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# Processing Hill Charts

For
Hytran Transient Analysis
Prepared by:
Sabin Maharjan
Anil Kutuwo

7/5/2015

Content
1.

2.

3.

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## Introduction to Hill Chart

Processing
Hill Charts or Diagrams

## Graphical representation of the turbine flow data and

the power output obtained from model tests.

manufacturer.

1.Unit

2.Unit

Torque

vs Unit Speed

3.Unit

Power

vs Unit Speed

4.Unit

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## Introduction to Hill Chart

Processing contd..

D
N
Q
Hn
P
T

=
=
=
=
=
=

## Diameter of the turbine runner (m)

Rotational speed (rpm)
Discharge (m3/s)
Power Output (kW)
Torque (Nm)

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## Introduction to Hill Chart

Processing contd..
Why Hill Chart Processing

## The relationship between the net head and discharge

has to be specified to simulate a turbine in a transient
state. Flow through a turbine depends upon various
parameters. Curves representing the relationship
between these parameters are described as the turbine
characteristics.

Assumption
Little information about above mentioned parameters are
available during transient state conditions.
Therefore, steady state turbine characteristics are
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assumed to be valid during the transient state

## Introduction to Hill Chart

Processing contd..

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## Introduction to Hill Chart

Processing contd..

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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

The Hill diagram must be processed before Hytran can
model the turbine boundary condition.

Objective
To calculate turbine behavior in terms of the turbine head
and torque during the transient state.

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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
Plotting the Hill Chart
X-axis
Unit Speed (from zero beyond runaway speed because during
steady state model tests, unit speed cannot exceed the runaway
speed for a particular net head and gate opening. During
transient state, the speed may exceed the runaway speed for a
short duration.)

Y-axis
could be Unit Discharge, Unit Torque, Unit Power or Efficiency

## On plot, extrapolate the gate curve for the full range of

the unit speed (from zero to beyond the runaway speed).
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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
How to Extrapolate
For Low Unit Speed
extrapolate the gate curves by following the general trend of
curves.

## For Higher unit speed range

extrapolate the gate curve beyond the runaway speed and
negative Y axis. Use whatever information you may have from
published curves, actual data, experience etc., to extend the
gate curves in this region.
This is the most difficult procedure and yet the most crucial
for modeling the turbine behavior just prior to the wicket
gate fully closing.

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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
Gate Curve Representation
The gate curves are usually labeled as an opening size in
percentage.
The aim is to extract data for gate openings from 100% to
0% opening in step of 10%, i.e., 11 curves are required.
Largest gate opening means the 100% open curve. The
zero curve represents the zero opening.
Try to get this information from the turbine supplier.

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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
Extracting the Raw Hill Chart Data
Select a range of Unit Speed values from a low value to
beyond the runaway speed.
Two procedures can be adopted for the extracting of raw
data:

opening curves

## The Hill Diagram processing software can carry out the

actual interpolation to find the values for the percentage
openings. In both cases however, the zero opening gate
curve must be drawn.
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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
Tabulated Format
Enter the Q1 and T1 vs N1 data onto an Excel spreadsheet in the following format
--------------------- Max to zero Gate Openings from Max ------------------------N1 32.53 28.5 24.0 21.0 18.0 15.03 12.0 9.0 6.0 3.0 0.0
2 0.625 0.595 0.520 0.470 0.410 0.345 0.270 0.210 0.130 0.060 0.030
5 0.625 0.600 0.530 0.475 0.415 0.350 0.275 0.220 0.135 0.060 0.030
10 0.635 0.600 0.530 0.475 0.415 0.350 0.275 0.220 0.135 0.060 0.030
15 0.630 0.600 0.525 0.470 0.414 0.345 0.275 0.215 0.133 0.060 0.030
.
.
52 0.115 0.060 0.050 0.025 -0.010 -0.110 -0.130 -0.155 -0.160 -0.165 -0.170
54 0.090 0.030 -0.005 -0.010 -0.035 -0.125 -0.140 -0.150 -0.165 -0.170 -0.175
.
. Etc

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## Hill Diagram Pre Processing

contd.
Smooth out data
Plot Q and T vs N gate data onto Excel graph and smooth
out the gate curves.
Excel spreadsheet data can be pasted into a text file for
the next stage of the processing.

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## Processing Hill Chart Data

Raw data processing
To read the raw Hill Chart data by the Hytran, it must
be processed by using a software HillDiagram.
HillDiagram provided by the Hytran package
HillDiagram can be used. It reads the raw Q and T vs N
data, interpolates to find the gate curves
corresponding to the 100% ,90% 10% 0% openings. This
data is then processed to produce the turbine
characteristics.

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Other Data Required
Turbine data
Rated discharge QR (m3/s)
Rated speed NR (rpm)
Rated Torque TR (m3/s )
Runner diameter D (m)

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Conversion Factor
Conversion factors may be applied to convert the raw Q,T
and N into the standard units.

1.

## These may be the original data provided. The largest

opening is assumed to be the maximum opening and the
smallest one is the fully closed gate position.

2.

## Equivalent openings corresponding to the nominated

percentage openings. The maximum open position is
assumed to be the 100% opened position and the fully
closed position is assumed to be the 0% opening. The
other positions must be the 90%, 80%, 70% 60%, 50%,
40%, 30%, 20%, 10% positions. A total of 11 gate values
MUST be provided.

## HillDiagram Software will interpolate within the given

gate settings to find the 100%, 90%, ..20%, 10%, 0%
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gate settings.

## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

To Run HillDiagram Software

Go to

Start/Programs/Hytran Solutions/HillDiagram

## Select from the menu Process Hill Diagram and enter

the name of the data file (*.dat).

The output file is the *.lis file with all the steps of the
processing involved and a *.cha file which Hytran can

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Turbine .cha file

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

The rows are WH and WB values representing the
turbine characteristic for the various gate openings.
The rows are the values for each gate opening
(Maximum to minimum opening) for the angles from
-9 to +90 digress. There are 34 values.
Typically the plots of WH and WB will be similar to
the diagram below.

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Smooth Gate Closure
The zero gate curve is an approximation only and is selected
as almost closed allowing flow past the gate up until the
closing time at which the flow is abruptly brought to rest
resulting in a possible rise in pressure. The aim is to
introduce a smooth transition of the flow to zero as the gates
are changed.

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Turbine WH and WB Characteristics Curve

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Streeters Horizontal Interpolation
The characteristic curves
are stored in 2 matrices as WH and WB.
There are 11 gate openings from 100% to 0% in steps of
10%: the maximum gate opening is regarded as No 1 while
the zero opening is No 11. For each gate opening, The WH
and WB values are plotted against tan-1(/a) from -9 0 to
900 in steps of 30 giving a total of 34 points defining the
turbine characteristic for each gate opening. The WH
curve is shown below.

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## Processing Hill Chart Data Contd

Zero Gate Curve Representation

## Any problems are likely to occur just prior to the turbine

wicket gates fully closing. The closer the zero gate curve is
to Zero, the better results. Using the closing adjustment
can be used to give a smooth discharge to override any
deficiencies in the final gate closing.

## Another area of experimentation is the extrapolation of the

Q1 and T1 curves beyond the runaway speed.

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## Use the Hill Diagram file in Hytran

After completing above mentioned process and applying
required adjustment the .cha file produced by Hill Diagram
can be used in Hytran Software to input data for Franscis
Turbine.

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Trouble Shooting
Since there is a significant amount of extrapolation to
obtain data from the original Hill Chart, it is very likely
some trial and error adjustments will be required. In most
cases, the troublesome area is the location of the small
gate and zero gate openings producing the maximum
transients. The shorter the gate closure time, the more
important it is to have the gate drawn at correct
positions.

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The gate opening should be adjusted on the originally Hill Chart and
reprocessed as it affects both the WH and WB curve.

## However, it has been found useful to simple change the WH and WB

curves to calibrate test and Hytran results as it is less time consuming.
Changing the WH will require a change in the WB as well.

Use Excel to open a *.cha file and set the cells to read the WH and WB
values. Plot both the WH and WB characteristic curves. By visual
observation of the curves, make adjustments.

## By changing the WH first will help to correct the transient heads

to correct the torque and speed curves.

## Check the WH and WB curves are the Correct shape

Spacing of the WH and WB curves of curves at small gate
openings and angles

To reduce the speed drop after gate closure, raise the Torque curve
(WB) at low angels (-9 to 12)

For low gate closure times, particularly when the penstocks have been
reduced in diameter to produce very high velocities7/5/2015
at the turbine,
the
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gate closure rates are crucial. Also the servo position and gate area
should be accurate.

THANK YOU

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