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LINEAR AND

ANGULARMEASUREMENT

SLIP GAUGE
Slip gauges are rectangular
blocks of steel having a crosssection of about 30 by 10 mm
Normal set
Range

Step

Pieces

1.001 to 1.009

0.001

1.01 to 1.09

0.01

1.1 to 1.9

0.1

1 to 9

10 to 90

10

Total

45

Special Set
Range

Step

Pieces

1.001 to 1.009

0.001

1.01 to 1.49

0.01

49

1.5 to 9.5

0.5

19

10 to 90

10

Total

86

Classification
AA slip gauges
A slip gauges and
B slip gauges

AA slip gauges
Master slip gauges
Accurate to plus or minus two
microns per meter

A slip gauges
Reference purpose
Type A is guaranteed accurate up to
plus or minus four microns per meter

B slip gauges
Working slip gauges
Type 'B' for plus or minus eight
microns per meter

Classes
Grade 2
Grade 1
Grade 0
Grade 00
Calibration grade

Grade 2
This is the workshop grade
Typical
machine
cutters
width.

uses

include

tools,
and

setting

positioning

checking

up

milling

mechanical

Grade 1
Used for more precise work, -tool
room.
Typical uses include setting up
Sine bars and sine tables
Checking gap gauges and
Setting dial test indicators to zero

Grade 0
This is more commonly known as the
Inspection grade
Inspection Department only who
have access to this grade of slips

Grade 00
This grade would be kept in the
Standard Room and would be kept
for work of the highest precision only.
Determination of any errors present
in the workshop or Grade 2 slips.

Calibration grade
Calibration grade are used for
calibration of slip gauges, other
measuring instruments

Wringing:
It takes place when two flat lapped surfaces arc
placed in contact with a sliding movement.
It is the property of measuring faces of a gauge
block of adhering by sliding or pressing the
gauge against the measuring faces of other
gauge blocks of datum surface without the use of
any external means.
It is due to molecular adhesion between a liquid
film and the mating surface of the flat surfaces.
The success of precision measurement by slip
gauges depends on the phenomenon of wringing.

SLIP GAUGE

WRINGING OF SLIP GAUGE

Interferometer

Principle
Interferometers are optical
instruments used for measuring
flatness
Determining minute differences in
length by direct reference to the
wavelength of light.

Fringes

Fringes

Fringes
A
Here the error is indicated by the amount by
which the fringes are out of parallelism with
those on the base plate

B
If the work piece is concave or convex,
fringe pattern will be as shown in Figure (b).

C
The surface is flat with slight rounding off at
the corner

Angular
measurement

Angular Measurement :A)Protractors


1)Vernier Bevel Protactors
2)Universal bevel protactor
3)Optical bevel protactors
b) Sine Bars
1) Sine Centers
2) Sine Table
C)Angle Gauges
D)Spirit Level
E)Clinometer
1)Vernier clinometer
2)Micrometer clinometer
G) Auto Clinometer
H) Angle Dekkor

Vernier Bevel
Protactor

Universal Bevel protractor

Mechanical type

Optical bevel protractor

Measurement using bevel protractor

Sine Bars

Measurement using sine bar

APPLICATION
OF SLIP
GAUGES

Measurement of large and height


workpiece

Measurement of large
workpiece

Advantages of sine Bar:1)It is used for accurate and precise angular


measurement
2)It is available easily
3)Its is cheap

Disadvantage:1)The application is limited for a fixed centre


distance between two plugs or rollers.
2) It is difficult to handle and position the slip
gauges
If the angle exceeds 45 degree sine bar are
impracticable and inaccurate.

SOURCES OF ERROR IN SINE BAR :1) Error in distance between rollers


2) Error in slip gauges combination used for angle setting
3) Error in equality of size of rollers and cylinders
accuracy in the form of rollers.
4) Error in parallelism of roller axes with each other.
5) Error in flatness of the upper surface of the bar

SINE
CENTRE

SINE TABLE

ANGLE
GUAGES

ANGLE GAUGES

SPIRIT
LEVEL

SPIRIT LEVEL

CLINOMETER

MICROMETER
CLINOMETER

ALIGNMENT
TELESCOPE

AUTO
COLLIMATOR

Injected

Angle dekor