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PowerPoint Slides
to accompany

Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 3
Electromechanical-EnergyConversion Principles
3-1

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SYSTEMS
Lorentz Force
Law:

F q (E v B )

## For many charged

particle

Fv (E v B)

3-2

N/m
3

(
m3)

coulombs/

Current
density

Jv

A/m2

Fv J B

Current

IJA

F IB

N/m

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Example 3.1: A nonmagnetic motor containing a singleturn coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field of
magnitude B0, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The coil sides
are at radius R and the wire carries current I as
indicated. Find the -directed torque as a function
of rotor position when I=10 A, B0=0.02 T and
R=0.05 m. Assume that the rotor is of length l=0.3
m.

3-3

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## Very few problems can be solved using Lorentz

force, where current-carrying elements and simple
structures exist.
Most electromechanical-energy-conversion devices
contain magnetic material and forces can not be
calculated from Lorentz force.
Thus, We will use ENERGY METHOD based on
conservation of energy.

3-4

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## Electrical terminals: e and i

Mechanical terminals: ffld and x
Losses separated from energy storage
mechanism
Interaction through magnetic stored energy

3-5

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## Time rate of change of Wfld (field energy) equals to the

difference of input electrical power and output
mechanical power for lossless systems.

d W fld
dt

e i f fld

dx
dt

or

d W fld i d f fld dx
Force can be solved as a function of flux linkage and
position x.

3-6

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## 3.2 ENERGY BALANCE

Energy neither created nor destroyed, it only
changes the form.
Energy balance equation is written for motor action
below
Increase in Energy
Energy input Mechanical
from electric energy energy stored converted

## d Welec d Wmech d W fld

d Welec : Differential electrical energy input
d Wmech : Differential mechanical energy output
d W fld : Differential change in magnetic stored energy
3-7

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## 3.3 ENERGY IN SINGLY-EXCITED MAGNETIC FIELD

SYSTEMS
Schematic of an electromagnetic relay. Figure 3.4

3-8

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## The magnetic circuit can be described by an inductance

which is a function of the geometry and permeability of
the magnetic material.
When air-gap exist in most cases Rgap>>Rcore and energy
storage occurs in the gap.
Magnetic nonlinearity and core losses neglected in
practical devices.
Flux linkage and current linearly related.

L( x) i

Energy equation

d W fld i d f fld dx

## Wfld uniquely specified by the value of and x. Thus,

and x are called STATE VARIABLES.

3-9

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## Magnetic stored energy Wfld uniquely determined

by and x regardless of how they are brought to
their final values.

W fld

d W fld dW fld

path 2 a

path 2b

W fld (0 , x0 ) i ( , x0 ) d
0

## OR magnetic stored energy:

V 0

W fld

H dB dV
Integration paths for Wfld.Figure 3.5

3-10

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## Example 3.2:The relay shown on the figure is made of

infinitely-permeable magnetic material with a
movable plunger, also of infinitely-permeable
material. The height of the plunger is much greater
than the air-gap length (h>>g). Calculate the
magnetic stored energy Wfld as a function of plunger
position (0<x<d) for N=1000 turns, g=2 mm, d=0.15
m, l=0.1 m, and i=10 A.

3-11

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## 3.4 DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC FORCE AND

TORQUE FROM ENERGY
Consider any state function F(x1, x2), the total
differential of F with respect to the two variables x 1
and x2

F
d F ( x1 , x2 )
x1

x2

F
d x1
x2

d x2
x1

## Similarly, for energy function Wfld(, x)

d W fld ( , x)

W fld

d
x

W fld
x

d W fld ( , x) i d f fld dx
3-12

dx

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W fld

f fld

W fld
x

## Once we know the energy, current and more

importantly force can be calculated.
For a system with rotating mechanical terminal

f fld T fld

d W fld ( , ) i d T fld d
T fld
3-13

W fld ( , )

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## Example 3.4:The magnetic circuit below consists of a

single-coil stator and an oval rotor. Because the airgap is nonuniform, the coil inductance varies with
rotor angular position, measured between the
magnetic axis of the stator coil and the major axis of
the rotor, as L( ) L L cos ( 2 )
0

## where where L0=10.6 mH and L2=2.7 mH. Note the

second-harmonic variation of inductance with rotor
angle .

3-14

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## 3.5 DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC FORCE AND TORQUE

FROM COENERGY

d W fld ( , x) i d f fld dx
Mathematically manipulated to define a new state
function known as the COENERGY, from which force
can be obtained directly as a function of current.

(i, x) i W fld ( , x)
W fld
(i, x) di f fld dx
d W fld
Note that energy and
coenergy equal for linear
systems.

3-15

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(i, x)
d W fld

W fld
i

di
x

W fld
x

dx
i

(i, x) di f fld dx
d W fld

(i, x)
W fld
i

f fld

(i, x)
W fld

(i, x) (i, x) di
W fld
0

3-16

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## In field-theory terms, for soft magnetic

materals (B=0 when H=0)

W fld

H0

B dH dV

## For permanent magnet materials (B=0 when

H=Hc)

W fld

H0

B
dH
dV

V Hc

3-17

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## Effect of x on the energy and coenergy of a singly-excited device: (a)

change of energy with held constant; (b) change of coenergy with i held
constant. Figure 3.11

3-18

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Example 3.5: For the relay below, find the force on the
plunger as a function of x when the coil is driven by
a controller which produces a current as a function
of x of the form
x

i ( x) I 0

3-19

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Example 3.6: The magnetic circuit in the figure is made of highpermeability electrical steel. The rotor is free to turn about a
vertical axis. The dimensions are shown in the figure.
a)

## Derive an expression for the torque acting on the rotor in terms of

the dimensions and the magnetic field in the two air gaps. Assume
the reluctance of the steel to be negligible and neglect the effects
of fringing.

b)

## The maximum flux density in the overlapping portions of the air

gaps is to be limited to approximately 1.65 T to avoid excessive
saturation of the steel. Compute the maximum torque for r1=2.5
cm, h=1.8 cm, and g=3 mm.

3-20

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## 3.6 MULTIPLY-EXCITED MAGNETIC FIELD SYSTEMS

Many electromechanical devices have multiple electrical terminals.

3-21

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## USING ENERGY FUNCTON:

d W fld (1 , 2 , ) i1 d1 i2 d2 T fld d
W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

20

10

i2 (1 0, 2 , 0 ) d2 i1 (1 , 2 2 , 0 ) d1
0

1 L11 i1 L12 i2
2 L21 i1 L22 i2
L22 1 L12 2
i1
D

L21 1 L11 2
i2
D

3-22

## Integration path to obtain Wfld( 10, 20, 0).

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W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

2 0

W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

L11 ( 0 ) 2
d2
D( 0 )

L22 ( 0 ) 1 L12 ( 0 ) 20
D( 0 )

d1

## L11 ( 0 ) 2 L22 ( 0 ) 2 L12 ( 0 )

2 0
10
10 20
2 D( 0 )
2 D( 0 )
D( 0 )

T fld

3-23

10

W fld

1 , 2

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d W fld
i2 0

i10

## (i10 , i20 , 0 ) 2 (i1 0, i2 , 0 ) di2 1 (i1 , i2 i20 , 0 ) di1

W fld

1 L11 i1 L12 i2
2 L21 i1 L22 i2
(i10 , i20 , 0 )
W fld

L11 ( 0 ) 2 L22 ( 0 ) 2
i10
i20 L12 ( 0 ) i10 i20
2
2

T fld
3-24

W fld

i1 ,i2

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T fld

d L12 ( )

i1 i2
2 d
2
d
d

## For a general n electrical terminal

1

2

n

L11
L
21

Ln1

L12
L22

Ln 2

L1n
L2 n

Lnn

1 T
I L( ) I
W fld
2

3-25

i1

i2

L( ) I

in

T fld

1 T d L( )
I
I
2
d

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## Example 3.7: In the figure, the inductances in henrys

are given as L11=(3+cos 2)x10-3; L12=0.3 cos ;
L22=30+10 cos 2. Find and plot the torque Tfld() for
current i1=0.8 A and i2=0.01 A.

3-26

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## T fld (1.64 sin 2 2.4 sin ) 10

3-27

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## 3.7 FORCES AND TORQUES IN SYSTEMS WITH PERMANENT

MAGNETS
Special case must be taken when dealing with hard magnetic material
because magnetic flux density is zero when H=H c not when H=0.
Consider fictitious winding
In normal operation, the fictitious winding carries NO current
Current in the winding can be adjusted to zero out the field produced by
permanent magnet in order to achieve the zero force starting point.

3-28

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(i f , x) f di f f fld dx
d W fld
(i f 0, x)
W fld

dW fld

dW fld

path 1a
x

path 1b
0

I f0

(i f 0, x) f fld (i f I f 0 , x) dx f (i f , x) di f
W fld
If0 is the current to zero-out the field.

(i f 0, x)
W fld

f (i f , x) di f

I f0

3-29

## Integration path for calculating Wfld (if = 0, x ) in the permanent

magnet system of Fig. 3.17. Figure 3.18

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## Example 3.8: The magnetic

circuit is excited by a
samarium-cobalt
permanent magnet and
includes a movable
plunger. Also shown is the
fictitous winding of Nf
turns carrying a current if
which is included here for
the sake of the analysis.
The dimensions are: Wm=2
cm, Wg=3 cm, W0=2 cm,
d=2 cm, g0=0.2 cm, and
D=3 cm.
a) Find an expression for the
coenergy of the system as
a function of plunger
position x,
b) Find an expression for the
force on the plunger as a
3-30 function of x,

Figure 3.19

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## A different solution for permanent magnet circuits:

e
R A H c

( Ni ) eq e

R A

d
d

( Ni ) eq H c d
3-31

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Example 3.9: Figure shows an actuator consisting of an infinitelypermeable yoke and plunger, excited by a section of NdFeB
magnet and an excitation winding of N1=1500 turns. The
dimensions are: W=4 cm, W1=4.5 cm, D=3.5 cm, d=8 mm, and
g0=1 mm.
a)

## Find x-directed force on the plunger when the current in the

excitation winding is zero and x=3 mm.

b)

## Calculate the current in the excitation winding required to reduce

the plunger force to zero.

3-32

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## 3.8 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS

We are interested in the operation of complete electromechanical system and not just of the
electromechanical energy conversion system around which it is built.

## For Electrical Terminal:

di
d L( x) d x
v0 R i L( x)
i
dt
d x dt
For multiple-excited system, we will have similar equation for each terminal

3-33

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## For Mechanical Terminal:

Spring:

f K K ( x x0 )

K : Spring constant

(N/m)

x
K

Damper:

dx
f D B
dt

## : Damping constant (N.s/m)

Mass:

f M M

f fld
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d x
d t2

B
f fld

M : Mass

(kg)

d 2x
dx
M 2 B
K ( x x0 ) f 0
dt
dt

f0

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## Dynamic Equations (Electrical and Mechanical Equations Together):

d i (t ) d L( x) d x(t )
v0 (t ) R i (t ) L( x)
i
dt
dx
dt

d 2 x(t )
d x(t )
f 0 (t ) M

B
K ( x(t ) x0 ) f fld (i (t ), x(t ))
2
dt
dt

f fld

i 2 d L( x )

2 dx

## These equations completely specify the behavior of electromechanical device. Solution

of these equations will describe the position x and the current i at any time t in the
system.

3-35

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## For Rotational Mechanical Terminal:

Torsional Spring:

TK K ( 0 )

## K : Torsional Spring constant

Friction:

d
TF B
dt

Inertia:

d 2
TJ J 2
dt

T fld
3-36

d 2
d
J 2 B
K ( 0 ) T0
dt
dt

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## Example 3.10: Figure shows in

cross section a cylindrical
solenoid magnet in which the
cylindrical plunger of mass M
moves vertically in brass quide
rings of thickness g and mean
diameter d. The permeability of
brass is 0. The plunger is
supported by a spring with K
constant. Its unstretched
length is l0. A mechanical load
force ft is applied to the
plunger from the mechanical
system connected to it. Assume
that frictional force is linearly
proportional to the velocity
with coefficient B. The coil has
N turns and resistance R. Its
terminal voltage is vt and its
current i. Derive the dynamic
equations of motion of the
electromechanical system.

3-37

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## EXTRA Example: A two poles VR machine is shown in figure. Stator

and rotor has infinite permeability.
a)

b)

c)

d)

## Solve the dynamic equations to find the position of rotor as a

function of time initially starting from 0=25 degrees.
Numerical Values:
N=100 turns, g=0.0005 m,
d=0.1 m, r=0.04 m, J=0.05,
B=0.02, 0=30, R=0.5 ohm,
E=10 Volt.

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