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THEORIES OF INSTRUCTIONAL

MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION
(SKINNER, GLASSER, GORDON)
RUBA
AMIRAH
AFIF

Question
Compare and contrast
on the two theories
researched and present
your findings

CONTENT
Definition
Approaches or Strategies

Strengths and weaknesses


Practicality of theories in ESL
classroom
Why does the model look appeal to
us?

DEFINITI
ONS

DEFINITION
S

INSTRUCTION
AL
MANAGEMEN
T
(JACOB
KOUNIN)
Focused on a
teachers
ability to
affect students
behavior
through

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(B.F
SKINNER)
The practice
of providing
consequence
s for both
positive and
negative
behaviour.

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(WILLIAM
GLASSER)
The choice
theory states
that behavior is
inspired by
what a person
wants or
needs most at
any given time

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(THOMAS
GORDON)
Discipline is
best achieved
through pupil
self-control.
Teacher use I
messages in
influencing pupil
behaviour.

Quotes Jacob Kounin

APPROACHES
& STRATEGIES

RIPPLE EFFECT

TRANSITION
SMOOTHNESS

MANAGEMENT
TECHNIQUES

OVERLAPPING

DESISTS

WITHITNESS

Techniques

Definition

Examples

Ripple Effect

By correcting the misbehaviour of one


student it can positively influence the
behaviour of another students.

Teacher gives
encouragement or
reprimands can continue or
stop students' behavior.

Desists

Efforts to stop a misbehaviour.


Be ensure that desists are spoken clearly
and can be understood.

The corrected misbehave


student will ripples to other
students, causing them to
behave better

Withitness

Awareness of what is going on in all


parts of the classroom.

Teachers have eyes on the


back of their heads!
- Students less likely to
misbehave.

Overlapping

Ability to attend to two or more issues /


students at the same time.

Teacher monitor students


behavior at the same
time continue teaching
process.

Transition
smoothness

Teachers management of various


activities throughout the day

Teachers must be well


prepared Appropriate pace
and progression through a

SATIATION
JERKINESS

SLOWDOWNS

FLIPFLOPS

TRUNCATIO
N

INSTRUCTIONAL
TECHNIQUES

STIMULUS
BOUND

THRUST
DANGLE

Techniqu
es

Definition

Solutions

Satiation

Occurs when a teacher teaches the same


lesson for so long and students get tired
of the topic

Offering challenges throughout


the lesson
Add variety activities to lesson.

Jerkiness

Lack of lesson smoothness and


momentum.

To avoid this situation, a teacher


should maintain the focus of
the learning topics.
Do not ask questions that are not
related to the topic the lesson.

Stimulus
bound

It is a situation where a teacher has the

A teacher needs to recognize and

students engaged in a lesson and

make a genuine commitment

something else attracts the teachers

towards the lesson.

attention.
When this happen, the teacher is stimulus
bound.
Thrust

According to Kounin (1970), a thrust consist


of a teachers sudden bursting in on

Teachers should consider the


suitable time for him or her to

Techinques
Dangle

Truncation

Flip-flops

Slow-down

Definition

Solution

Occurs when a teacher starts an activity and


then leaves it hanging in mid air by
beginning another activity and later resume
the original activity.

Teachers need to focus and stay


on track for the lesson to be
smooth in instructional momentum.

Similar to dangle but the teacher doesnt


resume the original activity

Teachers need to alert and stay


focus on what has been taught.

Occurs only at transitional points, such as


when the teacher terminates one activity and
begins another and then reverts to the first
activity
Can cause confusion among students.

Realizing the importance of


smoothness and momentum in
order to become good instructional
management teachers.

Two types of slowdowns:


i) Over dwelling
ii) fragmentation
Over dwelling a situation when a teacher
dwells on corrective behaviour longer than
needed most students understanding &
interest(Kounin,1970)
Fragmentation happens when a teacher
breaks down an activity into subparts.

STRENGTHS
AND
WEAKNESSES

Jacob Kounin
STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

Teacher act as an administrator in the


classroom.

Might lead to overdwelling / fragmentation.

Behaviour problems are reduced to the


minimum.

Limited use in the classroom.

Provide the teacher with a specific, detailed


approach to handle the discipline problems.

Shows to avoid disciplinary problems but not to


provide effective way to solve serious discipline
problems.

Offers techniques for making desists effective.

Does not help the students in forming selfdiscipline.

eg. teacher can quiet the whole class by using


desist in order to keep one pair of students from
talking. (Morris, 1996)

Teacher will avoid from frustration, yelling to


students or sarcasm.

Does not work with every problematic


students in the classroom.
It is quite impossible for a teacher to know

Practicality of theories
in ESL classroom

RIPPLE-EFFECT
PROBLEM
Siti was not paying attention in the class. She always disturbed her
friends and loved to play around in the class.

SOLUTION
Teacher managed that behavioral problem by punishing her. She was
asked to go in front of the class and recited a poem aloud. The other
students who make a lot of noises in the class tend to behave well
because they did not want to be punished by the teacher.

QUOTES OF SKINNER

Did not approve


the use of
punishment in
school?

Key
ideas
The goal of
psychology should
be practical

The best way to


modify behavior
was to modify
environment

1. Operant
conditioning

2. Reinforcement
stimulus

STRATEGIES
OF THE
THEORY

Behavior that act on


the surrounding
environment to
produce
consequences

2 categories :
i. Continuous
reinforcement schedule
ii. Partial reinforcement
schedule

Advocate for
immediate praise,
feedback and reward
to encourage change
in behavior

Behaviour modification is
widely used today to shape
student behaviourin
desirable directions
through systematic
reinforcement.

IMPLEMENTATIO
N OF THE
THEORY

Did not advocate using


punishment in shaping
behaviour, as he considered
its effects unreliable.

Advocates for teacher


identification and
reflection on
environmental effects
on pupils behavior

Strengths and Weaknesses


Strengths

Weaknesses

The use of positive reinforcement give


pleasant result more effective than
negative reinforcement

Rewards avoids the possibility to find


intrinsic motivation

Suitable and can be used to modify pupils


behavior

The use of reward trains humans to expect


rewards to what they do

Sometimes negative reinforcement is also


suitable to achieve desire behavior
(Extrinsic motivation)

Teacher have to go through failure in order


to get success

The classroom environment is appropriate


in learning

Students will behave to get the reward.

Speed up and strengthen learning and help


students change their behavior for the
better.

Overly cumbersome and inefficient in


teaching students the way they should and
shouldn't behave

PRACTICALITY OF THEORY IN
CLASSROOM

Ajrul in Mr Lims class is quite passive and obedient. He never create a fuss and does
little socializing with his peers. However, he rarely participate in class activities and
doesnt care about completing homework and exercises given. He just follow the flow
of the class and doesnt show any effort to improve himself.
When Ajrul is being good by doing anything
that is appropriate, reward him whenever he
participates or works
Reiterate the class rules regarding class
work. Praise Ajrul whenever he follows the
rule or active in the class.
Consider stronger reinforces. If praise is
ineffective, use points, tokens, or other
tangible to reinforce and shape Ajruls
improvement.
Set up a contract with Ajrul. Identify a
reward that is exceptionally attractive to
him. Outline what he must do in order to
earn the reward.

Quotes of Glasser

APPROACHES
AND
STRATEGIES

Students behaviour
is determined by
students
choice
not
teachers
control

We are driven to
satisfy basic
needs: survival,
love, belonging,
power, freedom
and fun

THE CHOICE
THEORY
To replace
external control
psychology

Teacher must share


with pupils that they
have a say in what they
learn

IMPLEMENTATION
OF THE THEORY

Students
determine what
they want

Teaching through the


use of skits or roleplaying

Provide
opportunities
for students to take an
active role in their
learning
Teacher could
encourage pupils to
made creative
representations to show
the importance of

STRENGTHS
AND
WEAKNESSE
S

STRENGTHS (GLASSER)

WEAKNESSES

promote a high degree of autonomy and


responsibility for students.

it is difficult for teachers to help


students satisfy their need for control
without feeling threatened themselves.

help students see a wide range of


possible consequences for their
behaviour.

it is difficult to react properly when


communicating with students about
their inappropriate behaviours.

allow students to determine solutions to


their own discipline problems.

Classroom meetings may consume


more time than is desirable.

help students understand their needs


and how to satisfy these need
legitimately.

It may be difficult to help students who do


not want to be in school to make plans to
improve their behaviour.

explain clearly what a teacher needs to


do for every misbehaving student.

Practicality in the Primary ESL classroom

Quotes from gordon


Mito insert Gordon part.

State whether the


theories appeal
to you and provide
reasons

JACOB KOUNIN

SKINNER

GLASSER

GORDON

Yes, because Jacob


Kounin
focuses on the ways of
how the teacher
manages the class and
this is the first way to
take control over the
class.

Ruba x tau kertas tu


wey.

Yes, Help students see


what behaviour they can
control and make
plans to reach
attainable goals

Yes, Problem solving is a


process that should be
taught and practiced in
all classrooms

We agree that classroom


management should
start from the teacher
and not only blaming on
the pupils negative
behavior
This is because if the
lesson plan is perfect, it
does not mean that the
pupils will learn from it if
the teacher fails to
control the class.

By helping children find


their own solutions to
Teacher canchoose
problems, it will foster
behaviours that will help more independence,
students meet their
more control over their
needs more effectively
own destiny, and higher
in the future
self-esteem.

Pupils are more


motivated and
confident when they
feel they have more
control over their
environment (selfcontrolled)

Administrators and
teachers can
concentrate more on
education and less on
discipline.
Teachers will make
schooling far more

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the theory proposed by each theory is
very effective in promoting a conducive atmosphere to
learning. The strategies suggested are very helpful in
dealing with the students misbehaviors. However, the
teacher should be aware that each student is different,
thus the teacher needs to modify or improves the
techniques to make it compatible with the students