POWER SYSTEMS
Presented by
Stefanos Manias
IEEE PESC02
JUNE 2002
CONTACT INFORMATION
Stefanos N. Manias
National Technical University of Athens
Phone: +30107723503
FAX: +30107723593
Email: manias@central.ntua.gr
Mailing Address
National Technical University of Athens
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
9, Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15773 Zografou
Athens, Greece
IEEE PESC02
JUNE 2002
PLAN OF PRESENTATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
DEFINITIONS
CATEGORIES OF POWER QUALITY VARIATIONS
HARMONIC DISTORTION SOURCES IN INDUSTRIAL POWER
SYSTEMS
EFFECTS OF HARMONICS ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
HARMONIC MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS
HARMONIC STANDARDS
HARMONIC MITIGATING TECHNIQUES
GENERAL PASSIVE AND ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN PROCEDURES
DESIGN EXAMPLES
CONCLUSIONS
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HARMONIC SOURCES
a) Current Source nonlinear load
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TYPE OF
NONLINEAR LOAD
TYPICAL WAREFORM
THD%
1.0
80%
(high 3rd
component)
0.5
C u r en t
1
Uncontrolled
Rectifier
0.0
0.5
1.0
10
20
30
40
Time (mS)
1.0
0.5
0.0
C ur r e nt
1
Semicontrolled
Rectifier Bridge
0.5
1.0
10
20
30
40
Time (mS)
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
80%
C ur r e nt
6 Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and without
input reactor filter
10
20
30
40
5, 7, 11, .
Time (mS)
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JUNE 2002
1.0
0.5
0.0
40%
5, 7, 11, ..
C u r ent
6  Pulse Rectifier
with output voltage
filtering and with 3%
reactor filter or with
continues output
current
0.5
1.0
10
20
30
40
Time (mS)
1.0
0.5
0.0
C ur r e n t
6  Pulse Rectifier
with large output
inductor
28%
5, 7, 11, ..
0.5
1.0
10
20
Time (mS)
30
40
1.0
0.5
0.0
15%
11, 13, ..
C u r e nt
12  Pulse Rectifier
0.5
1.0
10
20
Time (mS)
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30
40
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P.U PULSE
1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
1.00
0.2
0.143
0.09
0.077
0.059
0.053
0.04
HARMONIC
P.U PULSE
1
5
7
11
13
THD
1.00
0.030.06
0.020.06
0.050.09
0.030.08
7.5%14.2%
5.6%
5.6%
2.8%
2.8%
7.0%
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DEFINITIONS
Co C h cos ht h
h 1
1 T
C h A 2h B2h
C o o f ( t )dt ,
T
2 T
A h o f ( t ) cos(ht )dt
T
2 T
B h o f ( t ) sin( ht )dt
T
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
h = harmonic order
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h 2
THDi %
Vh
V1
100
Ih
h 2
I1
100
Vh hth
I h hth
~
VH RMS value of the voltage distortion
14
(5)
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(6)
~2
V
h
h 2
JUNE 2002
~
IH
~
I
~
V
~2
Ih
h 2
(7)
h 1
~2
Vh
(8)
h 1
THD % HF
Drive kVA
100
SC kVA
HF Harmonic Factor =
15
~2
Ih
h 2 I 2h
h 5
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(9)
/ I1
(10)
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~~
P V Ii,1 cos 1
(11)
~~
~~
Q V Ii,1 sin 1 , S V I
D Distortion VA S2 P 2 Q 2
16
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(12)
(13)
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~ ~
~
D S V 2 Ii,21 V 2
2
~2
Ii,h
(14)
h 2
P Ii,1
cos 1
True Power Factor
S I
(15)
~ ~
~ ~
P Vh Ih cos h , Q Vh Ih sin h
h 1
D Distortion Power
17
h 1
SnmS*nm
n m
n m
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(16)
*
S
S
n m
(17)
n m
n m
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(18)
S2 P 2 Q 2 D 2
~ 2~ 2
~~ 2 ~~
V
I
V
h h 1 I1 V1 IH
h 1
~ ~
VH IH
2 V~H ~I1 2
S12 S2N
(19)
~~
S1 Fundamental Apparent Power V1 I1
S N Nonfundamental Apparent Power
~~ 2 ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ 2
S2N V1 IH VH I1 VH IH
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~~
V1 IH Current Distortion Power
(20)
~ ~
VH I1 Voltage Distortion Power
(21)
~ ~
VH IH Harmonic Apparent Power
(22)
(23)
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EXAMPLE 1
SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGENONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
A periodic, sinusoidal voltage of instantaneous value v 200 2 sin t
Is applied to a nonlinear load impedance. The resulting instantaneous current is
given by:
Solution
v 200 2 sin t
The presence of the nonlinearity causes frequency components of current (i.e. the
second and third harmonic terms) that are not present in the applied voltage.
The rms voltage and current at the supply are:
~
V 200V
~2
I 20 2 10 2 102
6 102 A 2
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~ 2~ 2
S V I 2002 6 10 2 24 106 VA 2
2
~~
P V I1 cos 1
1 = displacement angle between the fundamental of
the voltage and the fundamental of the current
4000
W
2
~~
Q V I1 sin 1
200 20 sin 45o
22
4000
VA
2
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~I ~I
~I ~I
200 10 10 8 10
~
D2 V2
~
V2
2
1
2
3
VA 2
~ ~
P2 Q2 D2 V2 I 2
~~
~
P V I1 cos 1 I1
cos 1
PF power factor
~~
S
VI
I
1
Displacement factor cos 1
0.707
2
I
20
Distortion factor 1
0.817
I
600
Therefore, the power factor is
PF
23
1 2
0.577
2 6
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EXAMPLE 2
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGERL LOAD
f1 50HZ.
~ ~2 ~2
V V1 V5
200 2 200 2
Therefore
~
V 283V
Z1 4 j10
Z1 10.8
1 tan 1 10 / 4 68.2o
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5 51 50
Z5 4 j50
Z5 50
5 tan 1 50 / 4 85.4o
The instantaneous load current is given by
200
200
sin t 68.2 o
sin 5t 30o 85.4o
50
10.8
~
The rms load current I
is therefore given by
i 2
~ 2 ~
~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 V1
V5
I I1 I5
Z
Z1
5
18.52 2 4 2 359A 2
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~ ~
2
S2 V 2 I 2 28.72 10 6 VA
Average power
In this case is
~ ~
~~
~ ~
P Vn In cos L V1 I1 cos 1 V2 I2 cos 2 ...
1
PF
26
P
S
1440
28.72 10
0.27
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EXAMPLE 3
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
iL
Note that the presence of the load nonlinearity causes a frequency component of
load current (I.e. the third harmonic term) that is not present in the supply
voltage.
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~
V 2 200 2 200 2 8 10 4 V 2
~2
IL 202 102 102 6 102 A 2
~
~
The load apparent voltamperes SL therefore has a value defined in terms V and I
L
~ ~
2
S2L V 2 IL2 48 106 VA
iR , iX , iD
2
~2
ILR
20 cos 45o 10 cos 30 o
11
10 2 A 2
4
are given by
2
2
9
~2
ILX
20 sin 45o 10 sin 30 o 10 2 A 2
4
i D 2 10 sin 3t 60 o
~2
ILD
10 2 A 2
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Note that current components i R , i X contain only those harmonic terms which
are common to both voltage and current. These are therefore consistent with the
n1 terms.
The rms load current components ILR , ILX , ILD are found, as expected to sum
~
to the total rms load current IL
11 9
~2 ~2 ~2
~
Components
2
LR
~ 2 ~ 2 11 2
2
V ILR 10 8 10 4 22 10 6 VA
4
2
LX
~ 2~ 2 9 2
2
V ILX 10 8 10 4 18 106 VA
4
2
LD
~ 2~ 2
2
V ILD 10 2 8 10 4 8 10 6 VA
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The component voltamperes are seen to sum to the total apparent voltamperes
~ ~
V
n1 In1 cos n1
PL2
100 20 2 10 3
10 6 2 2
30
o 2
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Q 2L
~ ~
V
n1 In1 sin n1
10 6 2 2 1 14.6 10 6 S2LX
D 2L S2L PL2 Q 2L
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SLR
Term
SLX
of the load apparent voltamperes that can be entirely compensated (for sinusoidal
supply voltage) or minimized (for nonsinusoidal supply voltage) by energystorage
methods.
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HARMONIC STANDARDS
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TABLE I
CURRENT DISTORTION LIMITS FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
(12069000 V)
37
Isc/IL
<11
35<h
TDD
<20*
4.0
2.0
1.5
0.6
0.3
5.0
20<50
7.0
3.5
2.5
1.0
0.5
8.0
50<100
10.0
4.5
4.0
1.5
0.7
12.0
100<1,000
12.0
5.5
5.0
2.0
1.0
15.0
>1,000
15.0
7.0
6.0
2.5
1.4
20.0
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TABLE II
LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION AND DISTORTION LIMITS
IEEE 5191992 STANDARTS
Special
Applications
General
System
Dedicated
System
Notch Depth
10%
20%
50%
THD (Voltage)
3%
5%
10%
Notch Area
(AN)*
16,400
22,800
36,500
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TABLE III
LIMITS OF THD%
IEEE 5191992 STANDARDS
39
SYSTEM
Nominal Voltage
Special
Application
General
Systems
Dedicated
Systems
120600V
3.0
5.0
8.0
5.0
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TABLE IV
PROPOSED IEC 5552 CLASS D STANDARDS for power from 50 to 600W
40
Harmonic
Relative limits
Milliamps/Watt
Absolute Limits
Amps
3.4
2.30
1.9
1.14
1.0
0.77
0.5
0.40
11
0.35
0.33
13
linear
extrapolation
0.15 (15/n)
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METHODOLOGY FOR
COMPUTING DISTORTION
Step 1: Compute the individual current harmonic distortion at each
dedicated bus using different Software programs (i.e. SIMULINK,
SPICE, e.t.c.) or tables that provide the current distortion of
nonlinear loads.
Step 2: Compute the voltage and current harmonic content at the Point of
Common Coupling (PCC) which is located at the input of the
industrial power system.
 Each individual harmonic current at the PCC is the sum of
harmonic current contribution from each dedicated bus.
 The load current at PCC is the sum of the load current
contribution from each dedicated bus.
 The maximum demand load current at PCC can be found by
computing the load currents for each branch feeder and multiply
by a demand factor to obtain feeder demand. Then the sum of all
feeder demands is divided by a diversity factor to obtain the
maximum demand load current.
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Step 3: Choose a base MVA and base KV for the system use the following
equations in order to compute individual and total current and
voltage harmonic distortions at PCC and any other point within the
power system.
3
MVA
10
b
(24)
Ib= Base current in Amps
Amps
3kVb
Zs = System impedance =
MVAb= Base MVA,
MVA b
MVA sc
p.u.
(25)
I
h h Zs 100 Volts
Ib
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THD %
2 1
Vh 2
h 2
V1
100
2
2
Ih
THD i % h 2 100
I1
(27)
h = harmonic order
IH = Percent individual harmonic distortion =
Ih
100
IL
(28)
Isc MVA sc
(29)
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h 1
Ih
IL
2
(30)
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Step 4: If the analysis is being performed for CSItype drives then the area
of the voltage notch AN should also be computed.

(31)
AN1 , AN2 , are the notch areas contribution of the different busses
A N1
Source inductance
A NDR1
Source inductance the sum of inductances from PCC to the drive
(32)
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TYPES OF FILTERS
1) Parallelpassive filter for currentsource nonlinear loads
Harmonic Sinc
Low Impedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = VT (Load Harmonic current + reactive current of the filter)
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Harmonic dam
Highimpedance
Cheapest
VA ratings = Load current (Fundamental drop across filter + Load Harmonic Voltage)
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As it can be seen from the power distribution circuit the powerfactorcorrection capacitor bank, which is connected on the 480 Volts bus, can
create a parallel resonance between the capacitors and the system
source inductance.
The single phase equivalent circuit of the distribution system is shown
below.
Rtot
VS
Ltot
IS
If
Ih
AC Source
Harmonic
Load
Z in
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2
kVLL
X
R sys
cos tan 1
,
MVA sc
R
2
kVLL
1 X
Xsys
sin tan
,
MVA sc
R
R sys
Xsys
R sys
Xsys
(33)
(34)
2
1000 kVLL
X tr X pu
kVA tr
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(36)
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R tot R sys R tr
(37)
X tot Xsys X tr
Xc
2
1000 kVcap
(39)
kVAR cap
1
X c
Xc
(40)
1
C
X tot
L tot
60
(38)
(41)
X tot
2 f
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The impedance Zin looking into the system from the load, consists of the
parallel combination of source impedance R
and the
jX tot
tot
capacitor impedance
Zin
R tot jL tot j / C
1
R tot jL tot j
C
1
1
o L tot
,
fo
o C
2 o
(43)
(44)
The equation for Zin can be used to determine the equivalent system
impedance for different frequencies. The harmonic producing loads can
resonate (parallel resonance), the above equivalent circuit. Designating
the parallel resonant frequency by (rad/sec)
or (HZ)
f o and equating the
o
inductive and capacitive reactances.
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Harmonic current components that are close to the parallel resonant frequency are amplified.
Higher order harmonic currents at the PCC are reduced because the capacitors are low
impedance at these frequencies.
The figure below shows the effect of adding capacitors on the 480 Volts bus for power factor
correction.
This figure shows that by adding some typical sizes of power factor correction capacitors will
result in the magnification of the 5 th and 7th harmonic components, which in turns makes it
even more difficult to meet the IEEE 5191992 harmonic current standards .
62
 Power factor correction capacitors should not be used without turning reactors in case the
adjustable speed drives are >10% of the plant load.
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EXAMPLE
Let us examine an industrial plant with the following data:
Medium voltage = 20KVLL

63
 For power factor correction capacitors the following cases are examined:
a.
200 KVAR
b.
400 KVAR
c.
600 KVAR
d.
800 KVAR
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The parallel resonant frequencies for every case of power factor correction is calculated as
follows:
20
sin tan
250
2.4 1.4769
20 2
R sys
cos tan 1 2.4 0.6154
250
2
X sys
20
50
0.4
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1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.8
200
1
C
3.98 10 3 F
2 50 0.8
fo
1
2 37.50 10 6 3.98 10 3
412.18HZ
For 200 KVAR, the harmonic order at which parallel resonance occurs is:
h 412.18 50 8.24
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Case b:
1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.4
400
C 7.96 10 3 F
f o 291.45HZ
h 5.83
Case c:
1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.267
600
C 11.94 10 3 F
f o 237.97 HZ
h 4.76
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Case d:
1000 0.4 2
Xc
0.2
800
C 15.92 10 3 F
f o 206.08HZ
h 4.12
It is clear for the above system that in the 600 KVAR case, there
exists a parallel resonant frequency f o close to the 5th harmonic.
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f os
1
1
2 Lf C 2
2
f
1000
kV
1
2 f X c
cap
Lf
C 2 f os 2 2 f os 2 2 f os 2 kVAR cap
(46)
1
o L tot o L f
0
o C
fo
2 L tot Lf C 2
(parallel resonance)
Also
R tot jL tot
If I h
R tot j L tot L f 1 C
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Is I h
j Lf 1 / C
R tot j L tot Lf 1 C
Vh Is R tot jL tot
R tot jL tot
(49)
(50)
Zin
1
R tot jL tot jLf j
C
R tot jL tot
R tot j
72
j L f j
1
L tot L f
C
jL f j
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Lf
KVcap= 0.4 ,
2
50 1000 0.4
2 235 2 600
KVARcap= 600
68.45 10 6 H 38.45H
fo
with
fo
L tot Lf C
L tot 37.55 10 6 H
L f 38.45 10 6 H
C 11.94 103 F
1
2 76 10 6 11.94 103
h 167.16 / 50 3.43
73
we have
167.16HZ
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KVAR
C(mF)
Without Lf
200
3.98
8.80
115.3H
4.08
400
7.96
6.22
57.7H
3.66
600
11.94
5.08
38.45H
3.43
800
15.92
4.40
29.5H
3.08
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With Lf
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i

motor
+
v

380kw/490rpm
compens
T
Ground (i nput)
V1
Ground (output)1
Current Measurement4
Gnd
+
v

voltage
Series RLC Bra nch
Scope3
Source
Scope1
itot
Scope2
i

Scope4
Scope
Source1
chock2%5
chock2%3
chock2%1
AC Voltage Source
Ground (input)8
Ground (input)4
Ground (input)5
Ground (output)
Current Measurement5
i

i

Current Measurement3
Bus Bar (hori z)7
AC Current Source7
AC Current Source4
AC Current Source5
AC Current Source8
AC Current Source6
AC Current Source3
Bus Bar (hori z)6
Ground (input)2
Ground (input)3
Current Measurement1
AC Current Source
Bus Bar (horiz)
Ground (input)1
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SIMULINK RESULTS
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SIMULINK RESULTS
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ACTIVE FILTERING
Parallel type
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Series type
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25
500
20
[% I1]
I
[A]
30
500
15
10
1500
5
0
2500
0
10
15
20
25
Time [ms]
30
35
40
11
14
17
Harmonics
20
23
Input current of a 6pulse Rectifier driving a DC machine without any input filtering
35%
30%
2500
25%
[%I1]
I Dynacomp [A]
5000
20%
15%
10%
2500
5%
5000
0%
10
20
30
40
Time [ms]
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11
14
17
20
23
Harmonics
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1000
14
12
10
[% U1]
U [V]
500
0
8
6
4
500
2
1000
0
10
15
20
25
Time [ms]
30
35
40
11
14
17
Harmonics
11
14
17
Harmonics
23
14
12
500
10
[% U]
U [V]
20
8
6
4
500
2
1000
0
10
15
20
25
Time [ms]
30
35
40
0
2
20
23
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LF
Equivalent circuit
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Easy to be installed.
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Source voltage
Load current
Source current
A. F. output current
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IC GI L
G1 0
(52)
G h 1
ZL
VS
I LH
ZL
ZL
ZS
ZS
1 G
1 G
ZL
1
VS
1 G
IL
I LH
ZL
1 G Z ZL
ZS
S
1 G
1 G
IS
If
ZL
ZS h
1 G h
(53)
(54)
(55)
I C I Lh
(56)
ISh 1 G I LHh 1 G
84
VSh
0
ZL
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I Lh I LHh
VSh
ZL
(58)
Equation (55) is the required condition for the parallel A.F. to cancel
the load harmonic current. Only G can be predesign by the A.F. while
Zs and ZL are determined by the system.
IS
I LH
(59)
1 G
(60)
1 G h 1
ZS
= Source impedance
I LH
85
Equation (59) shows that the compensation characteristics of the A.F. are not
influenced by the source impedance, Zs. This is a major advantage of the A.F.
with respect to the passive ones.
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VdC
C
The DC bus nominal voltage, VdC, must be greater than or equal to line voltage
peak in order to actively control i C .
The selection of the interface inductance of the active filter is based on the
compromise of keeping the output current ripple of the inverter low and the same
time to be able to track the desired source current.
The required capacitor value is dictated by the maximum acceptable voltage
ripple. A good initial guess of C is:
2
VdC Vn
t
max i Cdt
3
Also
LF
0
di L
C
max
v Cmax
dt
Vn = peak lineneutral voltage
86
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PQ THEORY
For identifying the harmonic currents in general the method of computing
instantaneous active and reactive power is used.
Transformation of the threephase voltages v u , v v and v w and the threephase load currents i Lv , i Lu and i Lw into  orthogonal coordinate.
v
v
i L
i
L
87
2 1
3 0
1/ 2
2 1
3 0
1/ 2
3/2
3/2
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1/ 2
vu
v
v
v w
3 / 2
1/ 2
3 / 2
i Lu
i
Lv
i Lw
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v
pL
q v
v i L
v i L
where
88
p L pL p L ~
pL
q L qL q L ~
qL
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iCu
i Cv
i
Cw
2
3
1
1/ 2
1/ 2
3/2
 v
3 / 2
v
v
p
q
89
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Substituting
p ~
pL
Current Harmonics compensation is achieved
~
q q L
p ~
pL
Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
~
Components of reactive power compensation
q q L q L
p p L ~
pL
Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
90
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i)
ii)
91
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92
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Using this technique the threephase voltages, which are detected at the point of
installation, are transformed to v d and v q on the dq coordinates. Then two first
~
~
order highpass filters of 5HZ in order to extract the ac components vd
and vq
from v d and v q
. Next the ac components are applied to the inverse dq
transformation circuit, so that the control circuit to provide the threephase
harmonic voltages at the point of installation. Finally, amplifying each harmonic
voltage by a gain Kv produces each phase current reference.
iAF K V v h
The active filter behaves like a resistor 1/KV ohms to the external circuit for
harmonic frequencies without altering the fundamental components.
The current control circuit compares the reference current i AF with the actual
current of the active filter i AF and amplifies the error by a gain KI . Each phase
voltage detected at the point of installation, v is added to each magnified error
signal, thus constituting a feed forward compensation in order to improve current
controllability. As a result, the current controller
yields threephase voltage
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94
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95
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In the current harmonic compensation mode, the active filter improves the
filtering characteristic of the passive filter by imposing a voltage harmonic
waveform at its terminals with an amplitude
VCh KISh
96
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ISh
ZF
I Lh K Z F ZS
THDi
ZF
I
Lh K ZF ZS
h 2
IS1
97
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VC VT
98
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99
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This active filter detects the 5th harmonic current component that flows into
the passive filter and amplifies it by a gain K in order to determine its
voltage reference which is given by
vAF K i F5
As a result, the active filter acts as a pure resistor of K ohms for the 5 th
harmonic voltage and current. The impedance of the hybrid filter at the 5 th
harmonic frequency, Z5 is given by
Z5 j5L F
K0
K rF
10
1
rf K
j5C F
VBUS5 0 ,
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IS5
1
VS5
j5L T
JUNE 2002
CONTROL CIRCUIT
The control circuit consists of two parts; a circuit for extracting the 5 th
current harmonic component from the passive filter iF and a circuit
that adjusts automatically the gain K. The reference voltage for the
active filter
v AF K i F5
HARMONICEXTRACTING CIRCUIT
The extracting circuit detects the threephase currents that flow into
the passive filter using the AC current transformers and then the 
coordinates are transformed to those on the dg coordinates by
using a unit vector (cos5t, sin5t) with a rotating frequency of five
times as high as the line frequency.
10
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Equivalent Circuit
10
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ZLIL
VS
ZS ZL KG ZS ZL KG
(61)
(62)
G1 0
10
G h 1
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(63)
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K = A gain in pu ohms
The voltage distortion of the input AC source VSh is much smaller
than the current distortion.
K ZL h
If
and
K ZS ZL h
(64)
Then
VC ZL I Lh VSh
IS 0
10
(65)
(66)
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10
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10
Active Filters
Active
Series
Active
Shunt
Hybrid of
Active Series
and Passive
Shunt
Hybrid of
Active Shunt
and Active
Series
Current Harmonics
**
***
Reactive Power
***
**
Load Balancing
Neutral Current
**
Voltage Harmonics
***
Voltage Regulation
***
Voltage Balancing
***
Voltage Flicker
**
***
Voltage Sag&Dips
***
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*
**
**
**
*
*
**
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CONCLUSIONS
10
Solid State Power Control results in harmonic pollution above the tolerable limits.
Harmonic Pollution increases industrial plant downtimes and power losses.
Harmonic measurements should be made in industrial power systems in order (a) aid
in the design of capacitor or filter banks, (b) verify the design and installation of
capacitor or filter banks, (c) verify compliance with utility harmonic distortion
requirements, and (d) investigate suspected harmonic problems.
Computer software programs such as PSPICE and SIMULINK can be used in order to
obtain the harmonic behavior of an industrial power plant.
The series LC passive filter with resonance frequency at 4.7 is the most popular filter.
The disadvantages of the the tuned LC filter is its dynamic response because it
cannot predict the load requirements.
The most popular Active Filter is the parallel or shunt type.
Active Filter technology is slowly used in industrial plants with passive filters as a
hybrid filter. These filters can be used locally at the inputs of different nonlinear loads.
Active Filter Technology is well developed and many manufactures are fabricating
Active filters with large capacities.
A large number of Active Filters configurations are available to compensate harmonic
current, reactive power, neutral current, unbalance current, and harmonics.
The active filters can predict the load requirements and consequently they exhibit very
good dynamic response.
LC tuned filters can be used at PCC and the same time active filters can be used
locally at the input of nonlinear loads.
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REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
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DEFINITIONS
[7] J. Arriilaga, D.A. Bradley, and P.S. Bodger, Power System
Harmonics,New York: Wiley, 1985.
[8] N. Shepherd and P. Zand, Energy flow and power factor in
nonsinusoidal circuits, Cambridge University Press, 1979.
EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
[9] J.M. Bowyer, ThreePart Harmony: System Interactions Leading
to a Divergent Resonant System, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1995, pp. 13411349.
[10] R.D. Hondenson and P.J. Rose, Harmonics: the Effects on power
Quality and Transformers, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications,
Vol. 30, No.3, May/June 1994, pp. 528532.
[11] J.S. Subjak and J. S. McQuilkin, HarmonicsCauses, effects,
Measurements and Analysis: An Update, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1990, pp. 1031042.
[12] P.Y. Keskar, Specification of Variable Frequency Drive Systems to
Meet the New IEEE 51 Standard, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol.32, No.2, March/April 1996, pp. 393402.
10
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[13] T.S. Key, Cost and Benefits of Harmonic Current Reduction for
SwitchMode Power Supplies in a Commercial Building, IEEE
Trans.
on
Industry
Applications,
Vol.
32,
No.
5,
September/October 1996, pp. 10171025.
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
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[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
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[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]
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[39] L. Zhou and Zi Li, A Novel Active Power filter Based on the Least
compensation Current Control Method, IEEE Trans. on Power
Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 4, July 2000, pp. 655659.
[40]
[41]
[42]
[43]
11
MODELING
IEEE Task Force on Modeling and Simulation, Modeling and
Simulation of the propagation of harmonies in electric power
networks, Part I: Concepts, models, and simulation techniques,
IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1996, pp. 452465.
IEEE Task Force on Modeling and Simulation Modeling and
Simulation of the propagation of harmonies in electric power
networks, Part II: Sample systems and examples, IEEE Trans. on
Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1996, pp. 466474.
W. Jewel et al, Filtering Dispersed harmonic Sources on
Distribution, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 3, July
2000, pp. 10451051.
N.K. Madora and A. Kusko, ComputerAided Design and Analysis of
PowerHarmonic Filters IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol.
36, No. 2, March/April 2000, pp.604613.
IEEE PESC02
JUNE 2002
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