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What is Genocide?

Refers to acts committed systematically with an intention to

destroy either the whole or a significant part of a racial, ethnic,
religious or national group.

What is Ethnic cleansing?

Refers to the acts committed for systematic removal of ethnic or

religious groups from a given geographical area so as to make it
religiously or ethnically homogenous.

The Difference


Nationalism and its extreme side

Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves

an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's

How intense is the relationship between nationalism and


Genocide explained
The 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
Genocide defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with
the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or
religious group, as such:
a. Killing members of the group;
b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the
c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life
calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in
d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the
e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Major genocides of the 20th century

The Armenian Genocide, Ottoman Empire,

Death toll: Up to 1.5 million

The Ukrainian Famine, 1932-1933

Death toll: 7 million

The Nanking Massacre, 1937-1938

The East Timor Genocide, 1975- 1999

Death toll: 120,000 (20% of the population)

The Mayan Genocide, Guatemala,

Death toll: Tens of thousands

Iraq, 1988
Death toll: 50-100,000

Death toll: 300,000 (50% of the pop)

The World War II Holocaust, Europe, 1942-45

Death toll: 6 million Jews, and millions of others,
including Poles, Roma, homosexuals, and the
physically and mentally handicapped,

The Cambodian Genocide, 1975-79

Death toll: 2 million

The Bosnian Genocide, 1991-1995

Death toll: 8,000

The Rwandan Genocide, 1994

Death toll: 800,000

The Darfur Genocide, Sudan ,

Death toll: debated. 100,000? 300,000? 500,000?

The 8 stages of Genocide

Understanding the genocidal process is one of the most

important steps in preventing future genocides.

The Eight Stages of Genocide were first outlined by Dr. Greg

Stanton, Department of State: 1996.

The first six stages are Early Warnings:









Stage 1: Classification

Us v/s Them

Distinguish by nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion.

Classification is a primary method of dividing society

and creating a power struggle between groups.

Belgians distinguished between Hutus and

Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type.
Another indicator to distinguish Hutu
farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the
number of cattle owned.

Stage 2: Symbolization

Names : Jew, German, Hutu, Tutsi.


Type of dressing

Group uniforms: Nazi Swastika armbands

Colors and religious symbols:

Yellow star for Jews

Blue checked scarf Eastern Zone in Cambodia

Stage 3: Dehumanization

One group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the
victim group seem subhuman

Hate propaganda in speeches, print and on hate radios vilify the

victim group

Dehumanization invokes superiority of one group and

inferiority of the other.

Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it ethnic

cleansing, or purification. Such euphemisms hide the
horror of mass murder

Der Strmer Nazi

Newspaper: The
Blood Flows; The
Jew Grins

Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda:

The Solution for Tutsi

Stage 4: Organization

Genocide is a group crime, so must be organized.

The state usually organizes, arms and financially supports the

groups that conduct the genocidal massacres. (State
organization is not a legal requirement - Indian partition.)

Plans are made by elites for a final solution of genocidal

The government and Hutu
Power businessmen provided
the militias with over 500,000
machetes and other arms and
set up camps to train them to
protect their villages by
exterminating every Tutsi.

Stage 5: Polarization

Extremists drive the groups apart.

Hate groups broadcast and print polarizing propaganda.

Laws are passed that forbid intermarriage or social interaction.

Political moderates are silenced, threatened and intimidated, and

Attacks are staged and blamed on targeted groups.
In Germany, the Reichstag fire was blamed on Jewish Communists

Stage 6: Preparation

Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying

symbols. Death lists are made

Victims are separated because of their ethnic or religious


Segregation into ghettoes is imposed, victims are forced into

concentration camps.

Victims are also deported to famine-struck regions for


Weapons for killing are stock-piled.

Extermination camps are even built. This build- up of killing

capacity is a major step towards actual genocide.

Stage 7: Extermination (Genocide)

Extermination begins, and becomes the mass killing legally called

"genocide." Most genocide is committed by governments.

The killing is extermination to the killers because they do not

believe the victims are fully human. They are cleansing the
society of impurities, disease, animals, vermin, cockroaches, or
Roma (Gypsies) in a
Nazi death camp

Stage 8: Denial

Denial is always found in genocide, both during and after it.

Continuing denial is among the surest indicators of further

genocidal massacres.


The Ottoman Empire : 1914

Armenia : Background

Armenia was a part of the Ottoman Empire. While the empire was
Muslim, Armenians remained Christians. They were tolerated,
but did not experience full equality under Islamic law.
In 1867, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, came to power and attempted to
stop the many revolutions within his empire. He did this mainly
by encouraging Muslim groups to settle in Armenian lands.

The Red Sultan

Sultan Abdul Hamid II,

also known as the Red
Sultan for his role in the

The Young Turks

In 1908, a group of young intellectuals over threw the sultancalled The Young Turks. This new leadership sought to make the
Ottoman Empire exclusively Turkish and Muslims.

In 1910, the Armenians were labeled enemies of Muslim Turkey

(due to not fitting the above description)


The first genocide of the 20th Century

Occurred in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1923
More than 1.5 million Armenians killed
2 million lived in the Ottoman Empire at that time
Nearly every Armenian lost a family member
Perpetrated by the Young Turk Government
Main reason for genocide: Turkification
Pretexts for genocide
Religious differences
Economic differences
Scapegoat for WWI military losses

Seeds of Genocide

The Ottoman Empire was in decline, losing territory, wealth, and

Nearly 500,000 Muslim refugees created by Balkan War settled in
and around Constantinople
Armenians were frequently subjected to massacres, kidnapping,
rape and robbery
As Christians, Armenians were second class citizens in Ottoman
Some Armenians resisted this mistreatment and agitated for

Preparing for Genocide

Special groups of Turks and Kurds, often made up of released

prisoners, were created to carry out the massacres
Most Armenian men were drafted into the army, then disarmed
and put into labor camps
Government officials, Muslim clerics and others spread rumors of
Armenians betraying Turkey, calling for punishment of the infidels
Community leaders arrested on April 24, 1915, and put to death
soon after

Talaat Pasha

Enver Pasha

Jemal Pasha

Interior Minister

Minister of War

Minister of the Navy

Leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress, or Young Turks

The Killings
April 24, 1915

Hundreds of Armenian intellectuals in

Constantinople, Symrna, and elsewhere are arrested
and later killed

With its able-bodied men in the Army, and without its

leadership, the Armenian population was defenseless

Use of new technologies

Women, children, and the elderly were loaded onto
trains and relocated, unable to return to their homes
Refugees by the hundreds were forced into caves,
fires were lit at the entrance and those inside were
killed by asphyxiation in primitive gas chambers

Implementing Genocide

Armed groups would come to a village, and take remaining ablebodied males to the outskirts of town and massacre them
Women, children and elderly then ordered to prepare for
deportation, valuables were registered and stored for safe
Caravans preyed upon by marauding bands, stole remaining
valuables, raped and killed
Girls carried off, children enslaved or raised as Kurds or Turks
Starvation and disease, exposure, brutality, massacre
Most of those that make it to the desert are killed

Massacre Sites


In 1914, there were 2,538 Armenian churches, 451 monasteries,

and nearly 2,000 schools

Today, outside of Istanbul, Armenians possess six churches, no

monasteries, and no schools

Nearly all moveable property was either confiscated by the

government, looted by mobs or seized during death marches
The sum of five million Turkish pounds, (around 33 tons of gold)
deposited by the Turkish
government at the ReichsBank in Berlin
in 1916 was in large part, perhaps wholly Armenian money."
- Sir James Baldwin, the former British prime


What is Nazism?

Nazism or National Socialism in full, is the ideology

and practice associated with the 20th-century German
Nazi Party and state.

Also promoted in other European countries with large

ethnic German communities, such as Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia.

the Germanic people were considered to be the purest

representation of Aryanism, and therefore the master

Opposed to Capitalism and Marxism.

Usually characterised as a form of fascism that

incorporates scientific racism and anti-Semitism.

People practicing this form of fascism were classified as


Nazism Rise and fall

By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler became the leader of the Nazi Party
and assumed control of the organisation.

Called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to

Jews or those of Jewish descent.

Heart of Hitlers political philosophy : anti-Semitism and anticommunism, disdain for parliamentary democracy and his belief in
Germanys right to territorial expansion.

Hitlers rise to power - Nazis established a one-party state, under

which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirables" elements
were marginalised, harassed and eventually imprisoned and killed.

Following the Holocaust and German defeat in the Second World

War, Nazism is almost extinct now.

Allies and Auxiliaries

Not just Axis v/s Allies
Client states





The Baltic states

Lithuania, Latvia,





The Holocaust : The stages of

ethnic cleansing

Defined as other


Removal of civil rights




Final Solution

Stage 1 : Defined as other

Jewish people were thought of as different

Nazis used stereotyping to enhance the mistrust some Germans
felt about the Jews
Mein Kampf - Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's problems
Nazis defined the Jews as a separate race
Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938
Attack on Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues; killed
many Jews
Began to send people to concentration camps.
Began centuries before the Holocaust and lasted throughout the
Holocaust because of propaganda

Click icon
icon to
to add
add picture

against the Jews
A chart posted in elementary
classrooms entitled "German Youth,
Jewish Youth; its purpose was to help
Aryan children distinguish friend from





Stage 2 : Removal of civil rights

Nuremberg Laws: laws were passed to deny Jewish people

equal rights.

Denied citizenship, prohibited from public office and denied

marriage rights.
Ethnic classification
used to differentiate
Jews from True

Public humiliation

Stage 3: Concentration

Formation of ghettos

Ghetto: a walled section of a city

Began when Germany invaded Poland in 1939

Establishment of concentration camps for Jews

The Ghetto
Forced labour

Ghetto ration card officially

allocates 300 calories per day

Lining up for water

Stage 4 : The Final Solution

Wansee Conference, January 20, 1942: proclaimed the Jewish

population in Europe was to be eliminated entirely

Liquidation: Took place in the camps with gas (Zyklon B) &


Genocide : Executions
Einsatzgruppen : Soldiers whose job
was to execute civilians and Jews in
Nazi-occupied territory.

Genocide : Death Camps

Death camps were established in occupied Poland for mass

Auschwitz-Birkenau : was the largest and most infamous.
Originally a POW camp.

Gas Chambers

Zyklon B

Prisoners would be put on wagons and disposed in ditches for later collection
while the next victims were undressing to enter the chamber


Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated by the soviet red army in 1945.

Mere 7,000 people alive.


The World must know what happened, and never forget

- General Dwight Eisenhower


About Rwanda

A sovereign state in central and east Africa

Capital Kigali

Gained independence from Belgium in 1962

Population 12,012,589 as per 2013 estimate

Languages spoken: Kinyarwanda , French , English

Composed of three ethnic groups : Hutu (84%), Tutsi (15%) and

Twa (1%)

Rwandan genocide: began on April 6,1994, continued for 100

days, mass slaughter of ethnic Tutsi and politically moderate
Hutu people by Hutu extremists

Rwandan Genocide

Tutsis and moderate Hutus

Hutu extremists

Rwandan Genocide : Background

Hutus and Tutsis shared a common past

Commencement of Europeans Tutsis and Hutus took a racial role

Germans colonized Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa

Encouraged pro-Tutsi policies

Belgium invaded in 1916 during first world war

Belgians used divide and rule policy

Promoted Tutsi supremacy gave them privileges like western style

education, health and other benefits which Hutus were excluded

Introduced an ethnic identification system- identity cards labelled

as Tutsi, Hutu, Twa or Naturalised

Rwandan Genocide : Background

Tension escalated between educated Tutsis and Hutu

emancipation movement led to Rwandan revolution in 1959

Hutu activists killed Tutsis and more than 1,00,000 had to seek
refuge in neighboring countries

As they struggled for independence , Belgians shifted status of the

two groups and the country voted to abolish monarchy in 1961
and the majority Hutus came to power

Rwanda and Burundi were separated and Rwanda gained

independence from Belgian rule in 1962

The exiled Tutsis formed armed groups and kept on attacking from
neighboring countries and Hutus responded with increased

Rwandan Genocide : Background

In 1973, Juvenal Habyarimana came to power in a miltary coup

Juvenal Habyarimana

Pro-Hutu discrimination continued but violence against Tutsis decreased and

economic prosperity increased

Twa remained marginalized forced out of forests by government- became beggars

In 1980s,Tutsis who had fled from Rwanda to Uganda had organized a rebel group
Rwanda Patriotic Front (RDP)

In 1990, RDP invaded northern Rwanada and started the Rwandan Civil war

Ethnic tensions began to increase, and the ideology that Tutsis wanted to enslave
and murder the Hutus , emerged

Rwandan Genocide : Background

Neither side had gained a decisive advantage

Habyarimana was forced to enter into a coalition with opposition

and signed Arusha Accords in 1993

This weakened Hutu hold on government and extremists feared

Tutsi being included in the government

Every party in Rwanda including the ruling party was split into
moderate and power wings

Several radical youth militia groups emerged, attached to the Power

wings of the parties; these included theInterahamwe, which was
attached to the ruling party, and Impuzamugambi linked to
CDR(Coalition for Defence Of Republic), ranks of Rwandan Army,
National Police which carried out massacres all over Rwanda

Preparation for Genocide

When it started is not clear : 1990 or 1992

Hutu civilians were being armed with hand weapons such as

machete and were being trained in combat Official reason was
civil defence to RPF threat though later the same ones were used
for committing genocide

Rwanda also purchased large number of grenades and munitions in

late 1990s

In March 1993, Hutu power compiled lists of traitors they planned to

kill and its possible that Habyrimanas name was on the list

The magazine called Kangura published Hutu Ten Commandments

set of racist guidelines for example Hutu who married a Tutsi was
a traitor, Hutu who did business with Tutsi was a traitor etc.

Preparation for Genocide

In October 1993 the President of Burundi,Melchior Ndadaye, who

had been elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu
president, was assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers.

The assassination caused shockwaves in Rwanda, reinforcing the

notion amongst the Hutu population that the Tutsi were their
enemy and could not be trusted.

The CDR(Coalition for Defence Of Republic) and the Power wings

of the other parties realized they could use this situation to their
advantage to persuade the Hutu population to carry out the

The idea of a "final solution," was now top of their agenda, and
they began actively planning it.

The Spark

However, On April 6th, 1994, airplane carying Rwandan

President Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien
Ntaryamira was shot down near Kigali airport, and this event
sparkled the Genocide and it began within few hours

Who is responsible for this assassination is not known though the

Hutu extremists profited the most and within 24 hours they took
over the government, blamed the Tutsis for the assassination and
began the slaughter

100 Days of Slaughter : The


Identification was facilitated using road blocks in urban areas where the
national identity cards were checked and Tutsis were killed using
machetes, clubs or knives

Government had names and addresses of all the Tutsis living in Rwandakillers went door to door

The Hutu extremists killed their political opponents i.e. Hutu moderates
and Tutsis including the Prime Minster and Uwilingiyimana and even the
ten Belgian U.N peacekeepers who tried to protect her

Places that were historically used for refuge were now places were mass
slaughter took place churches, hospitals and schools

One such massacreoccurred at Nyarubuye . More than 1,500 Tutsis

sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange and Local priest betrayed
them and Interahamwe used bulldozers to knock down the entire church

100 Days of Slaughter : The


Men, women and children were murdered . No one was spared

Most Victims were Killed in their own villages and towns by

neighbors usually by being hacked to death by machetes.

Those who did not get involved in the murders were often murdered

Rape was a weapon and used by the perpetrators of massacre

Thousands of Tutsi women, moderate Hutu women, Hutu women who

married Tutsis and Hutu women who hid Tutsis were the ones targeted

Further, the dead bodies were not buried , they were left where they were

Media also played a major role. RTLMC and also the state supported radio
- Radio Rwanda, encouraged to crush the cockroaches". These
cockroaches were Tutsis and Hutu moderates .

100 Days of Slaughter : The


The RTLMC also called for the Tutsi to cut down the tall trees, a
code phrase that meant that Hutus should start killing the Tutsis

Many RTLM broadcasts did announce names of specific

individuals to be killed and even information as to where to find
them i.e. home or work places or known hangout places . And
once they were killed, it was announced over the radio

RTLM was actually used to inspire and trigger killings by the

average Hutus . If they refused, they were given a choice either
to kill or be killed.

100 Days of Slaughter : The


The Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, and took control of the country
methodically, gaining control of the whole country by mid-July

RPF Commander General Paul

Kagame was the leader of
the invasion in 1994, and is
now the President of Rwanda.
In 2003 and 2010 Kagame won
elections and is still in power.

Immediately following the RPF takeover, around 2 million Hutus

(perpetrators) fled into the neighboring countries to avoid potential
Tutsi retribution. Thousands died of epidemics, which spread like
wildfire through to overcrowded refugee camps.

International Response

UNAMIR, the UN peacekeeping force in Rwanda, was present on

the ground throughout the course of the genocide. With disregard
to the violence portrayed in the national media, France, Belgium,
and the United States declined to send additional support,
despite UNAMIRs specific warnings to the UN Security Council in
early 1994, describing the Hutu militias plan for extermination.

The Security Council denied UNAMIRs request to intervene, and

in early April, the Belgian contingency of UNAMIRs force were
pulled out, due to the murder of ten Belgian soldiers. Almost
overnight, 4500 UNAMIR peacekeepers on the ground were
reduced to a mere 260

International Response

The international response to the Genocide was limited, with

major powers reluctant to strengthen the already
overstretchedUN peace keeping force

Some say that because initially moderate Hutus were also killed,
the conflict seemed more of a civil war to most countries

But some world powers did realize that it was a genocide but
didnt want to maybe pay for the personnel and supplies required
to stop it

The US administration didnt use the word genocide but diluted it

to acts of genocide to avoid public opinion that could demand
some sort of action and they didnt want to act.


Situation in India

Pessimistic impression of ethnic conflict.

Multiethnic .

In India ethnic tensions gets defused .

Hinduism follows non organic nationalism .

Ethnicity - Not class but caste

Ethno nationalism



Sikh Hindu conflict

Jammu and Kashmir

The northeastern borders

Cause of Riots

Economic distress

Economic disparities between communities

Political discontent

Ethnic conflict



Communal conflict

Escalation phase

Murderous cleansing

Prevention requires:

Early warning

Rapid response

Courts for accountability

Business Involvement