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You are on page 1of 38

PowerPoint Slides

to accompany

Electric Machinery

Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald

Charles Kingsley, Jr.

Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 3

Electromechanical-EnergyConversion Principles

3-1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

SYSTEMS

Lorentz Force

Law:

F q (E v B )

particle

Fv (E v B)

3-2

N/m

3

(

m3)

coulombs/

Current

density

Jv

A/m2

Fv J B

Current

IJA

F IB

N/m

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.1: A nonmagnetic motor containing a singleturn coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field of

magnitude B0, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The coil sides

are at radius R and the wire carries current I as

indicated. Find the -directed torque as a function

of rotor position when I=10 A, B0=0.02 T and

R=0.05 m. Assume that the rotor is of length l=0.3

m.

3-3

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

force, where current-carrying elements and simple

structures exist.

Most electromechanical-energy-conversion devices

contain magnetic material and forces can not be

calculated from Lorentz force.

Thus, We will use ENERGY METHOD based on

conservation of energy.

3-4

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Mechanical terminals: ffld and x

Losses separated from energy storage

mechanism

Interaction through magnetic stored energy

3-5

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

difference of input electrical power and output

mechanical power for lossless systems.

d W fld

dt

e i f fld

dx

dt

or

d W fld i d f fld dx

Force can be solved as a function of flux linkage and

position x.

3-6

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Energy neither created nor destroyed, it only

changes the form.

Energy balance equation is written for motor action

below

Increase in Energy

Energy input Mechanical

from electric energy energy stored converted

d Welec : Differential electrical energy input

d Wmech : Differential mechanical energy output

d W fld : Differential change in magnetic stored energy

3-7

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

SYSTEMS

Schematic of an electromagnetic relay. Figure 3.4

3-8

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

which is a function of the geometry and permeability of

the magnetic material.

When air-gap exist in most cases Rgap>>Rcore and energy

storage occurs in the gap.

Magnetic nonlinearity and core losses neglected in

practical devices.

Flux linkage and current linearly related.

L( x) i

Energy equation

d W fld i d f fld dx

and x are called STATE VARIABLES.

3-9

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

by and x regardless of how they are brought to

their final values.

W fld

d W fld dW fld

path 2 a

path 2b

W fld (0 , x0 ) i ( , x0 ) d

0

V 0

W fld

H dB dV

Integration paths for Wfld.Figure 3.5

3-10

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

infinitely-permeable magnetic material with a

movable plunger, also of infinitely-permeable

material. The height of the plunger is much greater

than the air-gap length (h>>g). Calculate the

magnetic stored energy Wfld as a function of plunger

position (0<x<d) for N=1000 turns, g=2 mm, d=0.15

m, l=0.1 m, and i=10 A.

3-11

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

TORQUE FROM ENERGY

Consider any state function F(x1, x2), the total

differential of F with respect to the two variables x 1

and x2

F

d F ( x1 , x2 )

x1

x2

F

d x1

x2

d x2

x1

d W fld ( , x)

W fld

d

x

W fld

x

d W fld ( , x) i d f fld dx

3-12

dx

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

W fld

f fld

W fld

x

importantly force can be calculated.

For a system with rotating mechanical terminal

f fld T fld

d W fld ( , ) i d T fld d

T fld

3-13

W fld ( , )

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

single-coil stator and an oval rotor. Because the airgap is nonuniform, the coil inductance varies with

rotor angular position, measured between the

magnetic axis of the stator coil and the major axis of

the rotor, as L( ) L L cos ( 2 )

0

second-harmonic variation of inductance with rotor

angle .

3-14

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FROM COENERGY

d W fld ( , x) i d f fld dx

Mathematically manipulated to define a new state

function known as the COENERGY, from which force

can be obtained directly as a function of current.

(i, x) i W fld ( , x)

W fld

(i, x) di f fld dx

d W fld

Note that energy and

coenergy equal for linear

systems.

3-15

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

(i, x)

d W fld

W fld

i

di

x

W fld

x

dx

i

(i, x) di f fld dx

d W fld

(i, x)

W fld

i

f fld

(i, x)

W fld

(i, x) (i, x) di

W fld

0

3-16

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

materals (B=0 when H=0)

W fld

H0

B dH dV

H=Hc)

W fld

H0

B

dH

dV

V Hc

3-17

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

change of energy with held constant; (b) change of coenergy with i held

constant. Figure 3.11

3-18

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.5: For the relay below, find the force on the

plunger as a function of x when the coil is driven by

a controller which produces a current as a function

of x of the form

x

i ( x) I 0

3-19

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.6: The magnetic circuit in the figure is made of highpermeability electrical steel. The rotor is free to turn about a

vertical axis. The dimensions are shown in the figure.

a)

the dimensions and the magnetic field in the two air gaps. Assume

the reluctance of the steel to be negligible and neglect the effects

of fringing.

b)

gaps is to be limited to approximately 1.65 T to avoid excessive

saturation of the steel. Compute the maximum torque for r1=2.5

cm, h=1.8 cm, and g=3 mm.

3-20

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Many electromechanical devices have multiple electrical terminals.

3-21

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

d W fld (1 , 2 , ) i1 d1 i2 d2 T fld d

W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

20

10

i2 (1 0, 2 , 0 ) d2 i1 (1 , 2 2 , 0 ) d1

0

1 L11 i1 L12 i2

2 L21 i1 L22 i2

L22 1 L12 2

i1

D

L21 1 L11 2

i2

D

3-22

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

2 0

W fld (10 , 20 , 0 )

L11 ( 0 ) 2

d2

D( 0 )

L22 ( 0 ) 1 L12 ( 0 ) 20

D( 0 )

d1

2 0

10

10 20

2 D( 0 )

2 D( 0 )

D( 0 )

T fld

3-23

10

W fld

1 , 2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

d W fld

i2 0

i10

W fld

1 L11 i1 L12 i2

2 L21 i1 L22 i2

(i10 , i20 , 0 )

W fld

L11 ( 0 ) 2 L22 ( 0 ) 2

i10

i20 L12 ( 0 ) i10 i20

2

2

T fld

3-24

W fld

i1 ,i2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

T fld

d L12 ( )

i1 i2

2 d

2

d

d

1

2

n

L11

L

21

Ln1

L12

L22

Ln 2

L1n

L2 n

Lnn

1 T

I L( ) I

W fld

2

3-25

i1

i2

L( ) I

in

T fld

1 T d L( )

I

I

2

d

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

are given as L11=(3+cos 2)x10-3; L12=0.3 cos ;

L22=30+10 cos 2. Find and plot the torque Tfld() for

current i1=0.8 A and i2=0.01 A.

3-26

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

3-27

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

MAGNETS

Special case must be taken when dealing with hard magnetic material

because magnetic flux density is zero when H=H c not when H=0.

Consider fictitious winding

In normal operation, the fictitious winding carries NO current

Current in the winding can be adjusted to zero out the field produced by

permanent magnet in order to achieve the zero force starting point.

3-28

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

(i f , x) f di f f fld dx

d W fld

(i f 0, x)

W fld

dW fld

dW fld

path 1a

x

path 1b

0

I f0

(i f 0, x) f fld (i f I f 0 , x) dx f (i f , x) di f

W fld

If0 is the current to zero-out the field.

(i f 0, x)

W fld

f (i f , x) di f

I f0

3-29

magnet system of Fig. 3.17. Figure 3.18

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

circuit is excited by a

samarium-cobalt

permanent magnet and

includes a movable

plunger. Also shown is the

fictitous winding of Nf

turns carrying a current if

which is included here for

the sake of the analysis.

The dimensions are: Wm=2

cm, Wg=3 cm, W0=2 cm,

d=2 cm, g0=0.2 cm, and

D=3 cm.

a) Find an expression for the

coenergy of the system as

a function of plunger

position x,

b) Find an expression for the

force on the plunger as a

3-30 function of x,

Figure 3.19

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

e

R A H c

( Ni ) eq e

R A

d

d

( Ni ) eq H c d

3-31

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Example 3.9: Figure shows an actuator consisting of an infinitelypermeable yoke and plunger, excited by a section of NdFeB

magnet and an excitation winding of N1=1500 turns. The

dimensions are: W=4 cm, W1=4.5 cm, D=3.5 cm, d=8 mm, and

g0=1 mm.

a)

excitation winding is zero and x=3 mm.

b)

the plunger force to zero.

3-32

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

We are interested in the operation of complete electromechanical system and not just of the

electromechanical energy conversion system around which it is built.

di

d L( x) d x

v0 R i L( x)

i

dt

d x dt

For multiple-excited system, we will have similar equation for each terminal

3-33

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Spring:

f K K ( x x0 )

K : Spring constant

(N/m)

x

K

Damper:

dx

f D B

dt

Mass:

f M M

f fld

3-34

d x

d t2

B

f fld

M : Mass

(kg)

d 2x

dx

M 2 B

K ( x x0 ) f 0

dt

dt

f0

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

d i (t ) d L( x) d x(t )

v0 (t ) R i (t ) L( x)

i

dt

dx

dt

d 2 x(t )

d x(t )

f 0 (t ) M

B

K ( x(t ) x0 ) f fld (i (t ), x(t ))

2

dt

dt

f fld

i 2 d L( x )

2 dx

of these equations will describe the position x and the current i at any time t in the

system.

3-35

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Torsional Spring:

TK K ( 0 )

(N.m/rad)

Friction:

d

TF B

dt

Inertia:

d 2

TJ J 2

dt

T fld

3-36

d 2

d

J 2 B

K ( 0 ) T0

dt

dt

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

cross section a cylindrical

solenoid magnet in which the

cylindrical plunger of mass M

moves vertically in brass quide

rings of thickness g and mean

diameter d. The permeability of

brass is 0. The plunger is

supported by a spring with K

constant. Its unstretched

length is l0. A mechanical load

force ft is applied to the

plunger from the mechanical

system connected to it. Assume

that frictional force is linearly

proportional to the velocity

with coefficient B. The coil has

N turns and resistance R. Its

terminal voltage is vt and its

current i. Derive the dynamic

equations of motion of the

electromechanical system.

3-37

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

and rotor has infinite permeability.

a)

b)

c)

d)

function of time initially starting from 0=25 degrees.

Numerical Values:

N=100 turns, g=0.0005 m,

d=0.1 m, r=0.04 m, J=0.05,

B=0.02, 0=30, R=0.5 ohm,

E=10 Volt.

3-38

S tato r A xe s

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