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Chapter 6

Differential Calculus
The two basic forms of calculus are
differential calculus and integral calculus.
This chapter will be devoted to the former
and Chapter 7 will be devoted to the
latter. Finally, Chapter 8 will be devoted to
a study of how MATLAB can be used for
calculus operations.

Differentiation and the Derivative


The study of calculus usually begins with
the basic definition of a derivative. A
derivative is obtained through the process
of differentiation, and the study of all forms
of differentiation is collectively referred to
as differential calculus.If we begin with a
function and determine its derivative, we
arrive at a new function called the first
derivative. If we differentiate the first
derivative, we arrive at a new function
called the second derivative, and so on.
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The derivative of a function is the


slope at a given point.

Various Symbols for the Derivative

dy
or
dx

df ( x)
f '( x) or
dx

Definition:

dy
y
lim
dx x 0 x
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Figure 6-2(a). Piecewise Linear


Function (Continuous).

Figure 6-2(b). Piecewise Linear


Function (Finite Discontinuities).

Piecewise Linear Segment

Slope of a Piecewise Linear Segment

y2 y1
dy
slope
dx
x2 x1
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Example 6-1. Plot the first derivative


of the function shown below.

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Development of a Simple Derivative

yx

y y ( x x)

y y x 2 xx (x)
2

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Development of a Simple Derivative


Continuation

y 2 xx (x)

y
2 x x
x
dy
y
lim
2x
dx x 0 x
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Chain Rule

y f (u )

u u ( x)

dy df (u ) du
du

f '(u )
dx
du dx
dx
df
(
u
)
where
f '(u )
du
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Example 6-2. Approximate the derivative


of y=x2 at x=1 by forming small changes.

y (1) (1) 1
2
y (1.01) (1.01) 1.0201
y 1.0201 1 0.0201
2

dy y 0.0201

2.01
dx x
0.01
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Example 6-3. The derivative of sin u


with respect to u is given below.

d
sin u cos u
du
Use the chain rule to find the
derivative with respect to x of

y 4sin x

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Example 6-3. Continuation.

ux

du
2x
dx
dy
du dy du
f '(u )

dx
dx du dx
2
4(cos u )(2 x) 8 x cos x
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Table 6-1. Derivatives


f ( x)
af ( x)
u ( x) v( x)
f (u )

a
xn

(n 0)

un

(n 0)

uv
u
v
eu

f '( x)
af '( x)
u '( x) v '( x)
du df (u ) du
f '(u )

dx
du dx
0
nx n 1
du
nu n 1
dx
dv
du
u v
dx
dx
du
dv
v
u
dx
dx
v2
du
eu
dx

Derivative Number
D-1
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-7
D-8

D-9

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Table 6-1. Derivatives (Continued)


au
ln u
log a u
sin u

cos u
tan u
sin 1 u
cos 1 u
tan 1 u

ln a au

du
dx

1 du
u dx
1 du
log a e
u dx
du
cos u
dx
du
sin u
dx
du
sec 2 u
dx
1 du

sin
u

2
2
1 u 2 dx
1 du
0 cos 1 u

1 u 2 dx
1 du
1 u 2 dx

tan 1 u
2
2

D-10
D-11
D-12
D-13
D-14
D-15
D-16
D-17
D-18

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Example 6-4. Determine dy/dx for


the function shown below.

y x sin x
dy
dv
du
u v
dx
dx
dx
2

d
x

d
sin
x

2
x
sin x
dx
dx

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Example 6-4. Continuation.

dy
2
x cos x sin x 2 x
dx
2
x cos x 2 x sin x

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Example 6-5. Determine dy/dx for


the function shown below.

sin x
y
x
d sin x
d x
du
dv
v
u
x
sin x
dy
dx
dx
dx 2 dx
2
dx
v
x
x cos x sin x

2
x
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Example 6-6. Determine dy/dx for


the function shown below.

ye

x2

x
u
2

x
d
2
du
1

2x x
dx
dx
2

dy
e
dx

x2

x xe

x2

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Higher-Order Derivatives

y f ( x)
dy
df ( x)
f '( x)
dx
dx
2

d y
d f ( x) d dy
f ''( x)

2
2
dx
dx
dx dx
2

d y
d f ( x ) d d y
(3)
f ( x)

3
3
2
dx
dx
dx dx
3

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Example 6-7. Determine the 2nd


derivative with respect to x of the
function below.

y 5sin 4 x
dy
d
5(cos 4 x) (4 x) 20 cos 4 x
dx
dx
2

d y
d

20

sin
4
x

(4
x
)

80sin
4
x

2
dx
dx
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Applications: Maxima and Minima


1. Determine the derivative.
2. Set the derivative to 0 and solve for
values that satisfy the equation.
3. Determine the second derivative.
(a) If second derivative > 0, point is a
minimum.
(b) If second derivative < 0, point is a
maximum.

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Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration


Displacement

Velocity

y
dy
v
dt
2

Acceleration

dv d y
a
2
dt dt
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Example 6-8. Determine local maxima


or minima of function below.

y f ( x) x 6 x 9 x 2
3

dy
2
3x 12 x 9
dx
2
3x 12 x 9 0
x 1 and x 3
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Example 6-8. Continuation.

dy
2
3 x 12 x 9
dx
2

d y
6 x 12
2
dx
For x = 1, f(1) = -6. Point is a maximum and
ymax= 6.
For x = 3, f(3) = 6. Point is a minimum and
ymin = 2.
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