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LECTURE ON

BITUMINOUS PAVING MIX

KINDS OF PAVEMENT
1.Rigid-TypePavement

Concrete Pavement
Concrete Mix
Cement + aggregates + water
Design Mix

2.FlexibleTypeAsphaltPavement

Asphalt Pavement
Bituminous Mix
Asphalt + mineral aggregates
Job Mix

ASPHALTPAVEMENTS- pavements consisting of a surface course of


mineral aggregate coated and cemented
together
with asphalt cement on supporting course such
as asphalt bases, crushed stone, slag or
gravel
or on Portland cement concrete brick or block
pavement.
ASPHALTOVERLAY-one or more courses of asphalt construction on an
existing pavement.
- generally includes a leveling course to correct the
contour of the old pavement followed by uniform
course or courses to provide needed thickness
- when overlaying rigid type pavement the overlay
should be not less than four inches to minimize
reflection of cracks and joints through the overlay.
- greater thickness of overlay may be required
depending upon conditions of old pavement and

COURSES OF ASPHALT AGGREGATE MIXTURE


1.ASPHALTBASECOURSEA foundation course consisting of mineral
aggregate, bound together with asphaltic material.

2.ASPHALTINTERMEDIATECOURSE(BINDERCOURSE)
- a course between a base course and an asphalt surface course.
3ASPHALTSURFACECOURSE(WEARINGCOURSE)

- the top course of an asphalt pavement.


4.ASPHALTLEVELINGCOURSE

- a course (asphalt-aggregate mixture) of variable thickness used to


eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior to
superimposed treatment or construction.

ASPHALTPAVEMENT
STRUCTURES
(FlexiblePavementStructure)

- courses of asphalt aggregate mixtures plus any non-rigid courses between


the asphalt construction and the foundation or sub-grade.
FLEXIBLE-The term sometimes used in connection with asphalt
pavements denotes the ability of such a pavement
structure to conform to settlement of foundation.

TYPES OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT


1.DENSE-GRADEDHOTMIXASPHALT

- hot mix asphalt pavement, the highest quality among the different types.
- consists of well graded aggregate and asphalt cement which are heated and
blended together in exact proportions at a hot mix plant.
WELL-GRADEDAGGREGATES- aggregate that is graded from the
maximum size down to filler with object of obtaining an asphalt mix with
controlled void content and high stability.
2.OPEN-GRADEDSURFACEANDBASECOURSES

- one containing little or no mineral filler or in which the void spaces in the
compacted aggregates are relatively large.
3.STONE-FILLEDMIXES

- a sheet of asphalt containing up to 25 percent coarse aggregate.

TYPES OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT


4.SANDHOTMIXASPHALT

- a mixture of sand and asphalt cement or liquid asphalt prepared with or


without special control of aggregate grading, with or without mineral filler.
- either mixed-in-place or plant-mix construction may be employed.
- use in construction of both base and surface courses.
5.SHEETHOTMIXASPHALT

- a hot mix of asphalt cement with clean, angular, graded sand and mineral
filler.
- its use is ordinarily confined to surface course usually laid on an intermediate
or leveling course.
6.ASPHALTEMULSIONMIXES(COLDMIXES)

- cold mix pavements use asphalt emulsion or cutback asphalt.


- require little or no heating of materials and can often be produced at the
construction site without a central plant.

AGGREGATE FRACTIONS:
1.COARSEAGGREGATE(CA)

- retained 2.36 mm ( No. 8) sieve


- maybe obtained from gravel deposits or stone quarries.
2.FINEAGGREGATE(FA)

- passing 2.36 mm (N0. 8) sieve and retained on 0.75 mm (N0. 200) sieve.
- sources of fine aggregate are natural deposits of bank, beach or river
sand or size between coarse and fine aggregate is 2.36 mm ( N0.8).
3.MINERALFILLER(MF)

- passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve


- may consist of finely ground limestone, rock powder, naturally occurring
silt, Portland cement, hydrated lime or similar clean non-plastic finely
divided mineral matter.
- it may occur naturally in the fine and coarse aggregate as mineral dust or
it may be added as a separate ingredient.
- normally range 0.5 to 1.0 mass percent dry aggregate basis; hydrated lime
is used, lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregate which are
predominantly calcareous.

COURSES OF ASPHALT AGGREGATE MIXTURE


1.ASPHALTBASECOURSE
- a foundation course consisting of mineral
aggregate, bound together with asphaltic mate

2.ASPHALTINTERMEDIATECOURSE(BINDERCOURSE)
- a course between a base course and an asphalt surface course.
3.ASPHALTSURFACECOURSE(WEARINGCOURSE)

- the top course of an asphalt pavement.


4.ASPHALTLEVELINGCOURSE

- a course (asphalt-aggregate mixture) of variable thickness used to


eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior to
superimposed treatment or construction.

COMPOSITION OF BITUMINOUS MIX


1.ASPHALT-is the binder of the aggregates

- normally ranges from 5 8 % mass percent on the basis of total


dry aggregate.
- grade of asphalt cement normally ranges from 60/70 to 200/300
penetration.
The service performance of an asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the
grade and quantity of asphalt it contains.
The grade selected for each project is influenced by climatic conditions,
traffic, and strength of the road foundation.
Hotclimates use lower penetration grades or hard asphalts.
ColdClimates-use higher penetrates grades or softer asphalts.

2.MINERALAGGREGATE
- important ingredient
- normally ranges from 92 to 96 percent of
the weight of mixture.

IMPORTANTPROPERTIESOFAGGREGATES

1.

Strength

2.

Particle shape

3.

Surface texture

4.

Absorption

5.

Gradation

6.

Cleanliness

7.

Specific Gravity

8.

Affinity for water

9.

Soundness

TWOTYPESOFBITUMINOUSMIX
1.ROADMIX(MIXED-IN-PLACE)-an asphalt course produced by mixing

mineral aggregate and liquid asphalt at the road site by means of


travel plants, motor graders, drags or special road-mixing
equipment.

2.PLANT-MIX- a mixture produced in an asphalt mixing plant which consist of


mineral aggregates uniformly coated with asphalt cement or liquid
asphalt.
2.1ColdMix-Plant mixes which may be spread or compacted at atmospheric
temperature.

- cold-laid
- used only for patching
2.2HotMix-Plant mixes which must be spread and compacted at an elevated
temperature.
-

hot-laid
both the aggregate and asphalt
cement are heated prior to mixing for giving origin to the term hot mix .
higher durability and stability than cold mix.

SIGNIFICANTPROPERTIESOFBITUMINOUSPAVINGMIXTURE

1.STABILITY-it is defined as resistance to displacement under sustained or


repeated loadings.
- it implies resistance to shoving and rutting by the action of vehicular
traffic and involves resistance to shearing stress.
FACTORSAFFECTINGSTABILITY

1.

Gradation of the Mineral Aggregate

2.

Shape and Surface Texture of Aggregate Particles

3.

Hardness of Aggregate Particles

4.

Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate

5.

Quantity and Consistency of the Bituminous Binder

6.

Degree of Compaction

TESTSFORSTABILITY
1.

Hubbard- Field

2.

Marshall

3.

Hveem Stabilometer

4.

Unconfined Immersion-Compression

5.

Triaxial Compression

2.DURABILITY-it is defined as resistance to


disintegration or deterioration due to the
detrimental effects of traffic, water, air
and temperature changes.

FACTORSAFFECTINGDURABILITY

1. Density of the compacted mixture


2.

Properties of mineral aggregates

3. Properties of the Bituminous Binder


4. Quantity of the Bituminous Binder

3.FLEXIBILITY-it is defined as the ability of the


pavement to bend repeatedly without
cracking and to conform to variations
of the underlying base.
FACTORSAFFECTINGFLEXIBILITY

1. Quantity of Bituminous Binder


2. Quantity of Mineral Filler
3. Viscosity and Temperature Susceptibility of the
binder.

4. SKIDRESISTANCE-it is the resistance offered by


the pavement to slipping or
skidding of the vehicle tires.
FACTORSAFFECTINGSKIDRESISTANCE

1. Excess asphalt at pavement surface


2. Surface Roughness of Aggregate Particles

5. PERMEABILITY-it means porosity or perviousness


the mixture, principally dependent
on pore size, a dense graded
mix prevents water from entering
the base through the surface.
FACTORSAFFECTINGPERMEABILITY

1. Density of the compacted mix


2. Temperature of the mix

6.WORKABILITY-the ease by which the material canbe placed


to its desired uniformity and compacted to the
required density.
FACTORSAFFECTINGWORKABILITY

1. Gradation of Aggregate
2. Consistency of the bituminous binder
3. Temperature of the mix

7.FATIGUERESISTANCE-ability to withstand
repeatedly flexing caused
by the passage of the
wheel loads.
FACTORSAFFECTINGFATIGUERESISTANCE

1. Quantity of the Bituminous Binder


2. Gradation of Aggregate

MINIMUMOFTESTINGREQUIREMENTS

1- Quality Test for every 130 M. T. of fraction thereof


size of sample : 20 kg
DIFFERENTTESTSONBITUMINOUSMIX

1.EXTRACTION-quantitative determination of asphalt


content in bituminous paving mixtures.
Calculation:

wt. of original wt. of sample after extraction


% Asphalt Content = - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -x 100
(by wt. of mix)
wt. of original sample
wt. of original wt. of sample after extraction
% Asphalt Content = - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - - - - - --x 100
(by wt. of agg.)
wt. of sample after extraction

2.BULKSPECIFICGRAVITY-Bulk specific gravity of


the compacted bituminous mixtures are used in
calculating unit weight of the mixture. The specific
gravity or density is an important data in the
determination of the degree of compaction of a newly
constructed asphalt pavement.
Calculation:
A
Bulk Specific Gravity, Gmb = --------B - C
where :
A = mass of specimen in air, g
B = mass of surface-dry specimen, g
C = mass of specimen in water, g

3.GRADING-determining the relative proportions of


various particles sizes of mineral
aggregates in a mix, if it conforms with the
Job Mix Formula/Specifications.
4.STABILITY(IMMERSION-COMPRESSION
METHOD)-this method covers measurement of
the loss of cohesion resulting from the
action of water on compacted
bituminous mixtures.

4.1DRYSTABILITYcompressive strength of freshly molded and


cured specimens.
4.2WETSTABILITY-compressive strength of duplicate
specimens that have been immersed in
water under prescribed conditions.

CALCULATIONS:

IndexofRetainedStrength(IRS)-calculate numerical index of


resistance of bituminous mixtures to the detrimental effect of water
as the percentage of the original strength that is retain after the
immersion period.
Wet Stability
Index of retained strength, %= ------------------- x 100
Dry Stability

JOBMIXFORMULA

JOB-MIXFORMULA-primary quality control mechanism for the production of


asphalt mixtures with a high degree of uniformity that will satisfy job
requirements. The Job-Mix Formula with the allowable tolerances
becomes the job control grading band. The job control grading band,
however, must be within the boundaries of the specification grading
band .
EachJob-MixFormulasubmittedshallproposeddefinitesinglevaluesfor:

1.

The percentage of aggregate passing each specified


sieve size.

2.

The percentage of bituminous material to be added.

3.

The temperature of the mixture delivered on the road.

4.

The kind and percentage of additive to be used.

5.

The kind and percentage of mineral filler to be used.

After the job-mix is established, all mixture furnished for the project shall
conform thereto within the following ranges of tolerances :
Passing No. 4 and larger sieve

7%

Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieve

4%

Passing No. 200 sieve

2%

Bituminous Material

0.4 %

Temperature of Mix

10 0 C

The mixture shall have a minimum dry compressive strength (dry


stability) or 1.4 Mpa (200 psi) or 1400 kN/m2 or kPa.
The mixture shall have a mass percent air voids with the range of 3 to 5.
The mixture shall also have an index of retained strength of not less than
70%.
At least three weeks prior to production, the contractor shall submit in
writing a job-mix formula each mixture supported by laboratory test data
along with sample and sources of the components and viscosity
temperature relationship to the Engineer for testing and approval.
Should a change in source of material be proposed or should a job-mix
formula prove unsatisfactory, a new job-mix formula shall be submitted
by the contractor in writing and be approved by the Engineer prior to
production.
Approval of a new job-mix formula may require laboratory testing and
verification.

ACCEPTING,SAMPLINGANDTESTINGOF
FINISHEDASPHALTPAVEMENT

The contractor shall cut full depth sample as


directed from the finished pavement. Samples shall be
neatly cut by a saw or core. At least one, but no more
than three samples shall be taken for each full days
operation. The contractor shall supply and finished new
material to back fill voids left by the samples taken.
The samples obtain will be used to test the
density of compacted pavement. The compacted
pavement shall have a density equal to or greater than
95 mass percent of the density of a laboratory specimen.

ASPHALTCORE

TESTINGOFDRILLEDCORESFROMANASPHALTPAVEMENT

SIGNIFICANCEANDUSE

- Core tests determine the thickness and density of compacted asphalt pavement.
SAMPLING:

1. Specimens shall be taken from the pavement with a core drill,


carborundum saw, or by other suitable means.

diamond or

2. Care shall be taken to avoid distortion, bending or cracking of specimen during and
after removal from the pavement.
3. Specimens shall be free from foreign materials such as seal coat,
foundation material, soil, paper or foil.
4. Specimens for thickness and density determination.
Sawedspecimen: at least 150 mm x 150 mm
Cored specimen :100mmdia.fulldepth

tack coat,

Recommend that :
1. The diameter of cylindrically molded or cored specimens, or the
length of the sides of, sawed specimens, be at least equal to four
times the maximum size of the aggregates.
2. That the thickness of the specimens be at least one and one-half
times the maximum size of the aggregates.
OBTAININGOFCORESPECIMENS

Case 1. At least one but no more than three (3) samples shall be
taken for each full days operation.
To ascertain the degree of compaction of the asphalt pavement,
more than one (1) core sample but not greater than three (3) maybe
taken for each days operation. When 2 or 3 cores are taken, each
core should represent a specific pavement area completed within a
day. Averaging of the thickness and density of the 2 or 3 cores
should not be done.

Case2.If no core was taken at the end of each days operation and
the project has already been completed, core shall be
taken for every 100 linear meters per lane or fraction
thereof of the completed pavement. Each core shall
represent 100 LM of the asphalt pavement. Averaging of
the thickness and density of the core should not be done.
TESTSONASPHALTCORE
1.DENSITY

CALCULATION:

Density(d)=Gmb x Density of Water


Where:
Density of water = 1.0 gm/cm3
Gmb
= Bulk Specific Gravity

CALCULATIONOFBULKSPECIFICGRAVITY(Gmb)

A
Gmb= - - - - - - - - B - C
Where:

A - mass of specimen in air, g


B - mass of surface dry specimen, g
C - mass of specimen in water, g

the compacted pavement shall have a density equal to or


greater than 95 mass percent of the density of a
laboratory specimen

CALCULATION:
Field Density
% COMPACTION=---------------------------------Lab. Compacted Density

2.THICKNESS

1. make four (4) measurements at approximately quarter points


on the periphery of cores or at the approximate midpoint of
each of the four sides of rectangular sawed specimens.
(See figure)
2. the average of these measurements is the thickness (t) of the
specimen.
METHODOFMEASUREMENT

Bituminous mixture will be measured by the tonne. The quantity to be


paid shall be the number of tones of bituminous mixture in the accepted
pavement computed based on the cores taken by applying the
thicknesses and densities of the cores obtained therein to the width and
length of the pavement represented by the core; otherwise, core
samples shall be taken from the completed pavement for every 100 L.
M. per lane to determine the corresponding thicknesses and densities.
Batch weights will not be permitted as a method od measurement.

COMPUTATION:QUANTITYTOBEPAID

l w t d
W= ________________

10 6
Where:
W = weight of mixture, tonne
l = pavement length represented by the core, cm
w = pavement width represented by the core, cm
t = pavement thickness, cm
d = density of the core, gm/ cm 3
Note: The division 10 6 converts the unit of weight from
gram to tonne.

IllustrationCaseI:

In the construction of a 380 linear meter asphalt road, with a designed


thickness of 5 cm, a width requirement of 3.05 m and a programmed quantity
for bituminous mix of 135 tonnes, an asphalt core was taken after each full
days operation. Results of thickness and density tests are as follows:
Paving
Date

Paving Length
represented, m

Thickness
M

Density
gm/cm3

Day 1

120

5.3

2.262

Day 2

140

5.1

2.311

Day 3

120

5.0

2.221

The computation for the quantity of bituminous mixture that should be


paid is as follows:

Convertsunitsoflengthandwidthtocm
12,000 (305) (5.3) 2.262
W1 = ------------------------------- = 43.88 tonnes
106
14,000 (305) (5.1) 2.311
W2 = ------------------------------- = 50.33 tonnes
106

12,000 (305)(5.0)2.221
W3 = ------------------------------- = 40.64 tonnes
106
WT=134.85tonnes

In the preceeding case, only the quantity corresponding to 134.85 tonnes


shall be paid.

IllustrationCase2:

For the same stretch of road, no core test was conducted at


the end of each days operation. Thus, core were taken for every 100
linear meters of the completed pavement. Results of thickness and
density tests are as follows :
Paving Length
Represented, m
100
100
100
80

Thickness
cm

Density
gm/cm3

5.3
5.1
5.1
5.0

2.262
2.311
2.225
2.226

The computation for the quantity of bituminous mixture that should be paid is as
follows:
Convertsunitsoflengthandwidthtocm
10,000 (305) (5.3) 2.262
W1 = ------------------------------- = 36.56 tonnes
106
10,000 (305) (5.1) 2.311
W2 = ------------------------------- = 35.95 tonnes
106
10,000 (305)(5.1)2.225
W3 = ------------------------------- = 34.61 tonnes
106
8,000 (305)(5.0)2.225
W4 = ------------------------------- = 27.16 tonnes
106
WT=134.28tonnes

Daghang
Salamat