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Digital Electronics

Logic Families
TTL and CMOS

Logic Families Competencies


61. Without references the student will state what the
acronym TTL stands for with 100% accuracy.
62. Without references the student will state the
voltage levels acceptable to a TTL input for a logic 0
and a logic 1 with 100% accuracy.
63. Without references the student will state what
the acronym CMOS stands for with 100% accuracy.
64. Without references the student will state the voltage
levels acceptable to a CMOS input for a logic 0 and a
logic 1 with 100% accuracy.
65. Without references, the student will list three
differences between the TTL and CMOS logic families
with 100% accuracy.
66. Without references the student will state what the
acronym ECL stands for with 100% accuracy.

Logic Families Vocabulary


TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) Integrated-circuit technology that
uses the bipolar transistor as the principal circuit element.

CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Integrated-circuit


technology that uses the field-effect transistor as the principal circuit element.
ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic) Integrated-circuit technology that uses the
bipolar transistors configured as a differential amplifier. This eliminates
saturation and improves speed but uses more power than other families.

DIODE TRANSISTOR LOGIC

DIODE TRANSISTOR LOGIC

FILL IN THE TRUTH TABLE

5V
+V

0V

1k

DIODE

A
1k

0V

DIODE

Y
MMBT3904

0
0

1
1

1
0
1

What logic function is this circuit?

LOGIC LEVELS / NOISE MARGIN


Voltage characteristic - defines logical 0
(LOW) or logical 1 (HIGH)
Noise immunity (noise margin)- logic circuits
insensitivity or resistance to undesired
voltages called noise.
TTL Voltage Profiles Chart
Input
Output

LOW GND - 0.8V


HIGH

2.0 - 5.5V

GND - 0.4V (0.1V


typical)
2.4 - 5.5V (3.5V
typical)

INPUT VOLTAGE PROFILESTTL AND 4000 SERIES CMOS


Input Voltage Profiles
+5V

TTL 100% CMOS

HIGH

LOW
GND

90%
80% HIGH
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10% LOW
0%

+10V

CAUTION
LOW
Undefined
OutputUndefined
V profile differs
0
toprobe
+3V
for
CMOS
HIGH
logic
reading
may
Other
families
V
profile
+3 to +7V
for
CMOSdiffers
0
to
+0.8V
inCMOS
TTL
vary
depending
on
+7V
toto
+10V
+0.8V
+2.0V- for
TTL
manufacturer
+2V
to +5V - TTL

TEST
TTL Voltage Profiles
INPUT

OUTPUT
+5V

+5V

H
Input
+1.2V
Input==+0.3V
+4V
+2.2V
Output = ?

+2V

?
Low

+2.4V

+0.8V
GND

+0.4V
GND

Undefined
HIGH
?
LOW

Low

(Left mouse click for questions and answers)

OTHER DIGITAL IC SPECIFICATIONS


Drive Capabilities- sometimes referred to as fan-in or fanout.
Fan out- number of inputs of a logic family that can be
driven by a single output. The drive capability of outputs.
Fan in- the load an input places on an output.
Propagation delay- has to do with the speed of the logic
element. Lower propagation delays mean higher speed
which is a desirable characteristic.
Power Dissipation- generally, as propagation delays
decrease, power consumption and heat generation
increase. CMOS is noted for low power consumption.

MOS AND CMOS ICs

MOS stands for metal-oxide semiconductor.

PMOS, NMOS, and CMOS are three technologies used to


manufacture ICs.

NMOS stands for negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor.


NMOS ICs are faster than PMOS.

PMOS stands for positive-channel metal-oxide semiconductor.

CMOS stands for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.


Both PMOS and NMOS devices are used it its manufacture.

CMOS ICs are noted for exceptionally low power consumption.

CMOS ICs were slower than bipolar digital ICs (such as TTL
devices).

Transmission gates or bilateral switches are unique digital devices


created using CMOS technology.

TEST
1. The drive capability of logic device outputs is
sometimes called ___ (fan in, fan out). It is the
number of inputs of a logic family that can be driven
by a single output.

Fan Out

2. CMOS devices are noted for their extremely ___


(high, low) power consumption.

Low

3. A logic device with a low propagation delay would


be considered to be a ___ (high, low) speed
device.

High

4. Several desirable characteristics of logic


devices are good drive capabilities, low power
Low
consumption, and ___ (high, low) propagation
delays.
(Left click mouse for questions and answers)

MOSFET
METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS
P-CHANNEL ENHANCEMENT

TO TURN ON GATE MUST BE


LOWER THAN SOURCE

N-CHANNEL ENHANCEMENT

TO TURN ON GATE MUST BE


HIGHER THAN SOURCE

MOSFET
METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS
C-MOS
5V
+V

5V 5V
+V +V

10k

D
0V

N-MOS
S

T O TURN ON
GAT E HIGHER
T HAN SOURCE

5V

10k

P-MOSD

G
0V

5V
+V

D
10k

O T URN
T O TURN
ON ON
E HIGHER
GAT GAT
E LOWER
SOURCE
T HANT HAN
SOURCE

N-MOS

5V
+V

5V

Vin
G 0V P-MOS
D
10k

T O T URN ON
GAT E LOWER
T HAN SOURCE

P-MOS
Vout
N-MOS

0V Vin

CMOS
COMPLIMENTARY
METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR

CMOS
COMPLIMENTARY
METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
C-MOS
5V
+V

P-MOS
0V Vin

Vout
N-MOS

ECL
EMITTER COUPLED LOGIC