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Eng R. L. Nkumbwa

School of Technology

Copperbelt University

2010

PID Controllers

almost universally used in industrial control.

It is based on a particular fixed structure controller family, the socalled PID controller family.

These controllers have proven to be robust and extremely

beneficial in the control of many important applications.

PID stands for:

P (Proportional)

I (Integral)

D (Derivative)

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Classical

suitable controller in the transfer function

Gc(s) so that closed performance meets the

specifications as in figure on the previous

slide.

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Historical Note

used the ideas of proportional, integral, and

derivative action in their structures. However, it was

probably not until Minorskys work on ship steering

published in 1922, that rigorous theoretical

consideration was given to PID control.

This was the first mathematical treatment of the type

of controller that is now used to control almost all

industrial processes.

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Despite

tools, including advanced controllers, the

Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID

controller) is still the most widely used in

modern industry, controlling more that 95% of

closed-loop industrial processes.

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A controller

output signal based on the input signal it

receives.

The input signal is actually an error signal,

which is the difference between the

measured variable and the desired value, or

set point.

See figure below for the Controller.

7

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Structure of a Controller

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Structure of a Controller

This

10

deviation between where the process system is

actually operating and where the process system

is desired to be operating.

The controller provides an output signal to the

final control element, which adjusts the process

system to reduce this deviation.

The characteristic of this output signal is

dependent on the type, or mode, of the

controller.

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

08/03/15

Modes of Controllers

11

system makes corrections relative to an error that exists

between the desired value (set point) of a controlled

variable and its actual value.

The mode of control used for a specific application

depends on the characteristics of the process being

controlled. For example, some processes can be

operated over a wide band, while others must be

maintained very close to the set point.

Deviation is the difference between the set point of a

process variable and its actual value. This is a key term

Eng R.

L. control.

Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

used when discussing

various

modes

of

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Four

most applications are:

Proportional (P)

Proportional plus Reset (PI)

Proportional plus Rate (PD)

Proportional plus Reset plus Rate (PID)

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13

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Each

14

advantages and limitations.

The modes of control are discussed in this and

the next several sections of this module.

In the proportional (throttling) mode, there is a

continuous linear relation between value of the

controlled variable and position of the final

control element.

In other words, amount of valve movement is

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

proportional to amount

of

deviation.

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Proportional Controllers

15

proportional mode of control are proportional band, gain

and offset.

Proportional band, (also called throttling range), is the

change in value of the controlled variable that causes full

travel of the final control element.

Gain, also called sensitivity, compares the ratio of

amount of change in the final control element to amount

of change in the controlled variable.

Mathematically, gain and sensitivity are reciprocal to

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

proportional band. 08/03/15

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Proportional Controllers

Offset,

remains after a process has stabilized. Offset is

an inherent characteristic of the proportional

mode of control. In other words, the proportional

mode of control will not necessarily return a

controlled variable to its set point.

Proportional control is also referred to as

throttling control.

16

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Integral

17

the output rate of change is dependent on the

magnitude of the input.

Specifically, a smaller amplitude input causes a

slower rate of change of the output.

This controller is called an integral controller

because it approximates the mathematical

function of integration.

The integral control method is also known as

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

reset control. 08/03/15

University, School of Technology

A device

of integration is called an integrator.

The mathematical result of integration is called

the integral.

The integrator provides a linear output with a rate

of change that is directly related to the amplitude

of the step change input and a constant that

specifies the function of integration.

18

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Fixed Input

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22

have the unique ability to return the controlled variable

back to the exact set point following a disturbance.

Disadvantages of the integral control mode are that it

responds relatively slowly to an error signal and that it

can initially allow a large deviation at the instant the error

is produced.

This can lead to system instability and cyclic operation.

For this reason, the integral control mode is not normally

used alone, but is combined with another control mode.

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Proportional

of the proportional and integral control modes.

This type control is actually a combination of two

previously discussed control modes, proportional

and integral.

Combining the two modes results in gaining the

advantages and c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h e

disadvantages of the two individual modes.

23

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Characteristics of the PI

24

that an immediate proportional output is produced as

soon as an error signal exists at the controller as shown

in Figure below.

The proportional controller is considered a fast-acting

device.

This immediate output change enables the proportional

controller to reposition the final control element within a

relatively short period of time in response to the error.

See below figure for the response of the PI Control

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25

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Disadvantages of the

Proportional Control

26

is that a residual offset error exists between the

measured variable and the set point for all but one set of

system conditions.

The main advantage of the integral control mode is that

the controller output continues to reposition the final

control element until the error is reduced to zero.

This results in the elimination of the residual offset error

allowed by the proportional mode.

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Disadvantages of the

Proportional Control

The

that the controller output does not immediately

direct the final control element to a new position

in response to an error signal.

The controller output changes at a defined rate

of change, and time is needed for the final

control element to be repositioned.

27

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PI Equations

28

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PI Characteristics

29

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Characteristics of the PI

The

called the proportional plus reset (PI) control

mode.

It combines the immediate output

characteristics of a proportional control mode

with the zero residual offset characteristics of

the integral mode.

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Heat Exchanger

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Acting Controller

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Acting Controller

By

action the controller produces a larger output for

the given error signal and causes a greater

adjustment of the control valve.

This causes the process to come back to the set

point more quickly. Additionally, the reset action

acts to eliminate the offset error after a period of

time.

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Reset Wind-Up

34

found in proportional control by continuing to change the output after

the proportional action is completed and by returning the controlled

variable to the set point.

An inherent disadvantage to proportional plus reset controllers is the

possible adverse effects caused by large error signals.

The large error can be caused by a large demand deviation or when

initially starting up the system.

This is a problem because a large sustained error signal will

eventually cause the controller to drive to its limit, and the result is

called "reset windup."

Because of reset windup, this control mode is not well-suited for

processes that are frequently shut down and started up.

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35

derivative section is added to the proportional controller.

Proportional plus rate describes a control mode in which

a derivative section is added to a proportional controller.

This derivative section responds to the rate of change of

the error signal, not the amplitude; this derivative action

responds to the rate of change the instant it starts.

This causes the controller output to be initially larger in

direct relation with the error signal rate of change.

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PD Controller

36

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PD Controller

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The

38

sooner the final control element is positioned to

the desired value.

The added derivative action reduces initial

overshoot of the measured variable, and

therefore aids in stabilizing the process sooner.

This control mode is called proportional plus rate

(PD) control because the derivative section

responds to the rate of change of the error

signal.

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

08/03/15

A device

39

called a differentiator. Figure below shows the

input versus output relationship of a differentiator.

The differentiator provides an output that is

directly related to the rate of change of the input

and a constant that specifies the function of

differentiation.

The derivative constant is expressed in units of

seconds and defines the differential controller

output.

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

08/03/15

of change

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The

signal to a constant magnitude signal as shown

in Figure above.

As long as the input rate of change is constant,

the magnitude of the output is constant.

A new input rate of change would give a new

output magnitude.

42

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Derivative

43

mode.

This is because a steady-state input produces a

zero output in a differentiator.

If the differentiator were used as a controller, the

input signal it would receive is the error signal.

As just described, a steady-state error signal

corresponds to any number of necessary output

signals for the positioning of the final control

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

element.

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University, School of Technology

Therefore,

proportional action in a manner such that the

proportional section output serves as the

derivative section input.

Proportional plus rate controllers take advantage

of both proportional and rate control modes.

44

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Proportional Action

As

provides an output proportional to the error.

If the error is not a step change, but is slowly

changing, the proportional action is slow.

Rate action, when added, provides quick

response to the error.

45

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Control

To illustrate

use the same heat exchanger process that has

been analyzed in previous chapters (see Figure

below).

For this example, however, the temperature

controller used is a proportional plus rate

controller.

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Heat Exchanger

48

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Effects of Disturbance

49

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Industrial Applications

50

capacity or slow-responding processes such as

temperature control.

The leading action of the controller output compensates

for the lagging characteristics of large capacity, slow

processes.

Rate action is not usually employed with fast responding

processes such as flow control or noisy processes

because derivative action responds to any rate of change

in the error signal, including the noise.

Proportional plus rate controllers are useful with

processes which are frequently started up and shut down

Engwindup.

R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

because it is not susceptible to reset

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Derivative Control (PID)

51

proportional control actions with integral and derivative

actions.

For processes that can operate with continuous cycling,

the relatively inexpensive two position controller is

adequate.

For processes that cannot tolerate continuous cycling, a

proportional controller is often employed.

For processes that can tolerate neither continuous cycling

nor offset error, a proportional plus reset controller can be

used.

For processes that need improved stability and can

Eng plus

R. L. Nkumbwa,

Copperbelt

tolerate an offset error, a proportional

rate controller

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University, School of Technology

is employed.

Derivative Control (PID)

However,

tolerate offset error, yet need good stability.

The logical solution is to use a control mode that

combines the advantages of proportional, reset,

and rate action.

This chapter describes the mode identified as

proportional plus reset plus rate, commonly

called Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID).

52

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Controller Action

When

the controllers response is a combination of the

proportional, integral, and derivative actions, as

shown in Figure below.

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54

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Controller Action

55

variable. As the error increases, the proportional action of

the PID controller produces an output that is proportional

to the error signal.

The reset action of the controller produces an output

whose rate of change is determined by the magnitude of

the error.

In this case, as the error continues to increase at a steady

rate, the reset output continues to increase its rate of

change.

The rate action of the controller produces an output

whose magnitude is determined by the rate of change.

When combined, these actions produce

output

as

Eng R. L.an

Nkumbwa,

Copperbelt

08/03/15

University, School of Technology

shown in Figure above.

Controller Action

As

curve, the output produced responds

immediately to the error with a signal that is

proportional to the magnitude of the error

and that will continue to increase as long as

the error remains increasing.

56

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57

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Figure

58

controller response to a demand disturbance.

The proportional action of the controller stabilizes

the process.

The reset action combined with the proportional

action causes the measured variable to return to

the set point.

The rate action combined with the proportional

action reduces the initial overshoot and cyclic

Eng R. L. Nkumbwa, Copperbelt

period.

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PID Controller

59

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60

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61

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Based

trial and error

manual tuning

simulation

62

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below several methods for tuning PID controllers.

Actually these methods are quite old and date back to the

1950s.

Nonetheless, they remain in widespread use today.

In particular, we will study

63

Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Method

Cohen-Coon Reaction Curve Method

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Ziegler-Nichols Method

Ziegler-Nichols

method

based on a open-loop process

based on a critical gain

64

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Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N)

Oscillation Method

This

plants and it is carried out through the following

steps:

65

very small gain.

Increase the gain until the loop starts oscillating.

Note that linear oscillation is required and that it

should be detected at the controller output.

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University, School of Technology

Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N)

Oscillation Method

66

oscillation period of the controller output, Pc.

Adjust the controller parameters according to next

slide; there is some controversy regarding the PID

parameterization for which the Z-N method was

developed, but the version described here is

applicable to the parameterization of standard

form PID.

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oscillation method

67

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Reaction Curve

68

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A linearized

can be obtained with an open loop experiment,

using the following procedure:

69

to a normal operating point. Say that the plant output

settles at y(t) = y0 for a constant plant input u(t) = u0.

2. At an initial time, t0, apply a step change to the

plant input, from u0 to u (this should be in the range

of 10 to 20% of full scale).

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70

new operating point. Assume you obtain the curve

shown on the next slide. This curve is known as

the process reaction curve.

In the figure on next page, m.s.t. stands for

maximum slope tangent.

4. Compute the parameter model as follows

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Plant Response

71

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Plant Response

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Observation

We

Ziegler-Nichols reaction curve tuning method

is very sensitive to the ratio of delay to time

constant.

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Cohen-Coon Reaction

Curve Method

Cohen

to find controller settings which, based on the

same model, lead to a weaker dependence

on the ratio of delay to time constant.

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Lead-Lag Compensators

Closely

lead-lag compensation. The transfer function

of these compensators is of the form:

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