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Chapter 9
What is a chemical bond?
 Force that holds two atoms
What is an ionic bond?
 An electrostatic force that holds
oppositely charged particles
together in an ionic compound
 Compounds formed from metal
& nonmetal
Forms when….?
What are atoms always trying to
 Stability
 Complete set of valence
electrons… OCTECT
What is a covalent bond?
Chemical bond that results from sharing
of valence electrons
Occurs b/w nonmetal & a nonmetal
Balance b/w attractive and repulsive forces

2 Hydrogen Atoms

Sharing their 1 Ve-

Compound made when 2 or more atoms are
bonded covalently
Diatomic molecules
In nature, sometimes two atoms of the same
element are more stable when they are
covalently bonded than the individual atom
BrINClHOF (pronounced “Brinkle Hoff”)
Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2

Single Covalent Bonds
A single covalent bond –Atom shares 1 pair
(2) electrons.
Shared pairs – both elements count the
electron pair to achieve octet
Lone pairs – pair of electrons that are not
shared b/w the atoms
Lewis structures- Use electron dot diagram to
show how atoms are arranged in a molecule.
H Cl

 ..
Unshared or
Lone pair (LP)
shared or Bond pair
In the Fluorine Molecule…..
How many bonding pairs are there in each?
How many lone pairs are there each?

Multiple Covalent Bonds
Double covalent bonds share two
pairs of electrons.
CO2 O=C=O
Triple covalent bonds share three
pairs of electrons.
N2 :N=N:

Covalent Bond Formation in

In cre a se d o ve rla p

b rin g s th e e le ctro n s
a n d n u cle iclo se r
to g e th e r w h ile
sim u lta n e o u sly
d e cre a sin g e le ctro n -
e le ctro n re p u lsio n .
H o w e ve r, if a to m s
g e t to o clo se , th e
in te rn u cle a r
re p u lsio n g re a tly
ra ise s th e e n e rg y .
The attractive and repulsive
forces in covalent bonding must
be balanced.
Bond Length - In general, the closer the electrons are held
by the atoms, the shorter the bond length and the higher
the bond energy.

Multiple bonds result in stronger, shorter bonds.

Bond Energy - The amount of energy required to break a
bond. The greater the energy, the stronger the bond.

Bond breaking is an endothermic process, so bond breaking

enthalpies are positive.
Comparing Bond Length and Bond
Using the periodic table, but not Tables 9.2
and 9.3, rank the bonds in each set in
order of decreasing bond length and bond
(a)S F, S Br, S Cl
(b)C = O, C O, C O

Sigma (σ ) Bonds

 Sigma bonds are characterized by

 Head-to-head overlap.
 Cylindrical symmetry of electron density
about the internuclear axis.
Pi (π ) Bonds
Pi bonds are

characterized by
 Side-to-side overlap.
 Electron density
above and below
the internuclear
Single Bonds vs. Multiple
Single bonds are In a multiple bond
always σ bonds, one of the bonds is
because σ overlap a σ bond and the
is greater, resulting rest are π bonds.
in a stronger bond 
and more energy

Lewis Dot Structures
1.Determine the number of Valence e- for all
atoms in the molecule
a.Divide the Ve- by 2 to get pairs (2 dots or 1 line)
2.Decide on central atom (least electronegative
or furthest to the left).
a.Hydrogen & halogens are terminal atoms
3.Connect all atoms to the central atom by a
bonding pair (single line)
4.Place remaining pairs around all atoms before
moving on to central atom.
5.Check for octet (not H)
a.If atom does not have an octet, move lone pairs
from a terminal atom to create a double or a
triple bond.