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3.

3 ROLE OF HORMONES IN
HUMANS

Endocrine glands
Ductless (no duct or tube) glands
Produce and secrete hormones

which diffuse directly into the


bloodstream

Hormones :
Chemicals (organic) secreted by endocrine

glands of the endocrine system


Serve as chemical messengers which are
transported by blood ; cause changes in one or
more target organ
Regulate body processes and are only
involved in small amounts
Have specific & long lasting effects
Eventually removed from the bloodstream &
destroyed in the liver & excreted in the urine

Endocrine Glands

Endocrine
Gland

Pituitary Gland

Hormone

Function

Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)

Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb


water from the collecting tubules

Follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH)

Stimulates production of mature


eggs & sperms

Luteinising hormone
(LH)

Stimulates ovulation & corpus


luteum formation in females &
production of sex hormones in
males

Thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH)

Stimulates the synthesis &


release of thyroxine from the
thyroid gland

Growth hormone

Stimulates protein synthesis &


growth

Endocrine
Gland
Thyroid gland

Hormone

Thyroxine

Function
Regulates the bodys
metabolism
Helps in normal physical &
mental development

Endocrine
Gland

Hormone

Function

Adrenaline

Increases heart rate, breathing


rate, blood pressure, metabolic
rate, blood flow to the muscles &
glucose level in the blood

Aldosterone

Regulates the reabsorption of


sodium ions in the kidney

Adrenal gland

Endocrine
Gland

Hormone
Insulin

Pancreas

Function
?
?

Glucagon

Endocrine
Gland
Ovaries

Hormone

Function

Estrogen

Stimulates the development of


eggs & development of female
reproductive organs
Stimulates the development of
secondary sexual characteristics

Progesterone

Prepares the uterus for


implantation of a developing
embryo

Endocrine
Gland
Testes

Hormone

Testosterone

Function
Stimulates sperm production
and development of testes
Stimulates development of
secondary asexual
characteristics in males

Regulation of Hormonal Secretions


Secretion of a hormone may be
regulated by:

Another hormone

The level of certain


substances
(metabolites)

The nervous system

Regulation of a hormone by another hormone

Regulation of a hormone by the level of certain substances

Regulation of a hormone by the nervous system


Endocrine glands whose secretions are

partly regulated by the nervous system are:


Adrenal medulla
receives impulses from the efferent nerves of the

nervous system and secretes adrenaline in response


Pancreas
after a meal, the pancreas receives efferent impulses

from CNS to secrete insulin to reduce the blood


glucose level

REVISION

COORDINATION INVOLVING
BOTH THE NERVOUS AND
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Fight or flight strategy


A safety measure that

prepares body to
respond to
dangerous/threatening
stimuli
Involves a coordinated
effort of both nervous
system & endocrine
system

The nervous system


Hypothalamus send impulses to adrenal cortex release

adrenaline
Adrenaline causes:
More glycogen to be converted into glucose in the liver
Increased metabolic rate
Deeper & rapid breathing
Faster heartbeat and raised blood pressure
Blood to be diverted from the surface areas of the body and the gut

to the muscle

Endocrine system
Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary gland

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) activate adrenalcorticol system


ACTH moves through bloodstream to adrenal cortex
activates corticoid hormones prepare body to deal with
stress

Characteristics

Nervous system

Endocrine syd stem

Type of
message

Nerve impulseelectrochemical

Hormone-chemical

Transport

Via nerve fibres

Via the blood stream

Speed of
transmission

Rapid

Slow

Areas of
response

Limited to places with nerve


supply

All over the body-one


hormone may affect several
target organs at the same
time

Nature of the
response

Causes muscle to contract


or glands to secrete

Causes changes in the


metabolic activity

Differences
between the nervous
and
Short-lived and reversible
Long lasting
endocrine system

Duration of
effect

HORMONAL
IMBALANCE

Imbalance of growth hormone


Deficiency of growth

hormone:
In children : pituitary

dwarfism
Adults: diminished lean
body mass, poor bone
density

Imbalance of growth hormone


Excessive
gigantism (children &

adult)
In adults: acromegaly
(new bone tissue grow in
the bodys extremities
jaw protrudes, hands &
feet greatly enlarged

Imbalance of ADH
Deficiency causes diabetes insipidus
Causes production of pale dilute urine dehydration & extreme
thirst
Excessive ADH:
Causes kidney to absorb more water & less urine
Cerebral oedema

Use of hormone in medicine


Diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes : does not produce enough insulin
Type 2 diabetes: do not use insulin well enough to regulate sugar?

Why insulin cannot be taken as pill?