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Use Of Hydroponic Fodder as a

replacement to Concentrate
Feed to Dairy Cattle or
Buffaloes.
(Or)
Nutritive evaluation of
Hydroponic fodder and its
Potential as feed to Dairy Cattle
or Buffaloes

What is Hydroponics
The

name comes from two Greek words:


hydro (water) and ponos (to work, labor),
and literally means water works.

In

hydroponics, soil is replaced by inert media


such as perlite, vermiculite, horticultural
Rockwool, sand, or fired clay pebbles to
which the necessary elements for growth are
added in the form of a nutrient solution.
Article 1) page 6

HISTORY- HOW AND WHERE IT STARTED

Dr. W. F. Gericke Late 1920s and Early 1930s


USA
Basic idea had even older history
Article 2) page 13

Working Principle

Supply cereal grain with necessary moisture and nutrients,


to enable germination and plant growth in absence of solid
growing medium.

Quality and Quantity influenced by:

Grain-quality, variety and treatment.

Growing environment- Temp, Humidity and influence of mould

Management of system- Water quality, pH, soaking time, nutrient


sol, density etc

Types of Systems
Article 5

Static
Flowing
Individual
Nutrient

container

Film technique

Intermittent
Root

misting

Membrane

sub Irrigation

System Operation

Harvesting mature fodder

Cleaning trays

Sowing new grain

Adjusting nutrient flows

Topping up Nutrient and acid supplies

Feeding out

Nutrient Changes

Dry matter

Energy

Digestibility

Protein

Vitamins

Animal performance

Controls to be
Maintained

Concentration control

pH control

Oxygen Level

Water purity

Microorganisms

Advantages

Crops can be produced on non-arable land (not fit for farming).

Isolation from diseases or insect pests usually found in the


soil.

Direct and immediate control over the rhizosphere.

High planting densities are possible which minimizes use of


land area so, more efficient use of space.

Higher yields are possible.

Efficient use of water and nutrients.

No weeding or cultivation is needed.

Virtual indifference to the seasons and Control over the aerial


(upper) portions of the plant to achieve higher yields.

The greenhouse can be a physical barrier to insects and


diseases.
Article 3) page 1-3

Why?????
Q. Why have scientists and
horticulturists experimented with
different methods of hydroponics?
A. It is a simple fact that some
people cannot grow in the soil in
their area (if there is even any soil
at all).

Advantages
Faster Growth- Hydroponics works
by automatically getting the
complete nutrient mixture and
water to the roots without
drowning the plant. Plants get
everything they need all the time,
so they do not waste growing a lot
of roots or searching for nutrients.

Advantages
No Weeds or Pests- Gardening
without soil eliminates the weeds
do you do not need weed sprays.
Also, because there are no weeds,
there will be no backache from a
hoe or rototiller. Since most pests
live and breed in the soil, you do
not need to use pesticides or other
toxic chemicals.

Advantages
Great Plant Quality and TasteSince the plants get everything it
needs, all the time, it will reward
you with great taste, strong and
fast growth, and overall plant
quality.

Advantages
Grow in Any Condition- Systems
may be constructed and used in
any location from space to under
water exploration.
Smaller Growing Area

Briefly- Some Major Advantages


Article 7 Page 2
1) Land Requirement

For 600 kg Fodder Production(50-10000 sqm)

Hydroponic
Conventional

2) Water Requirement
Article 6a page 11

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Water Req For 1 kilo of fodder in Lts

Hydroponics
Conventional

3) Growth Period
Article 6a page 14
Growth period in weeks(1-12)
1
Hydroponics
Conventional

12

4) Nutritional Advantage
Article 6a page 16

Digestibility 90-95 % against 30 % in unsprouted


grains .

Vitamin analysis based on single 6-day


grass sample (mg/kg DM)
Article 9 page
21
Barley Grain

Barley Grass

Vitamin E

7.4

62.4

Beta Carotene

4.1

42.7

Biotin

0.16

1.15

Free Folic Acid

0.12

1.05

Studies on Different
Fodders

Barley

Maize

Oats

Wheat

WHEAT
Article 5

Item

Hydroponically
produced Wheat

Wheat pasture

Dry Matter %

22

21

Carbohydrates(g/Kg)

330

380

Crude Fiber (g/Kg)

65

180

Crude Fat (g/Kg)

93

40

Total Digestible Energy


(MJ/Kg)

187

187

Crude Protein (g/Kg)

288

200

Ca (g/Kg)

2.9

3.5

P (g/Kg)

3.6

ACCORDING TO THE AUTHOR THE ORGANIC CONSTITUTIONALS CAN VARY BY AS


MUCH AS +5%, THE MINERAL CONSTITUTIONALS CAN VARY BY AS MUCH AS +
30% AND THE ENERGY VALUES CAN VARY BY UP TO +10%

OATS
Article 6

Ingredient (%)

Oats Grass (DM


basis)

Oats Grain

Dry Matter

13.4

89.7

Crude Protein

20.7

12.3

Crude Fiber

21.2

10.1

NFE

48.9

69.5

EE

4.9

4.9

Ash

4.3

3.2

Maize
Article 7

Nutrient

Conventional green
fodder
(DM Basis)

Hydroponic Green
Fodder
(DM Basis)

Protein

10.67

13.57

Ether Extract

2.27

3.49

Crude Fiber

25.92

14.07

Nitrogen Free Extract

51.78

66.72

Total Ash

9.36

3.84

Acid Insoluble Ash

1.40

.33

BARLEY
Article 24
Grain

Sprout

DM

90.5

90.2

GE

15.3

15

CP

12.6

15.4

Ash

4.3

Ca (micro g/g DM)

0.03

0.06

0.22

0.26

Cu (micro g/g DM)

5.1

13.4

Zn (micro g/g DM)

16.7

23

(micro g/g DM)

Applications For
Livestock
1)

24

Dairy Cattle

Article

Used as replacement to concentrate feed and studied

Body weight remained almost stable

Milk production line is almost unaffected

Thus a mat of approx. 7 kg (1kg DM) could replace 3 kg of


conc.

It means money - $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$


$

Article

2)

Rabbit feed

Feed intake Hydroponics fodder- DM 270g Control DietDM 165g

Weight gain Recorded once a week for 4 weeks

Group treated with hydroponic fodder had higher growth


rate all 4 times

Beef Cattle
(No advantage)

3 pens of 10 beef cattle with an average starting live weight of 342


kg.

Oat
Grain

Group
A
Group
B
Group
C

McFate (1963) fed

2.27
kg

Oat
Grass

Corn

Hay

Weight gain
Cost/Kg
(After 98
live wt
days)
gain
Avg daily gain

2.27
kg

1 kg

535 g

$ 0.65

From
2.27
2.27 kg kg
grains

1 kg

535 g

$ 1.25

From
Ad lib
2.27 kg
grains

1 kg

463

$ 1.52

-----

Effect of sprouted grains in ruminants

Feed
Feed
Nutrient
intak Weigh efficienc digestibil Milk Reference
e
t gain
y
ity
yield
s
No
No
Fazaeli et
al.,

effect
effect
2011

Fayed, 2011

No
No
Effect of effect effect
sprouted
No
grains
effect

No
effect

No
effect

No
effect

No
effect

Rule et al.,
1986
Reddy et
al.,
1991
Hillier and
Perry, 1969
Eshtayeh,
2004

Effect of sprouted grains in poultry

Feed
intake

No effect

Effect of
sprouted
grains

Growth
Nutrient
performanc digestibilit
Layer
e
y
performance
No effect
No effect

References
Fafiolu et al.,
2006

Abbas and
Musharaf, 2008

Oduguwa and
Farolu, 2004

No effect

No effect

Scott, 2002

Bamforth, 1982

Hamid, 2001

THANK
YOU
Chinnam Harish Khanna
GVM/13-22
Department of Animal Nutrition

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