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TRAINING

Basic Water Chemistry


Jan Bos Van Hemelrijck July 2013

CONTENTS
1. Ions
2. Valences
3. Salts
4. pH
5. Oxygen
6. SI-units
7. Conversion calculations

1. IONS

1. IONS

Inorganic compounds dissolved in water dissociate to a greater


or lesser extent
AB

A+ + B-

with the formation of :


negative charged ions (anions) : B positive charged ions (cations) : A+

The dissolved substance is called an electrolyte and facilitates


the flow of an electric current.

1. IONS

Some acids, bases and/or salts are entirely dissociated even in


relatively concentrated solutions. They are called strong
electrolytes.
e.g.

NaCl

Na+ + Cl-

NaOH

Na+ + OH-

H2SO4

2H++ SO42-

1. IONS

Other substances are only partially dissociated into ions.


They are called weak electrolytes.
e.g. Ca3(PO4)2
CH3COOH

3Ca2+ + 2PO43CH3COO- + H+

2. VALENCES

2. VALENCES

Definition:
" The charge acquired by an atom when it gains or loses
electrons in a chemical (oxidation-reduction) reaction, while
acquiring the electron configuration of the nearest inert gas."
Note: The atoms either give up or accept electrons to make their
outer shell "full".
=> Summarized: charge of an atom

2. VALENCES

Valency can be thought of as the "combining power" of an


element (or group) in a chemical reaction.
All atoms or elements are neutral to begin with (they possess the
same number of positive charges as negative charges, equal
numbers of protons and electrons).
An element obtains a valency only when it reacts with another
substance.

2. VALENCES

Positive Valences: (oxidation numbers)


are acquired by atoms losing electrons, since they are losing
negative charges.
Negative Valences: (oxidation numbers)
are acquired by atoms receiving electrons, since they are
gaining negative charges.

2. VALENCES
One (I)

Two (II)

Three (III)

Four (IV)

Five (V)
+

Most common
valence

Element
(generally one
valence, ox. state)

H
Na
K
Li
Ag

H
F
Cl
Br
I

Ca
Mg
Ba
Zn

S
O

Al

C
Si

C
Si

Often more than


one valence, ox.
state

Cu
Hg

Polyatomic ions

NH4

Cu
Hg
Ni
Fe
Cr
Pb
Sn
Mn

Ni
Fe
Cr
N
P
As
Sb
SO4
SO3
CO3
HPO4
HPO3
CrO4
SiO3
Cr2O7

Pb
Sn
Mn
S

PO4
PO3
AsO4

SiO4

Six (VI)
-

Seven (VII)
-

Zero

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn

N
P
As
Sb

3. SALTS

3. SALTS

The presence of dissolved salts in water increases its conductivity


which also varies with temperature.
Conductivity is measured by the conductance of a water column
located between two metal electrodes of 1 cm in area,
seperated by a distance of 1 cm.
Conductivity is expressed in Siemens per cm
1 S/cm = 10 mS/cm = 106 S/cm
Conductivity = 1/Resistivity(ohms.cm)
e.g. 1000 mg NaCl/l = 2200 S/cm

3. SALTS

Examples of water soluble salts:


NaCl
Sodium chloride
Na2SO4
KCl

Sodium sulphate
Potasium chloride

K2SO4

Potasium sulphate

FeCl3

Ferric chloride

NaNO3

Sodium nitrate

Examples of partially water soluble salts


Ca3(PO4)2 Calcium phosphate
CaSO4

Calcium sulphate

FePO4

Ferric phosphate

4. PH

4. PH

pH= -log[H+]
In pure water [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 mol/l
An acid medium is a solution in which [H+] is greater than 10-7
mol/l (pH < 7)
An alkaline medium is one in which [H+] is less than 10-7 mol/l
(pH > 7)
The pH is measured by means of coloured indicators or by an
electrometric method (glass-electrode pH meter)
pH-scale ranges from pH 0 to pH 14

5. OXYGEN

5. OXYGEN

Oxygen = O2 (MM:32)
D.O.= Dissolved Oxygen (mg O2/l)
Measurement:
titration
electrochemical with an oxygen meter with an oxygen probe

Dissolved oxygen saturation in water at a pressure of 760 mm Hg


and 20C = 9.1 mg/l

6. SI-UNITS

6. SI-UNITS

Quantity

Unit

Name

Symbol

Length

metre

Surface area

square metre

Volume
Time

Expression
in other SI
units

Units used with the SI or temporarily accepted (T)

Name

Symbol

Value in units

are

1are=100 m

cubiq metre

litre

1l=1dm

second

minute

min

1min=60s

hour

1h=60min

day

1d=24h

tonne

1t=10kg

Velocity

metre per
second

m.s-1

Mass

kilogramme

kg

Density

Kilogramme
pr cubic
metre

Kg.m-

Volume flow
rate

cubic metre
per second

m.s-1

6. SI-UNITS
Quantity

Unit

Expression
in other SI
units

Name

Symbol

Force

newton

Kg.m.s-2

Pressure

pascal

Pa

N.m-

Absolute
viscosity

pascalsecond

Pa.s

m-1.kg.s-2

Energy

joule

N.m

Power

watt

J.s-1

Resistivity

ohm-metre

.m

Conductivity

siemens per
metre

S.m-1

Amount of
substance

mole

mol

Molar
concentration

mole per
cubic metre

mol.m-3

Units used with the SI or temporarily accepted (T)

Name

Symbol

Value in units

Bar (T)

bar

1bar=105 Pa

Atmosphere
(T)

atm

1atm=101325 Pa

m.kg.s-2

7. CONVERSION
CALCULATIONS

7. CONVERSION CALCULATIONS

To convert from ...

To

Multiply by ...

mg/l NH4+

mg/l NH4+-N

0.776

mg/l NH4+-N

mg/l NH4+

1.288

mg/l NO2-

mg/l NO2--N

0.3045

mg/l NO2--N

mg/l NO2-

3.284

mg/l NO3-

mg/l NO3--N

0.226

mg/l NO3--N

mg/l NO3-

4.427

mg/l PO43-

mg/l PO43--P

0.326

mg/l PO43--P

mg/l PO43-

3.067

mg/l CaCO3

meq/l

0.02

meq/l

mg/l CaCO3

50.0