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Date of Presentation: 09th May, 2015

TECHNICAL SEMINAR

Pulsed Light Technology: A Novel Method


For Food Preservation

PRESENTATION BY

SUBMITTED TO

Kumuda J.

Dept. of Biotechnology

1RV14BBT06

R. V. College of Engineering

II Semester, M.Tech

OUTLINE
1.

ABSTRACT

2.

INTRODUCTION

3.

MECHANISMS OF MICROBIAL INACTIVATION

4.

FACTORS AFFECTING MICROBIAL INACTIVATION

5.

PULSED LIGHT SYSTEM

6.

APPLICATIONS

7.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

8.

CONCLUSION

9.

REFERENCES

1. ABSTRACT

Conventional thermal food preservation techniquesDemand for minimally processed foods


affects
the foodappears
quality,
and nutrients.
Pulsed
It not light
only
decontaminates
technology
the food
-best
or
alternatives
packagingtobut
conventional
also maintains
thermal
its texture
food and
techniques
nutrients

2.INTRODUCTION

Non-thermal food processing


technique-discharge of high voltage
electric pulses into the food product[1]

Improved form of UV treatment. It is


done with the help of Xenon lamps that
can produce flashes several seconds [2]

Decontamination technique-reduces pests,


spoilage microbes, pathogens from food
without much effect on its quality [3]

It uses light energy in concentrated


form and exposes the substrate to
intense short bursts of light [4].

Figure 01: Pulsed light spectrum

3. MECHANISMS OF MICROBIAL
INACTIVATION
Ultraviolet light absorbed by the microbes. The bactericidal
effect is attributed to the high energy short wave ultraviolet
3.1.PHOTOrange. In the ultraviolet range of 250-260 nm, alterations in
CHEMICAL
DNA is due to pyrimidine dimers [5, 6]
MECHANISM
The ultraviolet treatment of bacterial spores results in the
formation of spore photo-product 5-thyminyl-5,6dihydrothymine

3.2.PHOTOTHERMAL
MECHANISM

With a intensity exceeding 0.5 Joule/cm, the disinfection is


achieved through a rupture of microbes caused by absorption
of all ultraviolet light from a flash lamp [7]
This became evident by [8] when they showed electronmicroscope photographs of flashed Aspergillus niger spores
presenting severe deformation and rupture.

Figure 02: Photo-chemical Mechanism of Microbial


Inactivation

4. FACTORS AFFECTING MICROBIAL


INACTIVATION BY PULSE LIGHT

4.1. Type of microorganism

Degree of scattering and absorption


of light-optical properties

4.2. Interaction
between light and
substrate

Reflection can occur depending on


the smoothness or roughness of the
surface of the material
Refraction is for transparent and
colored foods

4.3. Distance from


the light source

As the distance from light source


and depth of the substrate
increases, the absorption and
scattering diminishes
The optical penetration varies with
wavelength [7]

Storage
capacitor

High voltage
power
supply

Pulseforming
network

5. Design
of pulsed
light
system

Gas
discharge
flash lamp

Trigger
signal

Figure 03: High


intensity pulsedlight system [7]

Metallic electrodes protrude


into each end of the envelope
and are connected to the
capacitor which is charged to
a high voltage

Envelope, seals and the


electrodesmain structural
components of the fash lamp

Flash lamp
Pulsed light systems can be of
either batch or continuous type
[1]

The whole assembly of the


fash lamp needs to be sealed.
Commonly used seals include,
solder seals, rod seals and
ribbon seals.

Figure 04: Batch and continuous mode of pulsed light


system

5.1. Mechanism in the flash lamp

The gas in the flash


lamp undergoes
ionisation when
subjected to a high
electrical pulse and
plasma formation
takes place

A very large current


pulse formation
occurs and this is sent
through the ionized
gas, exciting the
electrons surrounding
the gas atoms

The electrons while


jumping back to their
lower energy levels,
release quanta of
energy producing
photons

For all existing


pulsed-light systems,
a control system is
used to automate the
process and control
the rate of pulsing
[4].

6. APPLICATIONS

Pulsed light treatment


given to eggs for surface
decontamination

Pulsed light treatment


for decontamination of
chicken from food
pathogens

Pulsed light treatment


for freshly cut
mushroom

Pulsed light system for


bacterial inactivation in
fruit juices and milk

Application on food
processing equipment

Decontamination of
packaging material [9]

Decontamination of food
powders

Mitigation of allergen

Pulsed light field


technology in combination
with other non-thermal
processing technologies

7. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


ADVANTAGES
The intensity of light is 20,000 times brighter than sunlight and there is no thermal
effect.
The xenon-flash lamps used in pulsed light treatment are more eco-friendly than the
mercury vapour lamps used in ultraviolet treatment [10].

DISADVANTAGES
This technique for decontamination of micro-organisms is useful mostly in case of
liquid foods and surface of solid foods.
Folds or fissures in the food may protect microbes from being exposed to the pulsed
light [11].

8. CONCLUSION
The pulsed light processing has many
applications in the food industry as a nonthermal technique of food preservation.

It is to be taken into consideration that the


food to be processed, the microbial type and
load affect the efficacy of the treatment
Though with some limitations, if
complemented with other processing
techniques this can help in better food
preservation with minimal effects on the food
quality.

9.REFERENCES
1.

Angersbach, A., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. 2009. Effects of pulsed electric fields on cell
membranes in real food systems. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
1(2): 135-149.

2.

Munoz, A., Palgan, I., Noci, F., Morgan, D. J., Cronin, D. A., Whyte, P., and Lyng, J. G.
2012. Processing lines and alternative preservation techniques to prolong the shelf life
of minimally processed leafy vegetables. Food Microbiology 28: 1200-1204.

3.

Lasagabster, A., Arboleya, J. C. and Martinez, D. M. 2011. Bactericidal effectiveness of


Modulated Ultravoilet Light. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 12
(2): 124-128.

4.

Oms-Oliu, G., Aguilo-Aguayo, I., Martin-Belloso, O. and Soliva-Fortuny, R. 2010.


Pulsed light for food decontamination: A review. Postharvest Biology and Technology
60 (3): 216-222.

5.

Turtoi, M. and Nicolau, A. 2012. Sequence specificity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers


in DNA treated with solar (ultraviolet B) radiation. Journal of Food Engineering 83: 4753.

6. Palgan, I., Caminiti, I. M., Munoz, A., Noci, F., Whyte, P., Morgan, D. J., Cronin, D. A. and
Lyng, J. G. 2013. Pulse Ultravoilet disintegration (PUVD): a new sterilisation mechanism
for packaging and broad medical hospital applications. Food Microbiology 28 (1): 14-20.
7. Woodling, S. E. and Moraru, C. I. 2005. Achieving faster cure time with pulsed ultraviolet
Journal of Food Science 70: 345351
8. Ethan, S. 2014. Alternatives to Conventional Food Processing. In Gerald M. S., Matthews,
K. R. (Eds), p. 280. Academic Press.
9. Rowan, N. J., MacGregor, S. J., Anderson, J. G., Fouracre, R . A., Mcllvaney, L. and
Farish, O. 2011. Pulsed-light inactivation of food-related microorganisms. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology 65: 1312-1315.
10. Gomez-Lopez, V. M., Ragaerta, P., Debevere, J. and Devlieghere, F. 2014. Pulsed light for
food decontamination: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 18: 464-473.
11. Brown, A. C. 2013. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation. In Brown, A.C. (3rd
Eds). Belmont, CA : Thompson/Wadsworth publishing, p. 47.