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DR.

NOOR MAZNI BINTI


ISMAIL
BLOCK D, ROOM # DG19
09 - 4245819
012 - 4257925

BFF1113
Engineering
Materials

LECTURE 1
NOOR MAZNI ISMAIL
FACULTY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

Recommended reference books:


1. William D.Callister, Jr., 2011. Materials Science &
Engineering: An Introduction, Sixth Edition, John
Wiley & Sons Inc.
2. Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid, 2010. Manufacturing
Engineering and Technology, Sixth Edition, Pearson
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
3. J.T. Black, Ronald A. Kohser, 2007. Materials & Processes in
Manufacturing, Tenth Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

6/30/15

Contribution of
assessment
1) ASSIGNMENTS

2) TEST 1
3)
3) TEST
TEST 2
2
4) FINAL
4)
FINAL
EXAMINATION
EXAMINATION

6/30/15

DISTRIBUTION
(%)

REMARKS

30 %

+- 3 assignments, 1 lab assignment


late submission is not ALLOWED.
student to solve each assignment
independently. No point given if
discovered assignment exactly the
same.
Discussion are allowed.

30
30 %
%

given during semester after a


sizeable of lessons are learned.
1 hours with 3 problems to solve.

40 %
40 %

3 hours examination with 4


3 hours to
examination
with 4
problems
solve.
problems
to solve.
40% of the final grade.
contributes
contributes 40% of the final grade.

Course Guideline:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
12.
13.
14.

Introduction to Materials
Fundamental of Materials Engineering & Manufacturing
Bonding and Properties
Crystal Structures & Properties
Imperfection in Solids
Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials
Physical Properties of Materials
Failure, Corrosion & Degradation of Materials
Metal Alloys
Phase Diagram
Phase Transformation Heat Treatment
Processing and Application of Metals
Structure and Properties of Ceramics
Applications and Processing of Ceramics
Structure of Polymeric Materials
Characteristics, applications, and Processing of Polymeric Materials
Composites

6/30/15

Introduction to Materials:
1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and
Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Materials
Materials in
in our
our live
live

Electronic
Electronic&&Electrical
Electrical
Mechanical
Mechanical
Chemical
Chemical
Civil
Civil&&Structural
Structural
Infrastructure
Infrastructure&&Transportation
Transportation
Aerospace
Aerospace
Military
Military
Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Entertainment
Entertainment

Why we need to study Mat. Sci. & Eng. ?


Cost?
Effective?
Fabrication?
Safety?
Mechanical Engineer
Civil & Structure Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Electronic Engineer
Aerospace Engineer
Chemical Engineer
Etc

Materials in our live Electrical & Electronic

Vacuum Tube

Transistor
(BJT)

MOSFET

IC & CMOS

Materials in our live Civil & Structural

Traditional
woodsteelconcretepoly
mer composite (made of
layers of glass fabric +
resins)
Advantages of Polymer
Composites
1) won't rust, or corrode
2) require no preservatives
3) light-weight, lighter
than aluminum, wood,
steel or concrete.
4) the lowest possible total
installed cost

Materials in our live Aerospace & Mechanical

Case Study:
The Space Shuttle Challenger Accident
Tragedy
On the morning of January 28, 1986,
the space shuttle Challenger blasted
off from the Kennedy Space Center in
Florida.
All Seven crew members died in the
explosion.
Why?
which blamed on faulty in the jointembrittlement of rubber O-rings

Materials in our live - Chemical

erials in our live Infrastructural & Transporta

Case Study:
Titanic

at the time of the collision,


the temperature of
the sea water was -2C.
Plain carbon steel had a
high ductile-brittle
transition temperature,
making it unsuitable for
service at low
temperatures;

What are Materials?


Materials
Substances from which
something is composed or made
from.
Development of human
civilization has been closely tied
to materials which have been

What are Engineering Materials


Engineering Materials
Materials used to produce
technical products.
Engineered materials with
desired properties.

Evolution of Materials
Prehistoric

MATERIALS
Stone
Age

Bronze
Age

Materials Alloy of
copper
existing
in nature.
stone,
wood,
clay

ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Iron
Age
(Industrial
Revolution)
Minimum
material
processing.
Produce better
material
properties to
those occurring
naturally
Iron, steel, other
metals.

Electric
Age
(Silicon
Age)
Designe
Nano
d
Material
Material
Age
s
Advance
Age
composites
Surface
treatment
Artificial layered

Prehistoric
Stone, clay, wood

Stone Age

Early in the developments of


human cultures, before the use
of metals

Tools & weapons were made of


stone

Bronze Age
Bronze (Cooper + tin + zinc)
The time in the development of
any human culture
Before introduction of iron, when
most tools and weapons were
made from bronze

Iron Age
Marks the period of development of
technology replacing bronze as the
basic material for tool implemention
and weapon
Last stage of the archaeological
sequence

ctrical Age (Silicon Age) and beyond

I.J. McColm, Special ceramic for modern applications: which? Why? How? in Ceramic Processing, R.A.
Terpstra, P.P.A.C. Pex, and A.H. De Vries Edns, Chapman & Hall, 1995.

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and
Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Discipline of Materials Study


Materials Science

Science - scientia (Knowledge)


Study of basic materials knowledge.

Investigation of the relationship between STRUCTURES


and PROPERTIES of materials

Materials Engineering
Engineer ingeneur

Used of Materials Science knowledge (fundamental) to design


and to produce materials with properties that will meet the
requirements of society.
Structure-Property correlations, designing or engineering the

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)

Combines both basic knowledge and applications and forms a


bridge between the basic sciences (physics, chemistry, and
mathematic) and the various engineering disciplines
(electrical, mechanical, manufacturing, chemical, civil, and
aerospace engineering).
Interdisciplinary nature.

Materials Selection Process


1.

Pick Application

Determine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,


magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2.

Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3.

Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape


ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
Selecting the RIGHT material.

To succeed in processing materials with a given set of


properties, it is necessary to understand the basis of
the properties from the atomic and molecular level, and
to understand how small differences in structure can lead
to large differences in observed properties.
4 components that are involved in design, production,
and utilization of materials.
Processing
Structure

IMPORTANT

Properties
Performance
How do these components interrelated?

1.0 What is Processing?


Multiple procedures to produce something
pre-determined.

2.0 What is Structure?


Structure

Electron within
individual atoms and
interaction with their
nuclei
Organization of atoms
or molecules relative to
one another
Direct observation
using microscope tools
Viewed by naked
eye

Arrangement
of its internal
components
Subatomic level
Atomic level
Microscopic level
Macroscopic
level

3.0 What is Property?


Properties
Materials trait in term
of the kind and
magnitude of response
to a specific imposed
stimulus

Material: Conductor
Stimulus: voltage
Response: Electric Current
PROPERTIES
Mechanical
Electrical
Thermal
Magnetic
Optical
Deteriorative

Property

Stimulus

Response

Mechanical

Applied load
or force

Deformation

Electrical

Electric field

Conductivity

Properties depend on structure

ex: hardness vs structure of steel


(d)

Hardness (BHN)

600
500
400

(c)
(a)

(b)
4m

300
200

30m

30m

100
0.01 0.1

30m

1
10 100 1000
Cooling Rate (C/s)

Processing can change structure

ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel

Data obtained from Figs. 10.21(a)


and 10.23 with 4wt%C composition,
and from Fig. 11.13 and associated
discussion, Callister 6e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
10.10; (b) Fig. 9.27;(c) Fig. 10.24;
and (d) Fig. 10.12, Callister 6e.

Optical property
Transmittance:

--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or


opaque depending on the material structure.
single crystal

polycrystal:
low porosity

polycrystal:
high porosity

Adapted from Fig. 1.2,


Callister 6e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by J.
Telford.)

Change of Properties

Heat Treatment

Structure
Structure

Adding other substances

Properties
Properties

What is Performance?

A measurement of how good a product is.

Tetrahedron Interrelationship:
Car body What is the right material
to use?
What is the strengthPerformance

Structure
Microstructure, What
features of the structure
limit the strength?

to density ratio?

How can
aerodynamic
Process
car chassis
be formed?

Property
High level of toughness and formability

TOPIC CONTENTS
1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Class of Materials
Solid
SolidMaterials
MaterialsClassification
Classification

Metal
Composite

Ceramic

Polymer

METALS:

Inorganic materials (one or more metallic


elements alloy)
Crystalline structure
May contain a small amount of non-metallic
elements
Good thermal & electrical conductors (large
numbers of non-localized electrons = electrons
are not bound to particular atoms)
Properties at room temperature (RT)
Strong and ductile (capable of large amounts
of deformation without fracture)
Stiff
Good strength
Dense
Resistance to fracture

CERAMICS:

Inorganic materials (metallic + non-metallic elements)


Oxides, nitrides, carbides
Crystalline, non-crystalline, or a mixture of both
Properties at RT
High melting point
High chemical stabilities
High hardness
High temperature strength
Brittle (lack ductility)
Poor electrical and thermal conductor.

POLYMERS:

Plastic and rubber materials


Organic materials
Long molecular chains/network containing C, H, and other
nonmetallic elements (O, N, Si)
Non-crystalline (mostly) or a mixture of both
Properties at RT
Low density
Mechanically flexible
Poor electrical conductor

COMPOSITES:

Mixture of two or more types of materials


A matrix phase + a reinforcing phase
Designed to ensure a combination of the best properties of
each component material.

Besides the above mentioned classification, we also have:


ADVANCED MATERIALS:

Materials that are utilized in high-tech application


(device/product that operates or functions using relatively
intricate and sophisticated principles)
DVD Players, Microprocesser, Liquid Crystal Display.
Semiconductor
Advanced
Materials

Biomaterials
Smart Material
Materials of the future

Nano-engineered
Material
Nano-material

SEMICONDUCTORS:

Electrical properties intermediate


between conductors and insulators
Electrical characteristics are extremely
sensitive to the presence of minute
concentration of impurity atoms, which
concentrations may be controlled over
very small spatial region
Conductivity increasing with temperature
BIOMATERIALS:

Components implanted into human body


for replacement of diseased or damaged
parts.
Must not produce toxic substances
Compatible with body tissues

SMART MATERIALS:

Materials that are able to sense changes in their


environments and then respond to these changes in
predetermined manners
Devices made from Smart Materials
Sensors (detects an input signal)

NANO-ENGINEERED MATERIALS:

Dimension <100 nm (~500 atom diameters)


Bottom-up technique
Top-down technique
Materials by design
Exp: carbon nanotube

End
Endof
ofTopic
Topic11

Summary
Use the right material for the job.
Understand the relation between properties,
structure, performance, and processing.
Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.

QUIZ
Nickel base superalloys are used in

structure of aircraft turbine engines. What


are the major properties of this metal that
make it suitable for this application?

Excellent mechanical
strength, creep
resistance at high
temperature, good
surface stability,
corrosion and oxidation
resistance

END OF LECTURE 1
Thank you