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PowerPoint Slides
to accompany

Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 1
Magnetic Circuits and
Magnetic Materials
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1.1 Introduction to Magnetic Circuits

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Simple magnetic circuit.


Figure 1.1

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Magnetic circuit with air


gap.
Figure 1.2

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Analogy between electric and magnetic circuits.


(a) Electric circuit, (b) magnetic circuit.
Figure 1.3

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Air-gap fringing
fields.
Figure 1.4

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Simple
synchronous
machine.
Figure 1.5

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1.2 Flux linkage, Inductance, and Energy

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Faradays Law

When magnetic field varies in time an electric field is produced in space as


determined by Faradays Law:

d
E .ds dt B .da
C
S

Line integral of the electric field intensity E around a closed contour C is equal to the
time rate of the magnetic flux linking that contour.

Since the winding (and hence the contour C) links the core flux N times then above
equation reduces

d
d
e(t )
N
dt
dt

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The induced voltage is usually refered as electromotive force to represent the


voltage due to a time-varying flux linkage.

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The direction of emf: If the winding terminals


were short-circuited a current would flow in
such a direction as to oppose the change of flux
linkage.

(t ) max sin t Ac Bmax sin t

e(t ) Nmax cos t Emax cos t


Emax Nmax 2 f NAc Bmax

Erms 2 f NAc Bmax

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+
e(t)
-

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(a) Magnetic circuit and (b) equivalent circuit for


Example 1.3.
Figure 1.6

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MATLAB plot of inductance vs. relative


permeability for Example 1.5.
Figure 1.7

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Magnetic circuit with two windings.


Figure 1.8

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1.3 Properties of Magnetic Materials

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B-H loops for M-5 grain-oriented electrical steel


0.012 in thick. Only the top halves of the loops are
shown here. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.9

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Dc magnetization curve for M-5 grain-oriented


electrical steel 0.012 in thick. (Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.10

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1.4 AC Excitation

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Excitation phenomena. (a) Voltage, flux, and


exciting current; (b) corresponding hysteresis loop.
Figure 1.11

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Exciting rms voltamperes per kilogram at 60 Hz for


M-5
grain-oriented electrical steel 0.012 in thick.
(Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.12

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CORE LOSSES
Hysteresis Losses:

hysteresis loss is proportional


to the loop area (shaded).
Figure 1.13

W i d

H c lc
Ac NdBc Ac lc H c dBc
N

Eddy Current Losses:


Time-varying magnetic fields give rise to electric fields in the
material resulting in induced currents. These induced currents
cause Eddy Current Losses. These losses can be reduced by using
thin sheets of laminations of the magnetic material.

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Core loss at 60 Hz in watts per kilogram for M-5


grain-oriented electrical steel 0.012 in thick.
(Armco Inc.)
Figure 1.14

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Example 1.8.
The magnetic core is made from laminations of M-5 grain-oriented electrical
steel. The winding is excited with a 60 Hz voltage to produce a flux density
in the steel of B=1.5sin wt T, where w=377 rad/sec. The steel occupies 0.94
of the core cross-sectional area. The mass-density of the steel is 7.65 g/cm3.
Find
(Note that 1 meter is 39.4 inch)
a) The applied voltage,
b)

The peak current,

c)

The rms exciting current, and

d)

The core loss.

Solution:

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1.5 Permanent Magnets

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(a) Second quadrant of hysteresis loop for Alnico 5;


(b) Second quadrant of hysteresis loop for M-5 electrical steel;
(c)

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hysteresis loop for M-5 electrical steel expanded for small B.


(Armco Inc.)

Figure 1.16

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1.6 Application of Permanent Magnet


Materials

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Magnetization curves for common permanentmagnet materials.


Figure 1.19

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Portion of a B-H characteristic showing a minor


loop
and a recoil line.
Figure 1.21

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Example (Final Exam Question).


Consider the magnetic circuit shown on the right. The permanent
magnet material has cross-sectional area Am=4 cm2 and length
lm=3.45 mm. The air-gap has the same cross-sectional area as
the magnet and its length is g=2 mm. The iron core has infinite
permeability. Assume no leakage flux, no fringing. Answer the
following.

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a)

Express the area and the length in meters correctly (if you get
the units incorrectly, it will be carried out to the remaining of
the problem) and then obtain the load line equation.

b)

Draw the load line in the graph and give the magnetic field
intensity value and magnetic flux density value of the operating
point for Samarium-Cobalt .

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Load Line

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Example (MidTerm 1 Exam Question).


It is desired to achieve a time-varying magnetic flux density in the air gap of the
magnetic circuit in the figure of the form Bg=Bo+B1sin wt where B0=0.5
Wb/m2 and B1=0.25 T. The dc field B0 is to be created by a Neodymium-IronBoron (characteristic is shown below) magnet, whereas the time-varying field
is to be created by a time-varying current. Please, answer the following for
Ag=6 cm2, g=0.4 cm, and N=200 turns.
a)

Write down the flux density of NdFeB as a function of the magnetic field
intensity using the characteristic given

b)

The magnet length and the magnet area Am that will achieve the desired dc
B
1.4
air gap flux density and minimize the magnet volume.

Wb/m2

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-1000

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-800

-600
-400
H, (kA/m)

-200

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Example:
Consider the figure below and answer the following.
a)

Draw magnetic equivalent circuit,

b)

Find the reluctances as a function of x,

c)

Calculate the flux,

d)

Calculate the flux linkage of the coil,

e)

Calculate the inductance of the coil.

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Examples and Problems

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Magnetic circuit for Example 1.10.


Figure 1.18

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Magnetic circuit
including both a
permanent
magnet and an
excitation
winding.
Figure 1.20

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Magnetic circuit for Example 1.11.


Figure 1.22

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(a) Magnetization curve for Alnico 5 for Example


1.11;
(b) series of load lines for Ag = 2 cm2 and varying
of values
of (a)
i showing the magnetization
procedure for
(b)
Example 1.11.
Figure 1.23

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Magnetic circuit for Problem


1.1.
Figure 1.24

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Magnetic circuit
for Problem 1.9.
Figure 1.26

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Inductor for Problem 1.12.


Figure 1.27

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Pot-core inductor for Problem 1.15.


Figure 1.28

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Inductor for Problem 1.17.


Figure 1.29

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Toroidal winding for Problem


1.19.
Figure 1.30

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Iron-core inductor for Problem


1.20.
Figure 1.31

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Magnetic circuit for Problem 1.22.


Figure 1.32

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Symmetric magnetic circuit for Problem 1.23.


Figure 1.33

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Reciprocating generator for Problem 1.24.


Figure 1.34

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Configuration for measurement of magnetic


properties
of electrical steel.
Figure 1.35

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Magnetic circuit for Problem 1.28.


Figure 1.36

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Magnetic circuit for the loudspeaker of Problem


1.34
(voice coil not shown).
Figure 1.37

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Magnetic
circuit for
Problem 1.35.
Figure 1.38

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