Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 90

Printing can also be defined as localized

dyeing.
Defined as the application of dye or pigment
in a different pattern on the fabric and by
subsequent after treatment of fixing the dye
or pigment to get a particular design.
Sometimes a printed fabric can be identified
by looking at the back side of fabric where
there is no design or color as face side.
In cotton, dyes like vat, reactive are used
In manmade, dyes like disperse and cationic
are used

DIFFERENT STYLES OF
PRINTING
There are three basic approaches to printing
a color on a fabric
1. DIRECT PRINTING
2. DISCHARGE PRINTING
3. RESIST PRINTING

DIRECT PRINTING

In this type of printing dye is applied onto


the fabric by carved block, stencil,
screen, engraved roller etc.
The dye is imprinted on the fabric in
paste form and any desired pattern may
be produced
Example:-Block Printing, Roller Printing,
Screen Printing etc.

DISCHARGE PRINTING
In this method the fabric is dyed and then
printed with a chemical that will destroy
the color in designed areas.
Sometimes the base color is removed and
another color printed in its place.

RESIST PRINTING
In this method bleached fabric are printed with a
resist paste ( a resinous substance that cannot
be penetrated when the fabric is immersed in a
dye ).
The dye will only affect only the parts that are not
covered by the resist paste .
After the fabric has passed through a
subsequent dyeing process the resist paste is
removed, leaving a pattern on a dark
background

DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRINTING

BLOCK PRINTING
ROLLER PRINTING
SCREEN PRINTING
FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING
ROTARY PRINTING
TRANSFER PRINTING
STENCIL PRINTING
DIGITAL PRINTING
BATIK PRINTING
TIE & DYE

BLOCK PRINTING
It is the oldest and simplest way of printing
In this method a wooden block with a
raised pattern on the surface was dipped
into the printing colorant and then pressed
face down on to fabric.
The desired pattern was obtained by
repeating the process using different
colors.
Generally the wooden block is carved out
of hand
Printing is done manually

BLOCK PRINTING

BLOCK PRINTING

BLOCK PRINTING

BLOCK PRINTING
1.
2.
3.
4.

ADVANTAGES
Simple method of
printing
No expensive
equipment required
No limitation in repeat
of size of style
Prints produced have
great decorative value
and stamp of
craftsmanship

1.
2.
3.

4.

DISADVANTAGES
Involves much
manual work
Method is slow and
therefore low output
Good skilled labors
needed for multi color
design
Fine and delicate
designs hard to
produce

ROLLER PRINTING
It is the machine method of printing
designs on cloths by engraved rollers.
The design is engraved on the surface of
a metal roller, to which dye is applied, and
the excess is scraped off the roller's
surface, leaving dye in the engraved
sections. When it rolls across the fabric,
the dye on the roller transfers to the fabric.

Diagram of roller printing m/c

ROLLER PRINTING
ADVANTAGES
1. Large quantities of
fabric at the rate of
914-3658m per hour
can be printed.
2. Faulty joints or joint
marks are absent.
3. Fine sharp outlines
and good prints can
be obtained which is
difficult to get in
block printing.

1.
2.
3.
4.

DISADVANTAGES
Not economical for
short run of fabrics.
Difficult to produce
blotch designs.
Repeat of design
limited to the size of
the rollers.
Setup cost of roller
printing m/c is high

STENCIL PRINTING
It is one of the oldest way of printing.
In it color is applied to the fabric by
brushing or spraying the interstices of a
pattern cut out from a flat sheet of metal or
waterproof paper or plastic sheet or
laminated sheet.
A stencil is prepared by cutting out a design
from a flat sheet of paper, metal, or plastic.

Example of stencil printing

STENCIL PRINTING

ADVANTAGES
1. Simple and cost
effective.
2. Stencils can be
made rapidly and
can be used for
small orders.
3. Color combination is
good in it.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Good design is
difficult to obtain.
2. Process is laborious.
3. Not suitable for large
scale production.

Flock Printing
Printing technique consisting of the application of flock
(very short fiber) to the surface of a fabric by means of
an adhesive. The flock may be contained in the adhesive
paste, may be dusted onto it, or applied electrostatically
to hold it erect. Used to print various small designs onto
the fabric, such as dots and figures, especially on lightweight or sheer fabric.

The foil (0.5 mm) is somewhat thicker


than flex, which causes the design to
appear slightly elevated from the
apparel and results in the plush feel.
The colors have a soft glow to them.

Flex PRINTING
Flex is a printing
technique where the
design is cut from a
colored foil and then
pressed onto the shirt
under high heat.

A polyurethane material that has a


smooth finish. It is heat pressed at over
350 degrees until the material
permanently adheres to the fibers of the
garment. It is available in dozens of
colors that include specialty surfaces as
metallic, neon, glitter and glow-in-thedark

High Density Ink


High Density is a popular special effect ink that when printed, rises straight up
off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print
has slight glossy finish.
Suede is a special effect ink similar to high density ink except with a soft leather
like feel. Suede ink can be either printed high for a 3-D effect or printed
normally for a more subtle felt like feel.
A finished sueade print has a matte finish and is very soft to the touch.
High Density and Suede are clear bases that can be added to any print color.
(example blue-"High Density" grey "Suede"

FOIL
Foil is actually a heat press application, but can be
applied on press for certain affects. Foil adheres to
plastisol inks or a clear foil adhesive. Available in
silver, gold, bronze, red, and blue. There are some
awesome iridescent foil affects available too - just
check with your sales rep

Foil Printing
Foil printing is to print some pattern with
the foil on the fabric for shiny effect. There
are twos kind of foil printing method.
In the first method, the pattern is printed by
a foil/transfer adhesive on the fabric, and
then pressed with foil paper by hot steel
roller.
The pressure is generally 5-6 bar on
printed portion and at 190 degree Celcius
on fusing machine for 8-12 seconds.

In foil printing, the quality of the adhesive is very important.


Generally it is made up of acrylic co-polymer with water as diluent.
Cheaper qualities show very poor stretch, loss of softness and smoothness
after five washes and look very unlike the original print.
The foil should not stick to cured inks under pressure.
Normally a matting agent is added to avoid sticking.
In the second method, printing is done on the foil paper first, and then foil is
pressed on the fabric with hot steel roller or iron.
Foil paper is called the stamping foil paper. Actually it is not the paper but
the detachable foil film on the plastic base.
Generally it is PET film of 15 micron thickness, available in widths of 640 or 1500mm.

Suede is a special effect ink similar to high density ink


except with a soft leather like feel. Suede ink can be either
printed high for a 3-D effect or printed normally for a more
subtle felt like feel.
A finished sueade print has a matte finish and is very soft to
the touch.
High Density and Suede are clear bases that can be added
to any print color.
(example blue-"High Density" grey "Suede"
Suede ink was derived from puff ink. The
process for printing is similar, but suede ink
results with with a raised fuzzy nap
reminiscent of suede leather
Suede leather is made from the underside
of the skin, primarily lamb, although goat,
pig, calf and deer are commonly used

One of the original specialty affects in the world of screen


printing. Puff ink is a plastisol that has been modified with
the addition of a heat reactive foaming agent. The ink
expands when exposed to high temperature heat as the
garment is cured

Burn Out Printing:


1. PC or CVC fabric.
2. Paste + Any acid liverating salt (like Nacl,Na2 so4)
3. Steaming
4. Washing (Roubasting wash)
5. Burnout print complete
Only print technicians will understand the above 5 points
.
Step by Step Printing Process of Burn out Print:
1st Step: Develop the print design and screen with the buyer provided
artwork.
2nd St ep: Knit the fabric with the yarn of following composition
a) 60% polyester 40% cotton OR
b) 40% polyester 60% cotton Or similar like that.
3rd Step: After complete the kitting of fabric send the gray or scouring
fabric to printing factory.
4th Step: Perform the print on this fabric. Here, the cotton part will be
destroyed by the acid but polyester portion will
be remain same.
5th Step: Then we will dye and finished the fabric as per our require
color.
.

Reflective Ink
Reflective ink is made up of a clear base combined with
thousands of tiny aluminum coated glass beads.
These beads are highly reflective when exposed to light.
The ink has a muted grey color when printed and
a bright silver/white color when reflecting.
Because the ink color is so muted we recommend that all the
reflective ink used in a design be either outlined
or surrounded by other print colors to improve.
Adding reflective ink to your design is a relatively inexpensive
way to make sure that your shirts will stand out from
the crowd.
Composition
TiO2-BaO-SiO2
Refractive Index
1.93+-0.01nd
Size range
20-105um(can be provided by request)
Color
siliver

Plasticharge Ink
Plasticharge is a hybrid of Discharge and plastisol ink. In Plasticharge printing a
discharge solution is mixed 50/50 with traditional plastisol inks.
The principal behind plasticharge printing is that when printing, the discharge
portion of the ink will remove the garment color while at the same time the
plastisol ink will lay down a thin deposit of new color.
This type of printing like discharge should be washed before being worn.
The finished print very light and soft to the touch.

Plastisol is a thermoplastic, it will remelt if it


comes in contact with anything hot enough. For
that reason, plastisol prints cannot be ironed. If
an iron touches a print, it will smear the ink

Plastisol ink is a PVC (Some inks are Phalide Free) based system
that essentially contains no solvent at all. Along with UV ink used
in graphic screen printing, it is referred to as a 100% solid ink
system. Plastisol is a thermoplastic ink in that it is necessary to
heat the printed ink film to a temperature high enough to cause the
molecules of PVC resin and
plasticizer to cross-link and thereby solidify, or cure. The
temperature at which most plastisol for textile printing cures at is
in the range of 300 F to 330F

Water Base Pigment Printing


Water base pigment is a type of powder that has to be mixed
with water to get pigments. The powder comes in various
colors different shades of each color can get by amount the
water mixed in the powder. During the mixing there is
possibility for dust particle to get into it since the mix up
makes a soft paste then the dust particles can be dried out
easily. Water base pigments are the largest majority of
pigments used today. It gives quality and long lasting print

Water-based ink utilizes either dyes or


pigments in a suspension with water as
the solvent. The evaporation of the
water is necessary to set or cure the
ink. This curing can take place either at
room temperature or using a forced-air
dryer depending upon the specific
water-based ink used and the speed or
volume of production.

when automatic machine printing came in vogue, there was a need to have troublefree-non-choking inks which led to the development of PVC based plastisol inks.
Since the beginning of the 21st century there has been an increased awareness
about the ill effects of PVC / residual VCM in PVC and phthalate plasticizers used in
these inks. Leading European garment brands have been intensively campaigning for
PVC / phthalate / APEO / formaldehyde / heavy metal free water based inks. This led
to the shift back to water based inks. The challenge to day is to offer water based
systems meeting the eco-standards but at the same time ability to address the user
friendliness especially on high speed automatic machines.

Khadi Print (White Ink Print)


Khadi Print is mainly done on dark or light colored fabric.
The Printing method involves titanium dioxide with other
auxiliaries mixing up these two materials into the colorants
gives different color combination and the important factors
always to keep in mind proper mixing gives need print and
soft handle

SCREEN PRINTING
It involves the application of the printing
paste through a fine screen placed in
contact with the fabric to be printed.
A design is created in reverse on the
screen by blocking areas of the screen
with a material such as an opaque paint.
The screen is then placed over the fabric
and the printing paste is forced through
the open areas of the screen using a
flexible synthetic rubber or steel blade
known as a squeegee.

PROCESS OF SCREEN PRITING

SCREEN PAPER SIDE

ORIGINAL PRINT

SCREEN SQUEEZE SIDE

PRINT ON FABRIC

SCREEN PRINTING

1.
2.
3.
4.

ADVANTAGES
Simple and cost
effective.
Quick pattern making
16 colors can be
used in a design.
Sharp lines and
features easily
produced.

DISADVANTAGES
1. For high production
large no. of tables
required.
2. Delicate shading
difficult to obtain.
3. Screen clogging
may be there in fine
areas.

FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING
It is the advanced version of screen
printing by using automatic m/c to do work
It consists of printing table, conveyor belt,
number of screens, mechanism to print on
the fabric, etc.
First the fabric is brought on the printing
table through a feeding arrangement and
it is gummed to the conveyor belt on the
table

Conveyor brings fabric periodically under


screen and stops while the screen are
lowered on the required parts of the fabric.
Printing paste is distributed throughout the
full length of the screen.
The squeeze is pressed to the screen .
One or more strokes of the squeeze
ensure simultaneous printing of the
pattern by the common action of all
screens which applies printing paste as
required by the color in the design.

FLAT-SCREEN PRINTING M/C

FLAT SCREEN PRINTING

ADVANTAGES
1. Greater production
than manual screen
printing
2. Printing with different
repeat can be made
easily
3. Good print is
obtained

DISADVANTAGES
1. A big setup required
for more number of
screens
2. Prints with more
colors may not be
possible
3. Printing paste not
evenly controlled

ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING


Rotary screen printing involves a series of
revolving metal cylinder , each with
revolving screens, each with a stationary
squeegee inside which forces the print
paste onto the fabric.
Twenty or more colours can be printed at
the same time.
The process is much quicker and more
efficient than flat screen printing .

Working of rotary screen printing


m/c

A rotary screen printing m/c

Feeding of color to rollers

TRANSFER PRINTING
It is a indirect method of printing in which
dyes are transferred from paper to a
thermoplastic fabric under controlled
conditions of temperature, time and pressure.
The image is first engraved on a copper
plate.
Then pigment is applied on these plates.
The image is then transferred to a piece of
paper, with a layer of glue applied .
This is then placed on the fabric and heat and
pressure applied which fixes the print onto
fabric.

Process of transfer printing

High density printing inkjet transfer paper


1. Washable
2. Good touch feeling
OEKO-TEX standard 100
High Density 3D print heat transfer printing on T shirt shoes label print with OEKO-TEX
STANDARD 100

2,Film thickness: 0.07-0.09mm


3,Peeling way: hot or cool peeling
4,Transfer temperature:140-160centigrade,
5,Transfer time: 10-12s,
6,Transfer press: 5-6kg
7,Glue fitness: fine
8,Suit for cotton, blend textile, such as underwear cloth, swim suit, physical beauty suit,
advertising shirt,shoes' tongue
9. Delivery time
1) 5-8 days for samples
2) 5-10 days for production according to the quantity.

TRANSFER PRINTING

ADVANTAGES
1. Operation is simple
and no expensive
m/c is required.
2. No after treatment of
fabric required
3. Print on fabric is of
excellent quality

1.

2.
3.
4.

DISADVANTAGES
Process applicable to
synthetic fabric like
polyester .
Color range is limited.
Cost of printed paper
high.
Not economical for
small orders.

RESIST PRINTING
There are two types of resist printing
BATIK PRINTING
TIE & DIE PRINTING

BATIK PRINTING
Originated on island of Java and is a
cottage based industry.
Batik is derived from word AMBATIK
The resist-dyeing process, whereby
designs are made with wax on a fabric
which is subsequently immersed in a dye
to absorb the color on the unwaxed
portions, is known as batik printing.
Special feature is the fine lines of color
running irregularly across the fabric.

BATIK PRINTING

ADVANTAGES
Gives a good artistic
effect
Cheap printing
Greater artistic
design
Fabric has a rich
and graceful
appearance

DISADVANTAGES
Laborious
Time taking
Cracking effect
Dye should be
applied at low
temperature than
wax.

TIE & DYE


It is same as that of batik printing but here
the dye is resisted by knots that are tied in
the cloth before it is immersed in dye bath.
The outside of the knotted portion is dyed,
but inside is not penetrated if the knot is
firmly tied.
This gives a characteristic blurred or
mottled effect .

TIE & DYE


ADVANTAGE
Interesting design
created on fabric
No m/c cost is there

DISADVANTAGE
Costly
Laborious
Time taking
Skilled labour
required

DIGITAL PRINTING
It is the more advanced type of printing.
This includes :Jet spray printing
Electrostatic printing
Photo printing
Differential printing

PHOTO PRINTING M/C

CLASSICAL
Also known as ethnic or traditional print. In
this print classical motifs or traditional
collections are used such as mango,
elephant with the chariots, old musical
instruments etc. the culture of any
particular place can also be considered
such as tie and dye , batik, block of
Rajasthan etc

FLORAL PRINT
It has the print of varieties of flower either
in bunch or single spotted , huge or
small , combination of leaves and other
addings.
Color combination is very important.