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Business Model

Generation
Written by
Alexander
Osterwalder and
Yves Pigneur
2010

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur,


2010)

8/5/15

Table of content
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Canvas
Patterns
Design
Strategy
Process
Outlook
Afterword

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

1. Canvas

1.

Definition of a business model

2.

The 9 building blocks

3.

The business model canvas template

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

1. Business Model
2. Elements of a Business Model

A business model describes the


rationale of how an organization
creates, delivers and captures value
Key activities

Customer Segments

Channel

Customer
Relationship

Key resources
Revenue Stream
Cost structure

Value Proposition

Key partners
4

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

CS. Customer segment


Different group of people or organizations an
enterprise aims to reach and serve
Segments defined by:
Dominant forms:
Customer needs
Mass market (e.g. Wal Reach
Mart)
Relationships
Niche market (e.g.
Profitability
Apple)
Willingness to pay
Segmented (e.g.
Microsoft Home/ Office/
Enterprise)
Diversified (e.g.
Amazon Cloud)
Multi-sided platforms
(e.g. eBay)
5

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

VP. Value Propositions


Bundle of products and services that create
value for a specific customer segment
Ways of value creation:
Newness
Performance
Customization
Getting the job done
Design
Brand/ status
Price
Cost reduction (on usage)
Risk reduction
Accessibility
Convenience/ usability
6
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and
Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

CH. Channels
How company communicates with and
reaches its customer segments to deliver
value proposition
Channel phases:
Own
Partner
Awareness
Direct
Indirect
Evaluation
Sales Web
Own Partn Whol
Purchase
force sales stores
er
esaler
Delivery
stores
s
After sales

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

CR. Customer Relationships


Type of relationship a company establishes
with specific customer segments
Nature of customer relationships:
Personal assistance (e.g. call centers)
Dedicated personal assistance (e.g. private
banking HNIs)
Self-service (e.g. online banking)
Automated services (e.g. customer rating/ review)
Communities (e.g. PatientsLikeMe.com )
Co-creation (e.g. YouTube.com)

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

R$. Revenue Stream


Cash a company generates from each
customer segment (transaction revenue or
recurring revenue)
Pricing mechanisms

Revenue models:
Fixed menu pricing
Dynamic pricing
Asset sales (e.g.
List price
Negotiation
automobiles)
Product feature
Yield management
Usage fee (e.g.
dependent
(e.g. airline
telecom)
Customer segment
seats)
Subscription fee
dependent
Real-time-markets
(e.g. gym)
Volume dependent Auctions
Lending/ renting/
leasing (e.g. car
rental)
Licensing (e.g.
patent royalties)
Brokerage fee (e.g.
9
and 8/5/15
credit cards)Business Model Generation (Osterwalder
Pigneur, 2010)

KR. Key Resources


The most important assets required to make a
business model work
Categories of resources include:
Physical (e.g. facilities, buildings, machines,
systems, networks)
Intellectual (e.g. brands, proprietary knowledge,
patents and copyrights, partnerships and
customer databases)
Human (e.g. knowledge intensive and creative
industries)
Financial (e.g. cash, lines of credit, stock options)

10

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

KA. Key Activities


The most important things a company must
do to make its business model work
Key business activities could include:
Production
Problem solving (e.g. service/ utility industries)
Platform/ network (e.g. matchmaking platforms,
software, etc)

11

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

KP. Key Partnerships


Network of partners or suppliers that make
the business model work
Types of partnerships could General motives are:
Optimization and
be:
Strategic alliance
economies of scale
between non-competitors Reduce risk and
Coopetition, as alliances
uncertainty (e.g. Blubetween competitors
ray)
Joint ventures for
Acquisition of
developing new products
particular resources
Buyer- supplier
and activities
relationships to assure
reliance supplies
12

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

C$. Cost Structure


Cost incurred in operating a business model
Dominant cost structures
Characteristics of cost
Cost driven (e.g. low-price
structure:
Fixed costs
value proposition,
automation, outsourcing) Variable costs
Value driven (e.g.
Economies of scale
Economies of scope
premium value creation,
and high degree of
personalization)

13

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

3. Business model canvas template


Key
Partners

Key
Activities

Key
Resources

Cost Structure

14

Value
Proposition

Customer
Relation

Customer
Segments

Channels

Revenue Streams

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Apple iPod/ iTunes business Model


Key
Partners
Record
companies
OEMs

Key Activities
Value
Hardware
Propositi
design
on
Marketing
Seamles
s music
Key
experien
Resources
ce
People
Apple brand
iPod
hardware
iTunes
software
Content and
agreement

Cost Structure

Customer
Relation
Lovemark
Switching
cost

Customer
Segments
Mass
market

Channels
Retail
stores
Apple
stores
iTune
stores
Apple.com

Revenue Streams
People
15
Business Model Generation
(Osterwalder
and 8/5/15
iTunes stores
Pigneur,
2010)
Manufacturing
Large
hardware
revenue

2. Patterns
1.

Unbundling business models

2.

The long tail

3.

Multi-sided platforms

4.

Free as a business model

5.

Open business models

16

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

1. Unbundling business models


Product
Innovation
Early market entry
enables charging
Economics premium prices
and acquiring large
market share;
speed is key
Competitio
Battle for talent;
n
low barriers to
entry; many small
players thrive
Culture
Employee entered;

17

Customer
Relationship
Management

Infrastructure
Management

High cost of
customer
acquisition makes
it imperative to
gain wallet share;
economics of scope
are key

High fixed costs


make large
volumes essential
to achieve low unit
costs; economics
of sale are key

Battle for scope;


rapid consolidation;
a few big players
dominate

Battle for scale;


rapid consolidation;
a few big players
dominate

Highly service
Cost focused;
coddling the create oriented; customer- stresses
stars
comes-first
standardization,
Examples: mobile telecom
industry, private
bankingand
mentality
predictability
industry
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and 8/5/15
efficiency
Pigneur, 2010)

2. Long tail business models

Selling less of more; large number of niche


products, each of which sells relatively
infrequently
Moving away from only selling hit products
Examples: Netflix, eBay, YouTube, Facebook,
Lulu.com (book publishing), Lego Factory
Drivers

18

Democratization of tools of production (e.g. movie


making)
Democratization of distribution (on Internet)
Falling search cost of connecting supply with
demand
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and
Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Long tail explained for music industry

19

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

3. Multi-sided platforms

Brings together two or more distinct but


interdependent groups of customers. Product
value by:

Facilitating interactions
Network effect (more leads to more) Same-side
effect and other-side effect
One side generates revenue, and other side is
subsidized

Examples: Visa, Google, eBay, Microsoft


Windows SDK, Financial Times, Wii game
console, Metro (free newspaper)

20

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Google business Model


Key
Partners

Key Activities
Value
Platform
Propositi
management
on
Managing
Targeted
services
ads
Expanding
Free
reach
search
Monetizi
Key
ng
Resources
content
Search
platform

21

Cost

Customer
Relation

Customer
Segments
Advertisers
Web
surfers
Content
owners

Channels

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and 8/5/15


Pigneur,Revenue
2010)
Structure
Streams

PSP/ Xbox versus Wii focus


Key
Partners

Key
Activities
Key
Resources

Key
Partners

Nintendo
Cost Structure
Wii

22

Value
Propositi
on
High
perform
ance
console
Console
audienc
e

Custom
er
Relation

Channel
s

Customer
Segments
Hardcore
gamers
Game
develope
rs

Key Activities

Value
Proposition
Key
Family
Resources
console

Access to
Revenue Streams
Hardware sales console
at a loss
users
Royalties from developers
Cheap game
developmen
t cost

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

Sony
PlayStatio
n
Microsoft
Xbox
Custome
r
Relation
Channel
s

8/5/15

Customer
Segments
Casual
gamers
Game
developers

4. Free as a business model

Non-paying customers are financed by


another part of the business model or by
another customer segment
Examples: Metro (free paper), Flickr, Open
Source, Skype, Google, Free Mobile Phones,
Insurance
Some models are:

23

Advertising (one side of multi-sided platform pays)


Freemium (free basic offerings, and optional
premium services)
Bait and hook (free or inexpensive trials)
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and
Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Red Hat Linux business model


Key
Key Activities
Value
Customer
Customer
Software
Partners
Propositio
Relation
Segments
Linux
Self
Advertisers
support
n
Free
Web
Open
services
service
Software
Source
(Linux)
and direct
surfers
developme
visioning and
open
access to Content
nt
testing
source
engineers
owners
community
based
Key
software
Resources
Continuou
Red Hat
s
(Linux)
upgraded,
software
services
and
guarantee
Channels
d
Redhat.co
software
m
Red Hat
global
24
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and 8/5/15
branches
Pigneur, 2010)

Skype business model


Key
Partners
Payment
providers
Distributio
n partners
Telco
partners

25

Key Activities
Software
development
Key
Resources
Software
developers
Software

Value
Propositio
n
Free
Internet
and voice
calling
Cheap
calls to
phones
(SkypeOu
t)

Customer
Relation
Mass
customiz
ed

Channels
Skype.co
m
Headset
partnersh
ips

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Customer
Segments
Web users
globally
People
who want
to call
phones

Gillette: Bait and hook business model


Key Partners
Key
Manufacture
Activities
Marketing
rs
Retailers
R&D
Logistics
Key
Resources
Brand
Patents
(blocking)

Value
Propositio
n
Razor
handle
Blades

Customer
Relation
Built-in
lock-in

Customer
Segments
Customers

Channels
Retail

Cost Structure
Revenue Streams
Marketing
One time hand purchase
Manufacturing
Frequent blade replacement
Logistics
26
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and 8/5/15
Pigneur, 2010)
R&D

5. Open Business Models


Principles of innovation
Closer

Open

The smart people in our field


work with us

We need to work with smart


people both inside and outside
our company

To profile from research and


development, we must discover
it, develop it, and ship it
ourselves

External R&D can create


significant value; internal R&D is
needed to claim some portion of
that value

In we conduct most of the best


research in the industry, we will
win.

We dont have to originate the


research to benefit from it

If we create the most or the best


ideas in the industry, we will win.

If we make the best use of


internal and external ideas, we
win.

We should control our innovation We should profit from others use


process, so that competitors dont of our innovations, and we
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Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and 8/5/15
profit from our ideas
should
buy
others intellectual
Pigneur,
2010)

Outside-in versus inside-out approaches


Key Partners
Other
companys IP
External
scientists
Retires
scientists

Key Activities
Internal R&D
Key
Resources
Internal R&D

Procter & Gamble:


Connect and Develop

Cost Structure
Leveraging internal R&D

GlaxoSmithKline:
Patent Pools

28

Value
Proposition
IP for
underserved
diseases

Customer
Relation
Acquisiti
on
Retentio
n

Customer
Segments
Outside
researchers

Channels
Patent
pools

Revenue
Streams
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder
and
8/5/15
License feePigneur, 2010)

InnoCentive
Key Partners
Key
Major
Activities
Platform
seekers
managem
ent
Acquire
solvers
and
seekers
Key
Resources
Brand
Patents
(blocking)

29

Value
Proposition
Access to
broad
network of
scientist
solvers
Connect
seekers
and
solvers
Access to
scientific
challenges
with cash
rewards

Custome
r
Relation
Online
profiles

Channels
Innocent
ive.com

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Customer
Segments
Seekers
(company)
Solvers
(scientists)

3. Design
1.

Customer insights

2.

Ideation

3.

Visual thinking

4.

Prototyping

5.

Storytelling

6.

Scenarios

30

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

1. Customer insights
If I had asked my customers what they
wanted, they would have told me a faster
horse.- Henry Ford
Empathy Map
What does the
customer SEE?

What does the


customer HEAR?

What does the


customer SAY
and DO?

PAIN

31

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

What does the


customer THINK
and FEEL?

GAIN

8/5/15

2. Ideation
A creative process for generating a large
number of (business model) ideas and
successfully isolating the best ones.

Generation

Synthesis

Suggested approaches:
Epicenters of Business Model Innovation
What if? Analysis
32

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Epicenters of Business Model Innovation


Resource- driven

Example: Amazon Web


Services
Customer- driven

Example: 23andMe
(personalized DNA
testing)
33

Offer- driven

Example: Cemex
(Mexican cement
company)
Finance- driven

Example: Xerox 914 (lease at


$95 per month, 2000 free
copies, 5 cents per copy

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Power of what if questions


Examples
IKEA (buyers pick up components in flat
packaging and assemble themselves)
Rolls-Royce (maintenance price for every hour
an engine runs)
Skype (free voice calling over Internet)
Car2go by Daimler (car rental anywhere in the
city)
Zopa (peer-to-peer landing system)
Grameen Phone (microfinance coupled with
mobile devices)
34

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

Ideation Process
General approach
Team composition (diverse at all
levels)
Immersion (home work on
customer, technology, trends,
business models)
Expanding (ideation with a focus
on quantity, not quality)
Criteria selection (e.g.
implementation time, revenue
potential, possible customer
resistance, and impact on
competitive advantage)
Prototyping (creation of a
business model for shortlisted
ideas)
35

Brainstorming rules
Stay focused on a well
honed statement
Enforce rules, such as
deferring judgment, go
for quality, encourage
wild ideas, etc.
Think visually with
post-it notes, sketches,
etc.
Prepare, with an
immersion exercise
beforehand

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

3. Visual Thinking
Sketches- however rudimentary or
amateurish- help people better describe,
discuss, and understand issues.
Suggested processes
Visualizing with Post-it notes
Visualizing with drawings

Understand the essence


Enhance dialogue
Explore ideas
Improve communication

Telling a visual story

36

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

4. Prototyping

For pre-implementation visualization and


testing
Tool of inquiry
Infuses a design attitude, which includes

Willingness to explore crude ideas


Rapidly discarding them
Take time to examine multiple possibilities
Accept uncertainty until design direction matures

Scale of prototypes

37

Napkin sketches elaborate canvas business


case field-test
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and
Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

5. Storytelling
Why storytelling?
Introducing the new (provoke ideas/
justify change/ introducing tangibility)
Pitching to inventors (for clarification)
Engaging employees
Typical starting points (choice of
protagonist)
Company perspective (employee
observer)
Customer perspective (customer jobs)

38

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

Techniques:
Talk and image
Video clips
Role play
Text and image
Comic strip

8/5/15

6. Scenarios
Types of scenarios
Define different customer settings

How products or services are used


What kind of customers use them
Customer concerns, desires and objectives

Possible future environments

39

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

4. Strategy
1.

Business model environment

2.

Evaluating business models

3.

Business model perspectives on Blue Ocean


Strategy

4.

Managing multiple business models

40

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

1. Business Model Environments


Industry forces
Suppliers and other value
chain actors
Stakeholders
Competitors (incumbents)
New entrants (insurgents)
Substitute products and
services

Key trends
Regulatory trends
Technology trends
Societal and cultural trends
Socioeconomic trends

Macro-economic factors
Global market conditions
Capital markets
Economic infrastructure
Commodities and other
resources

Market forces
Market segments
Needs and demands
Market issues
Switching cost
Revenue attractiveness

41

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

2. Evaluating business models

Big picture assessment

Happens on the business model


Identification of +/ - for each of the nine elements
of business model

SWOT analysis (Strength- WeaknessOpportunity- Threat)

42

Value proposition assessment


Cost/ revenue assessment
Infrastructure assessment
Customer interface assessment

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT analysis (indicative questions)1/4


Value proposition assessment
Our value propositions are well aligned with
customer needs
Our value propositions have strong network
effect
There are strong synergies between our
products and services
Our customers are very satisfied

43

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 2/4


Cost/ revenue assessment
We benefit from strong margins
Our revenues are predictable
We have recurring revenue streams and frequent repeat
purchases
Our revenue streams are diversified
Our revenue streams are sustainable
We collect revenue before we incur expenses
We charge for what customers are really willing to pay for
Our pricing mechanisms capture full willingness to pay
Our costs are predictable
Our cost structure is correctly matched to our business model
Our operations are cost-efficient
We benefit from economies of scale
44

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 3/4


Infrastructure assessment
Our key resources are difficult for competitors to replicate
Recourse needs are predictable
We deploy key resources in the right amount at the right
time
We efficiently execute key activities
Our key activities are difficult to copy
Execution quality is high
Balance of in-house versus outsourced execution is ideal
We are focused and work with partners when necessary
We enjoy good working relationships with key partners

45

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 4/4


Customer interface assessment
Customer churn rates are low
Customer base is well segmented
We are continuously acquiring new customers
Our channel are very efficient
Out channels are very effective
Channel reach is strong among customers
Customers can easily see our channels
Channels are strongly integrated
Channels provide economies of scope
Channels are well matched to customer segments
Strong customer relationships
Relationship quality correctly matches customer segments
Relationships bind customers through high switching costs
Our brand is strong
46

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT- Assessing threats 1/2


Value proposition
threats
Are substitute
products and
services available?
Are competitors
threatening to offer
batter price or value?

47

Cost/ revenue threats

Are our margins threatened by


competitors? By technology?

Do we depend exclusively on one or


more revenue streams?

Which revenue streams are likely to


disappear in the future?

Which costs threaten to become


unpredictable?

Which costs threaten to grow more


quickly than the revenues they
support?

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT- Assessing threats 2/2


Infrastructure threats
Could we face a disruption in
the supply of certain
resources?
Is the quality of our resources
threatened in any way?
What key activities might be
disrupted?
Is the quality of our activities
threatened in any way?
Are we in danged of losing
any partners?
Might our partners collaborate
with competitors?
Are we too dependent on
certain partners?
48

Customer interface threats

Could our market be saturated soon?

Are competitors threatening our market


share?

How likely are customers to defect?

How quickly will competition in our


market intensify?

Do competitors threaten our channels?

Are our channels in danged of


becoming irrelevant to customers?

Are any of our customer relationships in


danger of deterioration?

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT- Assessing opportunities 1/2


Value proposition
opportunities
Could we generate recurring
revenues by converting
products into services?
Could we better integrate
our products or services?
Which additional customer
needs could we satisfy?
What complements to or
extensions of our value
propositions are possible?
What other jobs could we do
on behalf of customers?
49

Cost/ revenue opportunities

Can we replace one-time transaction


revenues with recurring revenues?

What other elements would customers


be willing to pay for?

Do we have cross-selling opportunities


either internally or with partners?

What other revenue streams could we


add or create?

Can we increase price?

Where can we reduce cost?

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT- Assessing threats 2/2-a


Infrastructure opportunities
Could we use less costly
resources to achieve the same
result?
Which key resources could be
better sourced from partners?
Which key resources are underexploited?
Do we have unused intellectual
property of value to others?
Could we standardize some key
activities?
How could we improve
efficiency in general?
Would IT support boost
efficiency?
50

Are there outsourcing opportunities?

Could greater collaboration with


partners help us focus on our core
business?

Are there cross-selling opportunities


with partners?

Could partner channels help us better


reach customers?

Could partner complement our value


proposition?

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

SWOT- Assessing threats 2/2-b


Customer interface
opportunities
How can we benefit from a
growing market?
Could we serve new customer
segments?
Could we better serve our
customers through finer
segmentation?
How could we improve channel
efficiency or effectiveness?
Could we integrate our
channels better?
Could we find new
complementary partner
channels?
51

Could we increase margins by directly


serving customers?

Could we better align channels with


customer segments?

Is there potential to improve customer


follow-up?

How could we tighten our relationships


with customers?

Could we improve personalization?

How could we increase switching cost?

Have we identified and fired


unprofitable customers? If not, why
not?

Do we need to automate some


relationships?

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

3. Business model perspectives on Blue


Ocean Strategy
Four action framework (ERRC Grid)
Which of the factors that the industry takes for granted
should be eliminated?
Which factors should be reduced well below the industry
standards?
Which factors should be raised well above the industry
standards?
Which factors should be created that the industry has never
offered?
KP

KA

VP

CR

KR
C$
Cost
SideReduce
Eliminate/
52

CS

CH
R$
Value
Side
Raise/
Create

Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15

4. Managing multiple business models


Choices of business model in bringing an idea
to the market
Integration (e.g. integration of each SMH
(Swatch Group) watch brand across the high,
mid and low segments)
Autonomy (e.g. Car2go care rental startup
from Daimler?)
Separation (e.g. complete independence of
Nespresso SA from Nescafe)

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Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


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5. Process
1.

Starting point

2.

Five phases

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Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and


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1. Starting point
Objectives of new business models
Satisfy markets (e.g. Tata Nano, NetJets,
GrameenBank, Lulu.com)
Bring new product to market (e.g. Xerox 914,
Swatch, Nespresso, Red Hat)
Improve market (e.g. Dell, Nintendo Wii, IKEA,
Bharati Airtel, Skype, Ryan air, Amazon.com,
Better Place)
Create market (e.g. Diners Club, Google)

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2. Five phases
Phases are
Mobilize (setting the stage)
Understand (immersion)
Design (inquiry)
Implement (execution), and
Manage (evolution)

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6. Outlook
1.

Business models beyond profit

2.

Computer aided business models

3.

Business model and business plan

4.

Implementation issues

5.

Leveraging IT

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1. Beyond-profit business models

Categories
Third-party funded enterprise models
Triple bottom line business models

Grameenphone
KP
Grameen
Bank
Network
Consortiu
m
(Telenor)

C$
58Network

KA
Manage
network
KR

VP
Income
opportunit
y
Mobile
commn

CR

CH
Grameen
Bank
Village
phone
ladies

CS
Village
phone
ladies
Villagers

R$
Business Model Generation (Osterwalder
and 8/5/15
Communication
income
Pigneur, 2010)

2. Computer aided

There are a host of computer application


useful for mind mapping, scenario generation,
large data analysis, trend spotting, etc, that
could complement paper-based approaches

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3. Business plans

Executive summary
The team

Management profile
Why we are a winning team

Vision, mission and values


How our business models works
Value proposition
Target market
Marketing plan
Key resources and activities

60

Projects
Milestones
Roadmap

Risk analysis

Breakeven analysis
Sales scenarios and projections
Capital spending
Operating costs
Funding requirements

The economy
Market analysis and key trends
Competitor analysis
Competitive advantage of our
business model

Implementation roadmap

Financial analysis

External environment

The business model

Limiting factors and obstacles


Critical success factors
Specific risks and
countermeasures

Conclusion

Annexes

Business Model Generation


(Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)

8/5/15