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Synchronous

reluctance motor
(Syncrel)

Synchronous Machine
The stator is similar in construction that of a induction motor
The rotor can be Salient or Non-Salient (cylindrical rotor)
Field excitation is provided on the rotor by either permanent or
electromagnets with number of poles equal to the poles of the
RMF caused by stator

Synchronous Machine
The rotor gets locked to the RMF (changes direction at a
constant angular rate) and rotates unlike induction motor at
synchronous speed under all load condition

All conventional power plants use synchronous generators for


converting power to electrical form
They operate at a better power factor and higher efficiency than
equivalent induction machines

Synchronous Machine
Construction
(a) CRSM
(b) SPSM

Concept of synchronous reactance


Like dc machines synchronous machines will also have
armature reaction(effect of the magnetic field on the
distribution of the flux under main poles of a machine).
Essentially, this armature reaction will determine how much
power can be transferred to or from the synchronous machine
and limits the current that is flowing in the synchronous
machine and hence provides inbuilt short-circuit protection
Suppose we short-circuit a synchronous generator with the
field circuit excited. By Faradays law, an emf will be induced
in the stator (armature) which by Lenzs law has to oppose the
original field on the rotor. It means the resulting armature
reaction will induce an opposing emf to the one produced by
the main field.

Equivalent circuit of CRSM


Machine
Generator (Appx.)

Machine
Generator (Exact)

Machine

Motor(Appx.)

Machine

Motor(Exact)
Only difference is in current direction; in a generator it
flows
out of it, in case of a motor it flows into it.

Equivalent circuit of CRSM

Machine

Generator (Exact)

Machine

Motor(Exact)

Xs=Xar+Xal (Synchronous reactance)


Zs= Ra+jXs (Synchronous impedance)
Xal is leakage Reactance
Ra is armature resistance

Reluctance Motors
An induction motor with a modified
squirrel-cage rotor
Single-phase or Three-phase
rotor turns in synchronism with the rotating
magnetic flux
Notch / Barrier & Flat types

Notch-Type Rotor
Notch areas are
High-Reluctance
Pole - Salient Poles
Number of salient poles
must match the number
of stator poles

Flat and Barrier Slot Rotors

Operation
Rotor accelerates
towards synchronous
speed
At a critical speed, the
low-reluctance paths
provided by the salient
poles will cause them to
snap into
synchronism with the
rotating flux.

Operation
When the rotor
synchronizes, slip is
equal to zero
Rotor pulled around by
reluctance torque
Figure at right shows
the rotor synchronized
at no load

Operation
A step increase in
load slows the rotor
down, and the rotor
poles lag the stator
poles.
The angle of lag, , is
called the torque
angle.
The maximum torque
angle, max = 45.

Operation at maximum load


Maximum load is when
= 45.
If load increases so that
>45, the flux path is
over stretched and the
rotor falls out of
synchronism.
Motor runs at slip speed

Reluctance torque, Trel


2

Trels0

V
K sin(2 rel )
f

Reluctance torque, Trel


Maximum reluctance torque, Trelmax occurs
at rel = 45

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