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In the early nineteenth century, an

English chemist Dalton stated clearly


his ideas regarding atoms. He was the
first person to give out atomic theory
in 1803. This theory is known as
Dalton's Atomic Theory.
DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY
1. Elements are made up of tiny
particles called “atoms”.

2. Atoms are indivisible.

3. Atoms can neither be created


nor destroyed.

4. Atoms of the same element


are alike in their mass and
chemical properties.
DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY [Con.]
5. Atoms of different element differ in their
mass and chemical properties.

6. Atoms of one element cannot be converted


into atoms of another element

7. Atoms of different elements always combine


in simple, definite and integral ratios to form
compound atoms.
According to Dalton atom is the
smallest, indivisible particle of an
element that takes part in a chemical
reaction.
1. According to Dalton ,what is an atom ?

2. What are the properties of an atom


according to Dalton ?

3. What are the postulates of Dalton's


atomic theory ?
Cathode rays, discovery of electrons
Discovered during discharge
tube experiments for studying
passage of electricity through
gases at low pressures

The credit of studying cathode rays


goes to Sir.J.J.Thomson, an English
physicist.

A glass tube with two metallic


plates.
Discharge tube

ANODE One plate is connected to


positive terminal of high voltage
power supply

CATHODE The other to negative


terminal.
The tube is filled with any gas.

When the pressure of the gas is


lowered to about 0.01mm of
mercury and a high voltage
(10000volts) is applied, electricity
begins to flow and light is emitted.
Cathode Rays

If the pressure is further reduced to about 10-4 mm of mercury, the


emission of light stops ,but the wall of the glass tub begins to glow
with a faint greenish light.

This greenish light is due to the bombardment of certain rays which


are liberated at the cathode .These rays are known as "Cathode Rays"
Cathode rays: properties

• Cathode rays originate from cathode.


• Cathode rays travel in straight line.
• Cathode rays are deflected by electric field.
• Cathode rays are deflected by magnetic field.
• These rays consist of material particles.
• Cathode rays consist negatively charged particles
called "electron".
Properties: Cathode rays

1. Cathode rays originate


from cathode.

2. Cathode rays travel in


straight lines.
When the object is
placed in the path of
cathode rays shadow of
the object is formed.
PROPERTIES OF
CATHODE RAYS
3. Cathode rays are deflected by electric
field .

4. Cathode rays are


deflected by magnetic
field.
This shows that cathode
rays are consist of
charged particles.
PROPERTIES OF CATHODE
RAYS
5. A paddle wheel
rotates when placed in
the path of cathode
rays.
This shows that
cathode rays are
consist of particles
which cause
mechanical motion.
Cathode rays consist negatively
charged particles called
"electrons".
Conclusion: Electrons are
negatively charged and
common constituents of atoms
of all elements.
TEST FOR YOU
FILL IN THE BLANKS.
• Cathode rays travel in_________ lines.
• Cathode rays are discovered by ______.
• Cathode rays are consists of
______charged particles.
• In an atom negatively charged particles
are called __________.
ANODE RAYS ,DISCOVERY
OF PROTONS
In 1886, Goldstein did
experiments with discharge
tubes containing a perforated
cathode, shows that some
rays are moving in the
opposite direction of the
cathode rays. These rays are
called as 'anode rays'.
Properties of Anode rays

• Anode rays travel in straight line in the


opposite direction of cathode rays.
• Anode are made up of positively charged
particles.
• Rutherford named these positively
charged particles are protons.

Conclusion: Protons are positively


charged, and common constituents of
atoms of all elements.
RUTHERFORDS ALPHA RAY
SCATTERING
Around 1911, E. Ruther ford
and his students performed a
series of experiments using
alpha rays.
A powerful beam of alpha
particles from a radioactive
source is made to strike a
gold foil.
In order to examine the alpha
particles zinc sulphide screen
is used. When an alpha
particle strikes the zinc
sulphide screen a flash of
light is seen.
OBSERVATIONS OF ALPHA RAYS
SCATERING EXPERMINT

1. Most of the a-particles passed


through the metal foil with out
any change in their path.

2. A few of the a-particles were


deflected through small angles.

3. A very small number of the a-


particles were deflected through
such large angles that they
almost retraced their original
path.
RUTHERFORD'S MODEL OF
ATOM

Rutherford proposed what is known as ‘the


nuclear model of the atom’. According to this
model

An atom has a central nucleus surrounded by


electrons.

Electrons are far away from the nucleus.


The central nucleus is positively charged
RUTHERFORD'S MODEL OF
ATOM
• Total number of positive charges
on the nucleus is equal to the
number of electrons.

• Almost the entire mass of the atom


is concentrated in the nucleus.

• The volume of the nucleus is very


small compared to the volume of
the atom.

• Electrons are not stationary. They


revolve round the nucleus at
extremely high speed.
Name the following

1. Positively charged particle in an Atom.


2. Central part of the Atom.
3. Anode rays experiment was conducted by.
4. Electrons are faraway from.
5. Electric charge of the nucleus.
DISCOVERY OF NEUTRONS
In 1932, James Chadwick
discovered that when a
thin sheet of beryllium or
boron is bombarded by
the alpha particles,
neutrons are emitted.
The neutrons have almost
the same mass as that as
protons.
• Thus protons, electrons and
neutrons are the fundamental
Proton
particles of an atom.

• Protons are positively charged.

• Electrons are negatively Neutron


charged.

• Neutrons are electrically neutral.


Atom of potassium
Atomic number-The number of unit
positive charges carried by the
nucleus of an element is called
Atomic number of the element.

Atomic no.of an element


=No.of unit positive charges in

Electrons 19
the nucleus
Protons 19
=No.of protons present in
the nucleus Neutrons 20
=No.of electrons present out side Atomic number of
the nucleus. potassium is 19
Atomic Mass:- Atomic mass of an element is
numerically equal to the sum of the number of
protons and the neutrons present in the nucleus.

Atomic mass= No.of protons+ No.of neutrons.


RUTHERFORD-BOHR MODEL
OF ATOM
• Electrons revolve around the nucleus in definite
orbits. These are called Stationary states.

• Each stationary state is associated with a


definite quantity of energy. Hence these
stationary states are also called Energy levels.

• As long as electrons are moving in these


stationary states , they do not lose or gain
energy.

• Energy is lost or gained by an electron


whenever it jumps from one energy level to
another .
Answer the followings.
1.Name the fundamental particles of an atom.
2.What is an atomic mass?
3.What is atomic number?
4.What are neutrons?
5.Name the particles present in the nucleus.