devices.

93

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b) Reference current calculation scheme using source currents (is),


load currents (iL) and voltages at the point of installation (vS).

94

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

3- HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER


Compensation of current harmonics and displacement power
factor can be achieved simultaneously.

95

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

In the current harmonic compensation mode, the active filter improves the
filtering characteristic of the passive filter by imposing a voltage harmonic
waveform at its terminals with an amplitude
VCh KISh

96

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

If the AC mains voltage is pure sinusoidal, then

ISh
ZF

I Lh K Z F ZS

THDi

ZF

I
Lh K ZF ZS

h 2
IS1

THDi decreases if K increases.


The larger the voltage harmonics generated by the active filter a better filter
compensation is obtained.
A high value of the quality factor defines a large band width of the passive
filter, improving the compensation characteristics of the hybrid topology.
A low value of the quality factor and/or a large value in the tuned factor
increases the required voltage generated by the active filter necessary to
keep the same compensation effectiveness, which increases the active filter
rated power.

97

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Displacement power factor correction is achieved by controlling the voltage


drop across the passive filter capacitor.

VC VT

Displacement power factor control can be achieved since at fundamental


frequency the passive filter equivalent impedance is capacitive.

98

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER

Single-phase equivalent circuit

99

IEEE PESC-02

Single-phase equivalent circuit


for 5th Harmonic

JUNE 2002

This active filter detects the 5th harmonic current component that flows into
the passive filter and amplifies it by a gain K in order to determine its
voltage reference which is given by

vAF K i F5
As a result, the active filter acts as a pure resistor of K ohms for the 5 th
harmonic voltage and current. The impedance of the hybrid filter at the 5 th
harmonic frequency, Z5 is given by

Z5 j5L F

K0

The active filter presents a negative resistance to the external


Circuit, thus improving the Q of the filter.

K rF

10

1
rf K
j5C F

VBUS5 0 ,

IEEE PESC-02

IS5

1
VS5
j5L T

JUNE 2002

CONTROL CIRCUIT
The control circuit consists of two parts; a circuit for extracting the 5 th
current harmonic component from the passive filter iF and a circuit
that adjusts automatically the gain K. The reference voltage for the
active filter

v AF K i F5

HARMONIC-EXTRACTING CIRCUIT
The extracting circuit detects the three-phase currents that flow into
the passive filter using the AC current transformers and then the -
coordinates are transformed to those on the d-g coordinates by
using a unit vector (cos5t, sin5t) with a rotating frequency of five
times as high as the line frequency.

10

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SERIES ACTIVE FILTERS


By inserting a series Active Filter between the AC source and the load
where the harmonic source is existing we can force the source current to
become sinusoidal. The technique is based on a principle of harmonic
isolation by controlling the output voltage of the series active filter.

Equivalent Circuit

10

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

- The series active filter exhibits high impedance to harmonic current


and consequently blocks harmonic current flow from the load to the
source.

VC Output voltage of the A.F. KGIS


IS

ZLIL
VS

ZS ZL KG ZS ZL KG

(61)

(62)

G = Equivalent transfer function of the detection circuit of

harmonic current, including delay time of the control


circuit.

G1 0

10

G h 1

IEEE PESC-02

(63)

JUNE 2002

K = A gain in pu ohms
The voltage distortion of the input AC source VSh is much smaller
than the current distortion.

K ZL h

If

and

K ZS ZL h

(64)

Then

VC ZL I Lh VSh

IS 0

10

(65)

(66)

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

HYBRID SERIES AND SHUNT


ACTIVE FILTER

At the Point of Common Coupling provides:


Harmonic current isolation between the sub transmission and the
distribution system (shunt A.F)
Voltage regulation (series A.F)
Voltage flicker/imbalance compensation (series A.F)

10

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

SELECTION OF AF S FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS


AF Configuration with higher number of * is more preferred
Compensation for
Specific Application

10

Active Filters
Active
Series

Active
Shunt

Hybrid of
Active Series
and Passive
Shunt

Hybrid of
Active Shunt
and Active
Series

Current Harmonics

**

***

Reactive Power

***

**

Load Balancing

Neutral Current

**

Voltage Harmonics

***

Voltage Regulation

***

Voltage Balancing

***

Voltage Flicker

**

***

Voltage Sag&Dips

***

IEEE PESC-02

*
**

**

**

*
*

**

JUNE 2002

CONCLUSIONS

10

Solid State Power Control results in harmonic pollution above the tolerable limits.
Harmonic Pollution increases industrial plant downtimes and power losses.
Harmonic measurements should be made in industrial power systems in order (a) aid
in the design of capacitor or filter banks, (b) verify the design and installation of
capacitor or filter banks, (c) verify compliance with utility harmonic distortion
requirements, and (d) investigate suspected harmonic problems.
Computer software programs such as PSPICE and SIMULINK can be used in order to
obtain the harmonic behavior of an industrial power plant.
The series LC passive filter with resonance frequency at 4.7 is the most popular filter.
The disadvantages of the the tuned LC filter is its dynamic response because it
cannot predict the load requirements.
The most popular Active Filter is the parallel or shunt type.
Active Filter technology is slowly used in industrial plants with passive filters as a
hybrid filter. These filters can be used locally at the inputs of different nonlinear loads.
Active Filter Technology is well developed and many manufactures are fabricating
Active filters with large capacities.
A large number of Active Filters configurations are available to compensate harmonic
current, reactive power, neutral current, unbalance current, and harmonics.
The active filters can predict the load requirements and consequently they exhibit very
good dynamic response.
LC tuned filters can be used at PCC and the same time active filters can be used
locally at the input of nonlinear loads.

IEEE PESC-02

JUNE 2002

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

10

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES ON HARMONIC TREATMENT


IEEE Std. 519-1992, IEEE Recommended Practices and
Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems,
1993.
IEC Sub-Committee 77B report, Compatibility Levels in Industrial
Plants for Low Frequency Conducted Disturbances, 1990.
IEC Sub-Committee 77A report, Disturbances Caused by
Equipment Connected to the Public Low-Voltage Supply System
Part 2 : Harmonics , 1990 (Revised Draft of IEC 555-2).
UK Engineering Recommendation G.5/3: Limits for Harmonics in
the UK Electricity Supply System, 1976.
CIRGE WG 36.05 Report, Equipment producing harmonics and
Conditions Governing their Connection to the Mains power
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PASSIVE HARMONIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUES


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[18] J. Lai and T.S. Key, Effectiveness of Harmonic Mitigation


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ACTIVE HARMONIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUES


H. Akagi, New trends in active filters for Power conditioning,
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MODELING
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N.K. Madora and A. Kusko, Computer-Aided Design and Analysis of
Power-Harmonic Filters IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol.
36, No. 2, March/April 2000, pp.604-613.

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