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Static Pushover Analysis

Performance Based Design


Modeling for Pushover Analysis
Use of the Pushover Curve
M. Iqbal Suharwardy
Computers and Structures, Inc.
Static Pushover Analysis for Seismic Design
March 22, 1999

Performance Check of Structures

Purpose
How will a structure perform when subjected to
a given level of earthquake?
Definition of structural performance
Definition of earthquake level
Determination of performance level

Performance Check of Structures

Process
Recently released guidelines for Seismic
Rehabilitation of Buildings:
ATC-40
FEMA 273 (ATC-33)

Types of Performance Checks

Linear Static Analysis


Linear Dynamic Analysis
Nonlinear Static Analysis
(Pushover Analysis)
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

Performance Check Using Pushover

Force Measure

Expected Performance Point


for given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Deformation Measure

Goal is to predict peak response of building


and components for a given earthquake

Why Do Pushover Analysis?

Design Earthquakes cause nonlinear


behavior

Better understand building behavior


- Identify weak elements
- Realistic prediction of element demands

Less conservative acceptance criteria can be


used with consequences understood

Steps in Performance Check

Construct Pushover curve

Select earthquake level(s) to check

Select performance level(s) to check

Select acceptance criteria for each


performance level

Verify acceptance
Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40)
Displacement Coefficient Method (FEMA 273)

Constructing Pushover Curve

Define Structural Model


Elements (components)
Strength - deformation properties

Define Loads
Gravity
Lateral load pattern

Select Control Displacements or Drifts


Perform Pushover Analysis

Pushover Modeling
Definition of Structural Model
3D or 2D
Primary and Secondary Elements (components)
Non structural Elements
Foundation flexibility
P-Delta effects

Pushover Modeling (Elements)

Types
Truss - yielding and buckling
3D Beam - major direction flexural and shear hinging
3D Column - P-M-M interaction and shear hinging
Panel zone - Shear yielding
In-fill panel - Shear failure
Shear wall - P-M-Shear interaction!
Spring - for foundation modeling

Pushover Modeling (Properties)


Force-Deformation Relationship

Force

C
B

Deformation

Pushover Modeling (Properties)

Force

Force-Deformation (Back bone Curve)

Deformation

Pushover Modeling (Beam Element)


Three dimensional Beam Element
Flexible
Connection

Span Loads

Plastic Hinge

Shear Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling (Column Element)


Three dimensional Column Element

Shear Hinge

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling (Column Element)


Axial Load - Moment Interaction (Concrete)
P

Pushover Modeling (Column Element)


Axial Load - Moment Interaction (Steel)

M CE 1.18 Z Fye 1 P / Pye

Pushover Modeling (Loads)

Start with Gravity Loads


Dead Load
Some portion of Live Load

Select Lateral Load Pattern


Lateral Load Patterns (Vertical Distribution)
Lateral Load Horizontal Distribution
Torsional Effects
Orthogonal Effects

Pushover Modeling (Loads)


Lateral Load Patterns (Vertical Distribution)

Uniform

Code Lateral

Mode 1

Pushover Analysis (Control)

Force controlled analysis

Deformation controlled analysis


Roof Displacement
Generalized Displacement Definitions

Limit of analysis
Instability - loss of gravity load carrying capacity
Excessive distortions

Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)

Event by Event Strategies


Manual

Newton-Raphson Type Strategies


Constant stiffness iterations
Tangent stiffness iterations

Problem of degradation of strength


Ritz Modes (Reduced Space) Strategies

Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)

Base Shear

Event by Event Strategy

Roof Displacement

Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)

Base Shear

Problem of Degradation of Strength

Roof Displacement

Force Measure

Pushover Analysis (Results)

Deformation Measure

Pushover Analysis (Results)

Use of Pushover Curve

Capacity Spectrum Method


- detailed in ATC-40
- and as alternate method in FEMA-273
Displacement Coefficient Method
- detailed in FEMA-273

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Construct Capacity Spectrum


Estimate Equivalent Damping
Determine Demand Spectrum
Determine Performance Point
Verify Acceptance

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Base Shear

Spectral Acceleration

Constructing Capacity Spectrum

Roof Displacement

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Constructing Capacity Spectrum
The displaced shape at any point
on the pushover curve is used to
obtain an equivalent SDOF
system.
is the mass participation and
relates the base shears

MDOF

PF is the participation factor and


relates the roof displacement to
Equivalent SDOF
the SDOF displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Constructing Capacity Spectrum

S a V / W / 1

S d roof / PF1 * 1 ,roof


Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Estimation of Equivalent Viscous Damping

eq 0 0.05
0 (1 / 4 ) * ( E D / Eso )
factor
Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Estimation of Equivalent Damping

Ed

Eso
Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Response Spectrum (5% damping)


2.5CA
CV/T

Time Period

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Response Spectrum (5% damping)


CA and CV depend on:

- Seismic zone (0.075 to 0.4)


- Nearness to fault and source type (1 to 2)
- Soil Type (1 to 2.5)
- Level of Earthquake (0.5 to 1.5)

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Reduced Spectrum (Effective damping)

2.5CA/Bs
CV/(T BL)

Time Period

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Acceleration-Displacement Response Spectrum

Spectral
Acceleration

T0
Time Period

T0

Spectral
Acceleration

Sd = SaT /4
2

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Performance Point
Demand Spectrum for effective
damping at performance point

Capacity Spectrum
Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral Acceleration

Performance Point

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Verification of Acceptance

Force Measure

Expected Performance Point


for given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Deformation Measure

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

(Displacement Coefficient Method)


Estimate Target Displacement
Verify Acceptance

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Estimation of Target Displacement

Estimate effective elastic stiffness, Ke


Estimate post yield stiffness, Ks
Estimate effective fundamental period, Te
Calculate target roof displacement as

2
C0 C1 C2 C3 S a Te

/( 4 )
2

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Estimation of Target Displacement

C0 Relates spectral to roof displacement


C1 Modifier for inelastic displacement
C2 Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
C3 Modifier for second order effects

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Estimation of Effective Elastic Period, Te
Base Shear

Vy

Ke = Ks
Estimate Te using Ke

.6Vy
Ke

Estimate Elastic Spectral Displacement


2
2
a e

S T /( 4 )
Roof Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C0
Relates spectral to roof displacement
- use modal participation factor for control
node from first mode
- or use modal participation factor for
control node from deflected shape at the
target displacement
- or use tables based on number of stories
and varies from 1 to 1.5

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C1
Modifier for inelastic displacement
C1 = [1 +(R-1)T0/Te]/R
Spectral
Acceleration

C1 = 1
T0
Time Period

R is elastic strength
demand to yield
strength

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C2
Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
- from Tables
- depends on Framing Type
(degrading strength)
- depends on Performance Level
- depends on Effective Period
- varies from 1.0 to 1.5

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Calculation of C3
Modifier for dynamic second order effects
C3 = 1 if post yield slope, is positive
else
C3 = 1 +[ ||(R-1)3/2 ]/Te

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Force Measure

Verification of Acceptance
Target Displacement (or
corresponding deformation)
for given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)
Deformation Measure

Use of Pushover Curve

Do these methods work?


Comparisons with:
- Nonlinear time history analysis
- Single degree of freedom systems
- Multi-degree of freedom systems

- Observed damage

How do they compare with each other?

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

SAP2000 released September, 1998


Full 3D implementation
Single model for
- linear static analysis
- linear response spectrum analysis
- linear time history analysis
- nonlinear time history analysis
- nonlinear static pushover analysis
- steel and concrete design

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Generally follows ATC-40 & FEMA 273


Available Pushover Element Types
- 3D truss (axial hinge)
- 3D beam (moment and shear hinges)
- 3D column (P-M-M and shear hinges)
- Shells, Solids, etc. considered linear
- Panel zone (later)
- 3D column (Fiber hinge) (later)
- Shear wall (plasticity model) (later)
- Nonlinear springs (later)

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Force-Deformation Relationship

Force

Deformation

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Three dimensional Beam Element
Flexible
Connection

Span Loads

Plastic Hinge

Shear Hinge

Rigid Zone

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Strength - deformation and P-M-M curves


can be calculated by program for:
- steel beams (FEMA 273)
- steel columns (FEMA 273)
- shear hinges in EBF Links (FEMA 273)
- concrete beams (ATC-40)
- concrete columns (ATC-40)
- shear hinges in coupling beams (ATC-40)

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Gravity Load Analysis


- Nodal Loads
- Element Loads
- Load controlled Analysis

Pushover analysis
- Starts from gravity loads
- Nodal Load Patterns (user, modal, mass)
- Multi-step Displacement or Drift controlled

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Available Results for each step of loading


- Base Shear
- Element Forces
- Section Forces
- Joint Displacements
- Drifts
- Element Hinge Deformations
- Limit Points (acceptance criteria) reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Pushover Curve Postprocessing (ATC-40)


- Conversion to Capacity Spectrum
- Calculation of Effective Period (per step)
- Calculation of Effective Damping (per step)
- Calculation of Demand Spectrum (per step)
- Location of Performance Point
- Limit Points (acceptance criteria) reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Visual Display for each step


- Deformed Shape
- Member Force Diagrams
- Hinge Locations and Stages

Graphs
- Base Shear vs Roof Displacement
- Capacity Curve
- Demand Curve
- Demand Spectra at different dampings
- Effective period lines