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Calibration Fitting

Calibration Fitting

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P M V Subbarao

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

What are the units of xi & ui?

How to convert a Measured variable into Physical

(Derived) Variable?

An instrument is a device that transforms a physical variable of

interest (the measurand) into a form that is suitable for recording

(the measurement).

Sensors

Sensors convert physical variables to signal

variables.

Sensors are often transducers : They are devices

that convert input energy of one form into output

energy of another form.

Sensors can be categorized into two broad classes

depending on how they interact with the

environment they are measuring.

Passive sensors: do not add energy as part of the

measurement process but may remove energy in

their operation.

Active sensors : add energy to the measurement

environment as part of the measurement process.

Calibration

The process of development of a relationship between the

physical measurement variable input and the signal variable

(output) for a specific sensor is known as the calibration of the

sensor.

Typically, a sensor (or an entire instrument system) is calibrated

by providing a known physical input to the system and

recording the output.

The data are plotted on a calibration curve.

Sensitivity of A Sensor

Saturation Point

Linear range

Sensitivity of Thermistor

Measured Variable = f (Physical Variable)

come from in the first place?

Analytical models of phenomena (e.g. equations from physics)

Create an equation from observed data

Curve fitting - capturing the trend in the data by assigning a

single function across the entire range.

A straight line is described generically by

f x ax b

f(x) fits the data well

How can we pick the coefficients that best fits the

line to the data?

What makes a particular straight line a good fit?

Assumptions:

positive or negative error have the same value (data point is

above or below the line)

Weight greater errors more heavily

Denote data values as (x, y)

Name points on the fitted line as

(x, f(x)).

four data points.

Error d i2 y1 f x1 y2 f x2 y3 f x3 y4 f x4

2

f x ax b

N

Error yi f xi yi axi b

2

i 1

i 1

The best line has minimum error between line and data points

This is called the least squares approach, since square of the error

is minimized.

i 1

i 1

Take the derivative of the error with respect to a and b, set each to zero

N

Error

2 xi yi axi b 0

a

i 1

N

Error

2 yi axi b 0

b

i 1

Solve for the a and b so that the previous two equations both = 0

i 1

i 1

a x b xi xi yi

2

i

i 1

i 1

i 1

a xi bN yi

put these into matrix form

N

x

i 1

b

i 1

N

2 a

xi

i 1

y

i 1

x y

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N

N x

i 1

2

i

i 1

y x x x

i 1

i 1

N

2

i

N x

i 1

i 1

2

i

i 1

i 1

yi

When using an mth degree polynomial

y a0 a1 x a2 x .........am x

2

where n m, the best fitting curve has the least square error,

i.e.,

i 1 yi f xi min

n

i 1 yi a0 a1 xi a x ......a x

n

2

2 i

n

n i

min

a0, a1, . and am must yield zero first derivatives.

above linear equations.

respect to the coefficients.

This means we can use the following solution method

2nd and 6th order look similar, but 6th has a squiggle to it.

Is it Required or not?

Underfit - If the order is too low to capture obvious trends in the

data

Overfit - over-doing the requirement for the fit to match the data

trend (order too high)

Polynomials become more squiggly as their order increases.

A squiggly appearance comes from inflections in function

orders lower than the number of data points.

Start with linear and add order until trends are matched.

Polynomial curve fitting

Power Law curve fitting: y=axb

ln(y) = ln(a)+bln(x)

Exponential curve fitting: y=aebx

ln(y)=ln(a)+bx

A measure of how good the regression line as a

representation of the data.

It is possible to fit two lines to data by

(a) treating x as the independent variable : y=ax+b, y

as the dependent variable or by

(b) treating y as the independent variable and x as the

dependent variable.

This is described by a relation of the form x= a'y +b'.

The procedure followed earlier can be followed again.

i 1

i 1

a y b yi xi yi

'

2

i

i 1

'

a yi b N xi

'

'

i 1

i 1

i 1

b'

i 1

N

2 a '

yi

i 1

x

i 1

x y

i 1

x a yb a

'

'

'

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N

N y

i 1

2

i

i 1

1

a'

1

b'

y ' x '

a

a

is the slope of this second line, which not same as

the first line

how good the form of the fit is to the data.

In view of this the correlation coefficient defined

through the relation

'

aa

Slope of second Regression line

2

y ax b a

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N

N x

i 1

x a y b a

'

'

'

2

i

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N

N y

i 1

2

i

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N x

i 1

2

i

2

xi N yi

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

N xi yi xi yi

N x

i 1

2

i

2

xi N yi

i 1

i 1

y

i 1

Correlation Coefficient

The sign of the correlation coefficient is determined by the sign

of the covariance.

If the regression line has a negative slope the correlation

coefficient is negative

while it is positive if the regression line has a positive slope.

The correlation is said to be perfect if = 1.

The correlation is poor if 0.

Absolute value of the correlation coefficient should be greater

than 0.5 to indicate that y and x are related!

In the case of a non-linear fit a quantity known as the index of

correlation is defined to determine the goodness of the fit.

The fit is termed good if the variance of the deviates is much less

than the variance of the ys.

It is required that the index of correlation defined below to be

close to 1 for the fit to be considered good.

y

i 1

f xi

y

i

i 1

y

N

i 1

2=1.000

2=0.821

2=0.991

2=0.493

2=0.904

2=0.0526

Cases considered so far, involved one independent variable and

one dependent variable.

Sometimes the dependent variable may be a function of more than

one variable.

For example, the relation of the form

d orifice

m f p, T , p, A,

d

pipe

Venturi.

mass flow rate is a dependent variable and others are

independent variables.

d orifice

p

c d

m a

p A

d pipe

RT

b

d orifice

p

ln m ln a b ln

c ln p d ln A e ln

d pipe

RT

Simply:

y ln a bl cm dn eo

variables and a, b, c, d, e are the fit parameters.

parameters.

Let the data be available for set of N values of y, l, m, n,

o, p values.

The quantity to be minimized is given by

N

i 1

process of setting the first partial derivatives with respect

to the fit parameters to zero.

N

Error

2 yi a bli cmi dni eoi fpi 0

a

i 1

N

Error

2 li yi a bli cmi dni eoi fpi 0

b

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

Na b li c mi d ni e oi f pi yi

N

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

a li b li2 c li mi d li ni e li oi f li pi li yi

fit parameters.

We may also calculate the index of correlation as an

indicator of the quality of the fit.

This calculation is left to you!

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