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Philippines Under

Spanish Rule
De Pano, Ma. Fatima
Lejano, Anna Isabelle
Pandy, Jan Hillary
Que, Micaela
Yao, Selena

BRIEF HISTORY
Magellan Expedition (1518-1521)
Original destination is Maluku (spice islands-modern day
Indonesia)
Landed in Mactan, Cebu (March 17, 1521)
Magellan was killed by Lapu-Lapu in April 1521
One ship from the expedition made it back to Spain

Maluku and the Philippines


3 other expeditions followed after Magellans
Saavedra (1527-29), Villalobos (1541-46), Legazpi (1564)

Treaty of Zaragoza (1529)


King Charles V ceded his rights to Maluku to John III of
Portugal

BRIEF HISTORY
Villalobos Expedition
Departed Mexico and reached the coast of Mindanao
(Sarangani) in 1543
Eventually left Sarangani and surrendered to the
Portugese in Maluku
Greatest contribution: named Tandaya/Kandaya
(Leyte) as Les Phelipinas in honor of Prince Philip II

Legazpi-Urdaneta Expedition (1564)


Legazpi reached Cebu in 1565 and contracted blood
compacts with Si Katunaw and Si Gala at Bohol
Santo Nino of Cebu (first Spanish town established in
the Archipelago)

POLITICAL ASPECT
Governed by the King of Spain by
captaincy-general, through the vice
royalty of Nueva Espana (Mexico)
Bureaucracy was divided into different
levels: national/central, provincial/city,
municipal, barrio/barangay

Central Government
Headed by the gobernador-general
Commander-in-Chief of the army&navy,
vice-real patron and president of the
lands highest judicial body: the Real
Audiencia (Supreme Court)

Main office was located in


Intramuros, Manila

Provincial
alcaldia - alcalde mayor
corregimientos - correjidor
judge, inspector of alcaldias, chief of
police, tribute collector, vice-regal
patron and captain-general of the
province
indulto de comerio
cities or villas - ayuntamiento or city
government

Municipal
pueblo or municipio - gobernadorcillo
preparation of the pardon (tribute list),
recruitment and distribution of men for the
draft labor, communal public work and the
quinto (military conscription), postal clerk,
and judge in civil suits
Collected tax in cash or kind (very tedious
job)
Filipinos saw fellow Filipinos were making them
suffer (collecting of tax)

ecks and Balances:


SIDENCIA AND VISITA

Residencia is a judicial review of a


residenciado (one judged) conducted at
the end of his term of office, supervised
publicly by a juez de residencia.
Visita was conducted secretly by a
visitador-general sent from Spain and
may occur any time within the officials
term, without any previous notice.

LE OF CHURCH IN
HILIPPINE POLITICS
la sobrania monacal (monastic
supremacy) or frailocracia
(friarocracy)
Spanish friars or monastic orders ruled
supreme, even over governmental
matters. They controlled all the
fundamental forces of society.
The Church and its economic role as
landowners

ONOMIC ASPECT:
ercantilism
Economic theory popular in the 16th-18th
century
Power (colonies) = wealth (gold)
Cheap raw materials from the colony
production and sale of expensive finished
goods plentiful profits for the home
country
Centralization of state power
Tariffs and taxation
Royally chartered companies

ONOMIC ASPECT: Taxes


Direct taxes
personal tribute, income tax

Indirect taxes
customs duties, bandala

Bandala
forced sale or confiscation of goods (e.g. rice,
coconut oil)
payment was in promissory notes
Pampanga and Tagalog regions
abolished in certain provinces by 1782

ONOMIC ASPECT: Taxes


Buwis (tribute)
may be paid in cash or kind
15 reales
rice, textiles, tobacco, blankets

Samboangan or Donativo de Zamboanga


real or rice
special tax collected to crush Moro raids

Vinta and Falua


special tax collected to fund the vintas and
faluas that were shielding coastal provinces

ECONOMIC ASPECT: Taxes


Tax exemptions
noble class Filipinos who
helped in the pacification
efforts of Spanish
conquistadores
artillery and arsenal workers
mediquillos and vaccinators
students of universities Santo
Tomas, San Jose, San Juan de
Letran, San Carlos

Cedula Personal
personal identity paper
replaced the buwis/tribute by
1884
mandatory collection from
everyone over the age of 18

o y Servicio Personal
Frestacion Personal
Polo - community labor
Similar to the Mexican
repartimiento (forced
labor selection)
Polistas were male
laborers of Filipino or
Chinese descent aged
from 16-60 years old
Obligation to offer
personal service for
community projects (e.g.
construction and repairs,
logging)

From 40 days, it was reduced


to 15 days in 1884
Falla - a fee paid for
exemption from the polo (1.5
real per day)
Planting and harvesting
seasons often came in
conflict with polo drafts
Forced relocation or
separation from family
Caused several uprisings
e.g. Sumuroy Rebellion

Many males fled to the


mountains to avoid the polo

ONOMIC ASPECT:
ncomiendas
Inspired from Mexico
Power and control granted by the
King to certain Spaniards over a
specific area (15-60 sq. mi.) and its
inhabitants
Further emphasized the practice of
private land ownership
Ranching and agriculture (e.g. rice,
tobacco, sugar, fruits)

ONOMIC ASPECT:
ncomiendas
Encomenderos
defend his encomienda
help propagate Christianity
maintain peace and order
collected tributes
Royal encomiendas (realenga or encomienda de
la real corona)
for the royals of Spain
principal towns and ports (e.g. Bagumbayan,
Tondo, Navotas, Betis)
Private encomiendas (encomienda de
particulares)
for the Kings men and those who helped in the

ONOMIC ASPECT:
ncomiendas
Violations were committed by encomenderos
hoarding staples (e.g. rice) and raising prices
exorbitantly during times of scarcity
collections were arbitrary
seizure of of rice and possessions which caused
starvation

Tulisanes or remontados - men who fled to


the mountains to avoid tributes
Income from encomiendas were a very small
part of the economy

Manila-Acapulco
leon Trade (1565-1815)
Philippines was mostly just a point of exchange
between Asia and the Americas
raw materials in the Philippines were not overly exploited,
unlike in other European colonies

Spices and silk from Asia, silver and dos mundos from
the Americas
In 1953, restrictions were put in order by the King
a limit was imposed on the value of Chinese exports
only 2 ships (incoming and outgoing) can be used in the
galleon trade every year
Spanish industries were affected by competition brought
about by Chinese goods
too much silver was leaving Spain

Manila-Acapulco
leon Trade (1565-1815)
Increased immigration from Asian merchants and service
providers
mostly Chinese businessmen converged in the Parian
(Alcaiceria) in Binondo, Manila
service, retail, and credit businesses (e.g. gardeners, weavers,
brickmakers, carpenters, apothecaries, masons)
housed the physical trading and packed the goods to be
shipped off

Generated significantly more income than agriculture in


the encomiendas
local industries (e.g. agriculture, weaving) were neglected in
favor of trade
involvement of Filipinos was extremely limited to forced labor in
shipbuilding, which led to uprisings

Manila-Acapulco
leon Trade (1565-1815)
Cultural exchanges between Asia and the
Americas
from Mexico: Virgin of Antipolo, Black Nazarene,
flora and fauna (e.g. avocado, papaya, guava,
pineapple, cattle, horses), language (e.g.tiyangge,
tsokolate, singkamas, sayote, kakaw)
from the Philippines: food and drink (e.g. mango de
Manila, tamarind and rice, tuba), cockfighting,
carabaos, nipa palm raincoats (chino), language
(e.g. tuba, Parian, hilanhilan)
from China: fireworks, chinaware, tea, textiles (e.g.
manton de Manila)

al Economic Society of
nds of the Country (1780-1895)
Jose de Basco y Vargas - despotismo ilustrado or
enlightened despot
Members were business and industry professionals
Increased exploration and exploitation of the
Philippines vast resources
Plan General Economico
monopolies on tobacco, betel nut, spirited liquors
cash incentives and medals of recognition for
excellence in farming
Training grants, local and foreign scholarships
Endowment fund for a professional chair in agriculture
Academy of design
Introduction of mynah birds
Conservation of carabaos

al Philippine
mpany (1785-1814)
King Charles III; 25 year charter aimed at uniting
commerce in Asia and the Americas
Monopoly on bringing Philippine, Chinese and Indian
goods to and from Spain via the Cape of Good Hope
Received much opposition from Dutch, English and
Spanish-Manila Traders (Consulado y Comercio de
Manila)
to appease the people, 3,000 shares were
distributed to merchants and religious corporations
(out of 32,000 shares)
Led to political unrest and economic losses for the
Manila-Acapulco Trade
40% of profits were used for research, technology, and
community development
Bolstered early growth of agriculture in the country

Philippines in World
mmerce (1834 - 1898)
Opening of Philippine ports to
international trade
Demand for export crops increased
Filipino and Chinese businessmen
became wealthy
Exports rose from P4,795,000 (1810) to
P33,149,894 (1984)
Imports rose from P5,329,000 (1810) to
P28,558,552 (1984)

rastructure and Transportation


Ferrocarril de Manila (1892)
120 miles from Manila to Dagupan, Pangasinan
only railway system in the Philippines at the time
constructed by Filipino laborers

Street car service lines


connecting the city with the suburbs
Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas (1885)
horse drawn (Malate, Tondo, Sampaloc, Intramuros)
or steam powered (Malabon, Binondo)

Animal-pulled tramcar service between Talisay


and Dos Hermanas

rastructure and Transportation


Horse-drawn vehicles for hire
quiles - de lux carriages
arana - one horse
victoria - two horses
calesa or caretela
Puento Colgante (Quezon Bridge)
Gustav Eiffel
110 meters long, 7 meters wide
.50 centavos per pedestrian
2 centavos per horse
Bridge of Spain
Steamships
Hong Kong, Japan, Barcelona

ecommunications
Mail service (1839)
postage stamps were in use by 1854

Telegraph (1872)
Manila-Corregidor
Ilocandia, Bikolandia

Telegram (1882)
Manila-Hongkong

Telephone (1890)
offices in Binondo and Intramuros
Iloilo telephone service (1894)

Interisland submarine cable


Manila-Iloilo, Cebu, Bacolod

blic Utilities
velopment
Coconut oil
used as early as 1814

Gas and kerosene for


richer areas (e.g. Sta.
Cruz, Binondo, Sampaloc,
Quiapo)
kingke - this French gas
lamp was banned in nipa
houses as fire prevention

La Electricista de Manila
(1893)

ng

Banco Espanol-Filipino de Isabel II


(1851)
first Philippine bank
issued paper money in 1852
presently called Bank of the Philippine
Islands

Monte de Piedad (1882)


first savings bank

urism and Recreation


Hotels
Hotel de Oriente
Fonda de Lala (Fonda Francesca)
Newspapers (1846)
Smuggling of illegal pornography from abroad
Horseracing
Manila Jockey Club (1867)
Bullfighting
Paco and Pasay
Theatres
Teatro Filipino, Circo de bilibid, Teatro Zorilla, Teatro
de Colon, Teatro de Porvenir
zarzuelas, classical operas, moro-moro
Salon de Perterria - first movie was shown in 1897

UCATIONAL
ANSFORMATION
La Letra Con Sagre Entra (spare the
rod, spoil the child)
The Society of Jesus (teaching order) and
the Spanish missionaries believed that
the children were the key
secondary schools were built for the sons
of native ruling families not only for
Christianizing but also to be able to teach
them how to be gobernadorcillos and
cabezas de barangays in the future.

YS Colleges and
condary Schools
Colegio Maximo de San Ignacio, College of San Ildefonso
(University of San Carlos), College of San Jose
Built by Society of Jesus for sons of Spaniards
San Ignacio- two trainings: for priesthood and general secondary
education

College of the Immaculate Conception (ADMU)


For poor boys, founded by Jesuits

Escuela Normal de Maestros de Manila


Built by Society of Jesus to train male teachers for primary schools

Colegio de Nuestra Senoa del Santisimo Rosario (UST)


Tertiary education for both boys and girls, by the Dominicans

Seminario de Ninos Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo (San


Juan de Letran)
For orphaned Spanish children
Oldest secondary school in PH

Girls Schools
Colegios of Santa Potenciana and Santa Isabel
Boarding schools for Spanish girls, for the benefit of orphan
Spanish girls

Beaterios
Exclusively for daughters of upper class beatas who lived a
secluded life
Two beaterios (see book): established to teach Spanish
culture and values to young Filipinas and were founded by
Filipino women

Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras


Prepare Filipino women teachers for primary schools

Municipal Girls school


Normal school for women teachers in girls schools

ucational Decree
1863
secondary and higher education made
available to local inhabitants
free compulsory publicly-supported
system of primary schools
two parts:
establishment of at least two primary schools
in each town - one for boys and one for girl
creation of a normal school to train men as
teachers, supervised by the Jesuits

ticisms of Education
Lack of means of education authority cant provide
simple books on morality, geography, history of
Philippines written in own language
Lack of school buildings parish house, barracks,
jails, town hall
Only ilustrados (wealthy locals) were able to afford it
Lack of motivation to study
there is humiliation through beatings
no prize or reward
no pleasure in what he is studying because he does not
understand, it is not useful to him

SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
Hispanic Names
Governor Narciso Claveria (1849)
Names came from saints, geographic names,
Chinese and indigenous ancestors, arts, and
flora and fauna
Surnames such as Rizal, Del Pilar, or Luna
Retained indigenous names: Mabini, Malantic,
Dandan, Panganiban
For tax collection and polos y sercisios
To avoid tax evasion and unauthorized
migration

Life at Home
Houses
Bahay kubo for the poor
Bahay na bato for noble Filipinos
Ground Floor: stones and bricks
Second Floor: wood

Aljibe balon

Food
Influence of Spanish and Chinese Cuisine
Spaniards
vinegar and spices for preservation
Adobo, menudo, sarciado, puchero, mechado (Espanyol)
Sauting with garlic and onions

Chinese
Pancit Malabon at Pancit Luglog (Tsino)

Fashion
Men
Barong Tagalog
embroidered thin
upper garment

Camisa Chino
undershirt

Pants
Hats, shoes and
slippers

Fashion
Women
Barot saya
Baro - short-sleeved
and collarless blouse
Saya - long plaid or
stripped skirt

Mestiza Dress butterfly sleeves


Peineta - decorative
comb

WIKA
Loan words from Spanish language
Rezar = dasal
Ventana = bintana
Viaje = biyahe

Loan words form Filipino


Kamalig = camarin
Karihan = carinderia
Mulawin = molave

FIESTAS & RITUALS


Fiesta
Honoring saints
Births of Spanish royalty
members
To attract Filipinos who
havent been converted
into Catholics
Senakulo - sufferings of
Jesus Christ
Komedya o moro-moro play showing battles
between Christians and
Muslims

Rituals

Compadrazgo
co-parenting
godparents during
baptism and marriage
to strengthen
relationship among
family ties and
connection
Magellan : Rajah
Humabon
Legazpi : Rajah Tupas
Burying in cementeries
La Funeraria (1883)
Carlos March
Coffins and
embalming

MESTIZOS
mixed bloods
fruit of intermarriages
Some mestizos led in revolutionary
movements

LTURAL ASPECT:
guage and Literature
Pre-Colonial Philippines
Baybayin- commonly mistaken as Alibata (Alibata
was a term coined by Paul Verzosa in the 1920s due
to its similarity to the word alphabet)
contains 17 characters (3 vowels, 4 consonants);
uses kudlits (diacritics) to modify vowels which
increases total to 54 characters
last known archives during the Spanish period
written in Baybayin were in Lipa and other cities of
Batangas
most works written in Baybayin were destroyed due
to them being written in the language of the devil

LTURAL ASPECT:
guage and Literature

LTURAL ASPECT:
guage and Literature
Under Spanish Rule
Replaced the baybayin system with the Latin
alphabet, speaking in Spanish was encouraged
First teachers of the Filipinos were the friars
and Spanish missionaries
Language became a status symbol
Only the elite could speak Spanish
In the 1800s-1900s, education became more
accessible to more people so the Philippines saw a
rise in educated Spanish-speaking Filipinos
(Ilustrados)

LTURAL ASPECT:
guage and Literature

Printing Methods
Xylography and Movable Typography

Theocratic Literature
Centered on religion
Awit, corridor, metrical romances
Early writers: Ananias Zorilla, Jose de la Cruz,
and Francisco Baltazar.

Comedies and Dramas


Pasyon, Sinakulo, Tibag, Zarzuela

LTURAL ASPECT:
s and music
Paintings
Largely secularized by the Spanish
First known painter Damian Domingo
Established a formal art school in Laguna Academia
de Dibujo

Only female painter to have stood out in the


19th century: Maria Paz Paterno, who was known
for her still life paintings
Other famous painters of the period: landscape
artist Jose Honorato, family of Mariano Asuncion
(and his sons Justiniano and Leoncio)

LTURAL ASPECT:
s and music

Sculptures
Widely seen in fiestas and other
celebrations
Bamboo arches (Kalakos), parols,
rosaries
Most famous examples: santo, retablos
Santo- sculptures of saints and other
religious figures
Retablos- houses the tabernacle; found in
Churches
Most elaborate retablo is found in Intramuros

Famous sculptors: Crispulo Hocson,

LTURAL ASPECT:
s and music
Used music in order to help convert locals
Introduced Western instruments
Piano, guitar, harp, organ

Taught Filipinos how to sing and play religious


songs and chants
A school of music was established in Laguna
Also taught its students dances
Fandango (Pandango), Seguidilla, Jota

Famous musicians
Marcelo Adonay, famed composer Julian Felipe, and
Dolores Paterno.

URAL ASPECT:
D AND TRADITIONS

Food historians claim that 80% of


Filipino dishes are influenced by
Spanish cuisine
Dishes served during fiestas and
special occasions have Spanish
names
relleno, paella, embutido, kaldereta,
menudo, metchado, adobo

Also included desserts and other


delicacies

URAL ASPECT:
D AND TRADITIONS
Siesta
Afternoon nap
It was common to take a
siesta before or after having
merienda (Afternoon snack)

Fiesta
Started out as religious
celebrations
Eventually evolved in to
more casual celebrations
One fiesta for each day of
the year

URAL ASPECT:
olicism

Most evident legacy of Spanish


colonization in the Philippines
Still the most practiced religion in the
country
One of the two predominantly Catholic
countries in Asia (East Timor)

Cebu is considered the birthplace of


Catholicism in the Philippines

URAL ASPECT:
olicism

In the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan


landed in Cebu
First attempt at conversion of the local
Filipinos

Islam was already present in the


Philippines when the Spaniards
arrived
First entered the Philippines between
the 10th and 12th century
If it werent for the Spaniards, the

URAL ASPECT:
olicism

Strategies used by the Spanish to


convert Filipinos
Mass baptism (usually held from
barangay to barangay)
Reduccion policies (relocation of smaller
barangays in to bigger cities)
Use of vernacular (local language) to
teach the natives
Systematic removal of native belief
system

URAL ASPECT:
olicism

Religious Hierarchy
Friarocracy??
Priests were on top
Filipinossecular priestswere not
allowed to join any of the religious
orders; could only study but couldnt
really practice