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PREPARED BY

TO
Priyanka Gupta
Ahamad
Shreya Bhatnagar
Charge
Shampa Srivastava
Deptt.

SUBMITTED
Mr. Jameel
Seminar InEE

A smart grid delivers electricity from

suppliers to consumers using two-way


digital technology to control appliances
at consumers' homes to save energy,
reduce cost and increase reliability and
transparency.

Self healing
Empower and incorporate the consumer
Tolerant of attack
Provides power quality needed by 21 st

century consumers
Accommodates a wide variety of
generation options (like green energy)
Fully enables maturing electricity markets
Optimizes assets

VARIABLE TARIFF-BASED LOAD


variable price profile given to the customer day

ahead
different price profile for each day
automatic home management device coupled to
an energy meter
ENERGY USAGE MONITORING AND FEEDBACK
display of energy consumption
comparisons to average consumption pattern
suggestions on how to further lower consumption

REAL-TIME PORTFOLIO IMBALANCE

REDUCTION
Balance Responsible Party (BRP) which plan

or forecast the energy production and


consumption
Imbalance cost for the BRPs on deviation
from the energy plan
OFFERING RESERVE CAPACITY TO THE TSO
Energy generated by consumers sold back to

the grid

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONGESTION

MANAGEMENT
loads shifted away from periods at which

congestion occurs
usage data provided by the consumers proves
to be very helpful
DISTRIBUTION GRID CELL ISLANDING IN CASE

OF HIGHER- SYSTEM INSTABILITY


instable system operated separately
transition to island mode automatic

BLACK START SUPPORT FROM SMART HOUSES


after black-out local grid is out of operation
start-up quickly in island mode
then reconnect with up-stream network

INTEGRATION OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES


forecasting a necessary tool due to volatility of

production level of distributed generators


lowest forecasting error means most efficient
operation

Independent processors in each component at

each sub-station and power plant


Sensors are connected to all other
components in the system
Own state and of all other components are
known and communicated

On addition of new devices to the system device


parameters are automatically updated
The new component also has a built-in processor

TYPICAL BLACK-OUT SEQUENCE


a sudden outage of major lines occurs
further outage due to overload leaves the
system imbalanced
frequency declines with large generation load
imbalance
generation is taken off-line
island blacks out
long time taken to restore power

emergency imposed on the system


frequency & load/generation imbalance is determined
and total outage is prevented

Distribution system needs many changes to


come in sync with requirements for the
implementation of smart grid
DESIRED OPTIMISATIONS
DEMAND OPTIMISATION
DELIVERY OPTIMIZATION
ASSET OPTIMIZATION
RENEWABLES OPTIMIZATION

Refers to monitoring, control &

communication functions
Important aspects of DA are in areas of
protection and switching
Helps in quickly reconfigure interconnected
network of feeders

Can detect fault current and voltages

Can help in self-healing of the grid

Can communicate with one another

DISTRIBUTED ASSET OPTIMIZATION MODEL


Developed to provide an engineering basis for

predicting hourly loading at any point


between the sub-station & customer
Calculates power flowing through each
transformer
Provides insights required to make better
planning and operating decisions

DATA COLLECTION

DATA INCLUDES
Customer information & billing data
Customer hourly consumption data
Distribution transformer characteristics
Feeder characteristics
Connectivity data for the distribution system

DATA VALIDATION
Total annual customer energy validated with

annual energy measured at the sub-station

ESTABLISH WEATHER SENSITIVITY


Data obtained is weather-sensitive
Tuned with the weather parameters to obtain

the actual data

Data obtained from users matched with Load-

Shape library
Customers assigned best matching hourly or
daily load-shape

CALIBRATION
To compensate for unaccounted energy

calibration process applied

Residential, Small Office & commercial

building sector responsible for over 50% of


total electricity consumption
Homes, offices and commercial buildings
treated as an interconnected network
instead of single units
Able to communicate, interact & negotiate
with both customers & energy devices in
local grid
Grid operated more efficiently as
consumption is better predicted

SMART HOME NETWORK

MICROGENERATION
Small homes can generate wind and solar power

which if in surplus amount can be sold back to the


distributor
SMART METERS
With their help user consumption can be measured,

monitored and controlled


Smarter decisions made by consumers can be
communicated back to grid
LOCAL STORAGE UNITS
Enables smart homes to store energy for future use

Introduces a holistic concept & technology

for smart homes


Smart homes & buildings treated as
proactive consumers also known as
prosumers
Prosumers negotiate & collaborate as an
intelligent network

A communication technique to

automatically collect the meter readings &


other relevant data from meters
AMR has benefits beyond meter reading
It provides crucial data on an insight into
other areas of operation

For small commercial customers monthly

consumption read is sufficient


For large commercial and industrial
customers daily consumption read is
required
Remote monitoring devices attached to
meters store hourly consumption profile
Accurate bills provided to customers are
more satisfying than estimated bills

RF COMMUNICATION
Most widely accepted method of

communication between meter and data


collection
A wake-up signal is sent by data collection
system to the RF devices
Devices send back the latest meter read &
other information

RADIO-EQUIPPED HAND-HELD COMPUTER


DRIVE-BY OR MOBILE DATA COLLECTION
FIXED NETWORK DATA COLLECTION

Meter reader carrying a hand-held computer

equipped with radio receiver walks-by homes,


without actually entering the premises
Manual error reduced

Radio transreciever installed in a utility

vehicle
Root information downloaded from the utility
billing system
Loaded into radio transreciever
Vehicle drives along the route and collects the
readings through RF communication

Fixed network installed over saturated areas

where advanced metering data,


reads, unscheduled reads required

variable

Used where daily reading or reading several

times a day is required

INBOUND SYSTEMS
Modules call a central master data

collection computer at pre-scheduled time


Provides hourly consumption data
OUTBOUND SYSTEMS
Master station calls the remote meter

module to collect data

Usage reporting device at each customer

site is called a SMART METER


Computerised replacement of electrical

meters
Contains a processor, non-volatile storage

& communication facilities


Can track usage as a function of time-ofday, disconnect a customer via a software
or send out alarms in case of problems
Interface directly with smart appliances to
control them

Necessary to support major applications &


systems such as demand response, wide area
measurement
& control, electricity storage & transportation.

TRUST
Necessary to know whether appropriate user

is accessing accurate data created by right


device at proper time
And the data hasnt been modified

Data transfer now taking place through digital

medium like internet


Chances of data theft and modification very
high
Hackers can immediately manipulate their
energy costs or fabricate false readings

PRIVACY
Electricity use pattern could lead to disclosure

of when people are at home or work or


travelling
This could support criminal targeting of homes

Most effective solution for securing smart

grid based on PKI technologies

PKI TECHNICAL ELEMENTS


PKI standards
Smart Grid PKI tools
Device Attestation

PKI STANDARDS
Provide a mechanism for defining naming
convention and certificate policy
They dont specify how these standards
should be used
They only provide a high-level framework for
digital certificate usage and for implementing
a PKI
PKI TOOLS
They tell how to work on the PKI standards
Ease the management of PKI components in
the Smart Grid application

DEVICE ATTESTATION
Device

attestation certificates are used


only to assert the device manufacturer,
model, serial no. and that the device has
not been tampered with

Renewable resources affect the reliability of

grid due to their volatility


Demand response and electric storage
provide economics of grid
Grid reliability can be improved by mitigating
peak demand and load variability

Reliability problem arises due to faults


occurring in the system
FUNCTIONS THAT RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS
Fault diagnosis and alarm processing
function
Fault location function
Service restoration function

FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ALARM PROCESSING


FUNCTION
Automatically triggered after occurrence of a
fault
Also detect missing remote control signal
Analysis of the fault presented to the operator
FAULT LOCATION FUNCTION
To find the location of faults
Quickly determine the faulty section of feeder
SERVICE RESTORATION FUNCTION
Restores the power to the non-faulted section
of the feeder