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DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS WITH
CALCULATOR
TECHNIQUES
Eugene H. Embalzado Jr., ECE

THOUGHTS TO PONDER
The great enemy of
understanding is
coverage
-Gardner

TOPICS IN DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS

Types of Differential Equations


Order and Degree of D.E.
Types of Solutions of D.E.
Elimination of Arbitrary Constants
Solutions to First-Order D.E.
Separation

of Variables
Homogeneous D.E.
Exact D.E.
Linear Equations
Bernoullis Equation

Higher-Order D.E. with Constant Coefficients


Applications of D.E.
Growth

and Decay
Continuously Compounded Interest
Newtons Law of Cooling
Mixture Problems

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

A differential equation is an equation


involving an unknown function and its
derivatives.

TYPES OF DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS

A differential equation is an ordinary


differential equation (ODE) if the unknown
function depends on only one independent
variable.

If the unknown function depends on two or


more independent variables, the differential
equation is a partial differential equation
(PDE)

ORDER AND DEGREE OF D.E.

The order of a differential equation is the


order of the highest derivative appearing in
the equation.
The degree of a differential equation whose
terms are polynomials in the derivatives is
defined as the highest power of the highest
order derivative.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS OF D.E.

General Solution is a solution containing a


number of arbitrary constants equal to the
order of the equation
Particular Solution is a solution obtained
from the general solution by giving the
particular values to the arbitrary constants

ELIMINATION OF ARBITRARY
CONSTANTS

From an equation containing arbitrary


constants, the constants may be eliminated
by the following methods:
By

differentiation and combination


By isolation of constants

SOLUTIONS TO FIRST-ORDER
D.E.

Separation of Variables
The solution to the first-order separable
differential equation

SOLUTIONS TO FIRST-ORDER
D.E.

Homogeneous Differential Equations


The D.E. in the form M(x, y) + N(x, y) = 0
is said to be homogeneous if
M(x, y) and N(x, y) are in the same degree
The homogeneous differential equation having the
property that f(tx, ty) =f(x, y) can be transformed into
a separable equation by making the substitution
y = vx or x = vy
along with its corresponding derivative:
y = vdx + xdv or x = vdy + ydv
The resulting equation in the variables v and x is solved
as a separable differential equation; the required
solution is obtained by back substitution.

SOLUTIONS TO FIRST-ORDER
D.E.

Exact Differential Equation


The D.E. in the form M(x, y) and N(x, y) = 0
Is said to be exact if:

Method of Solution:
Integrate

all the differentials


Take the variables which are not to be integrated
to be as constants

SOLUTIONS TO FIRST-ORDER
D.E.

Linear Differential Equations

General Solution
We

can obtain the general solution by getting its


integrating factor

Then
y

multiplying it both sides resulting to:

I(x) =

SOLUTIONS TO FIRST-ORDER
D.E.

Bernoullis Differential Equation

Where n > 1
General Solution:

Make

this equation in linear form by representing


z = y 1-n then differentiate y in terms of z
Substitute the values the perform the method
using linear equations.

APPLICATIONS OF D.E.

Growth and Decay


Let N(t) denote the amount of substance (or
population) that is either growing or
decaying. If we assume that dN/dt. the time
rate of change of this amount of substance,
is proportional to the amount of substance
present, then
dN/dt = kN

where k is the constant of proportionality.

APPLICATIONS OF D.E.

Newtons Law of Cooling


Newton's law of cooling, which is equally
applicable to heating, states that the time
rate of change of the temperature of a body
is proportional to the temperature difference
between the body and its surrounding
medium.

APPLICATIONS OF D.E.

Flow Rate
Compounded Continuously Interest Problems

HIGHER-ORDER LINEAR D.E.


WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

Steps in solving
Express

the linear D.E. into its characteristic


equation equivalent
Determine the roots of the equation
Determine which case or combination of cases do
the roots fall into to determine the general
solution

HIGHER-ORDER LINEAR D.E.


WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

Cases
Case

1: Roots are real and distinct

Case

2: Roots are real and equal

Case

3: Roots are imaginary

Case

4: Roots are complex