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# Eigenvalue

and
Eigenvector Method
Chapter 27.2

Iterative
Special importance in science & engineering
( Vibration sys, elasticity, oscillatory)
Provide useful information about its properties
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Vibration
Eigenvalues represent the
natural frequencies of a
system

Eigenvectors represent
the mode of these
vibration
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## Why it is important to identify these

natural frequencies ?

## when the system is subjected to

or near these frequencies,
resonance can cause the
response(motion) of the
structure to be amplified,
the component.
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Mechanics of materials:
the principle stresses are the
eigenvalues of the stress matrix, and
the principle directions are the
directions of the associated
eigenvectors. In quantum
mechanics, eigenvalues are
especially important.

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Power Method
Classification of Power Method : 2 types
1.

## Power method for highest or largest

eigenvalue (PM_H(L) E)

## 2. Power method for lowest or

smallest
eigenvalue ( PML(S)E)
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be used?

## Must not change the

Matrix
Largest eigenvalue is
desired
Must be real

Concept
The vector [x] is normalized
at each step
by dividing the elements of the
vector
by the value of the largest element.
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## This makes the largest element of

the
vector equal to 1.
Because of this
scaling/normalization at each step
the power method yields the
eigenvalue & associated
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Eigenvalue (LE)

PM-LE Procedure
1.

## Write the initial eigenvector; The vector

can be any nonzero vector

## 2. Execute the First iteration;

It-1;
3. Put the largest common of y (1) as
the first eigenvalue
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(1)

## PM-LE Procedure cont

4. Find
( the first eigenvector) by
dividing the component of y (1) by (1);

5.

## Repeat step(2) to execute iteration-2;

It-2;

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PM-LE Procedure
6. Repeat step (3) to find (2)
7. Repeat step(4) to find X(2) ;
8.Evalute the first error E1;

iteration; It-3

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## 10. Repeat step(6) to find

(3)

PM-LE Procedure
11. Repeat step (7) to find

## 12. Evaluate the second error E2

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PM-LE Procedure
13. Compare E2 with E1 ;
a)

## If E2 < E1 then stop the

procedure and put as the
largest eigenvalue

## b) If E2 > E1 then continue to the

next iteration and stop when En
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EXAMPLE

Solution
1.
2. Iteration #1
i =0
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Cont

3.
4.
5. Iteration #2;
i =1

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Cont

6.

7.

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8.

9.

Iteration #3;
i =2

10.
11.

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12.

13.

## Since E3< E2 then stop and the largest,

Eigenvalue is
and the solution
is the associated eigenvector

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PM-LE Procedure

The last multiplicative factor (scalar) is the largest eigenvalue, and the normalized vector is the associated eigenvector.

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Exercise 1
Determine the largest eigenvalue of the
following matrix:

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