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DHCP

Managed Configuration of
TCP/IP Hosts

Purpose of DHCP
From RFC2131: The Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a
framework for passing configuration information
to hosts on a TCP/IP network. DHCP consists
of two components: a protocol for delivering
host-specific configuration parameters from a
DHCP server to a host and a mechanism for
allocation of network addresses to hosts.

DHCP functional goals


A host without a valid IP address locates and
communicates with a DHCP server
A DHCP server passes configuration
parameters, including an IP address, to the
host
The DHCP server may dynamically allocate
addresses to hosts and reuse addresses
Hosts can detect when they require a new IP
address
Unavailability of DHCP server has minimal
effect on operation of hosts

What can you do with DHCP


Plug-and-play
Move desktop PCs between offices
Other restructuring - change subnet
masks
Mobile IP - laptops
Moving equipment - cartable

What DHCP doesnt do


Support multiple addresses per interface
Inform running host that parameters have
changed
Support inter-server communication
Provide authenticated message delivery

What DHCP doesnt do


Configure routers and other network
equipment
Design network addressing plan
Determine other configuration parameters
Locate other servers

DHCP
Overview
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Centralized distribution and management
Clients obtains IP addresses from the server
Automates TCP/IP configuration
Administrators dont have to manually configure each client
Centralizes IP address management
TCP/IP property changes are configured at the DHCP server

DHCP Operation
DCHP DISCOVER

DCHP OFFER

DHCP Operation
DCHP REQUEST
At this time, the DHCP client
can start to use the IP address

Renewing a Lease
(sent when 50% of lease has
expired)
If DHCP server sends
DHCPNACK, then address
is released.

DHCP Operation
DCHP RELEASE

At this time, the DHCP client has released the IP


address

DHCP
Configuring Reliability and Redundancy
Scope 1

LON-DC-01

NY-DC-01

DHCP Server

DHCP Server

Scope 1
Leasing
Leasing
192.168.80.2/20
192.168.16.2/20
192.168.16.1 to
192.168.29.1
192.168.80.1 to
192.168.16.3 to
to WRK-LONWRK-LON-001
192.168.16.1
192.168.80.1
192.168.28.254 (80%)
192.168.92.254 (80%)
Wide Area
003
Scope 2

192.168.93.1 to
192.168.95.254 (20%)

Network
Routers

192.168.29.1 to
192.168.31.254 (20%)

Hubs
WRK-LON-001
needs WRK-LON-003
an IP
needs an IP
address
address

WRK-LON-003
WRK-LON-001

Workstations
192.168.16.3 192.168.29.1

Scope 2

Setting up a DHCP server in


Windows 2003
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
IP standard designed to reduce the complexity of
administering IP address configurations."
Microsoft's definition. A DHCP server would be set up
with the appropriate settings for a given network.
settings would include a set of fundamental parameters
gateway, DNS, subnet masks, and a range of IP
addresses.
Using DHCP on a network means administrators don't
need to configure these settings individually for each
client on the network. The DHCP would automatically
distribute them to the clients itself.

Setting up a DHCP server in


Windows 2003
The DHCP server assigns a client an IP address taken
from a predefined scope for a given amount of time
If the client has not requested an extension on the lease
time, the IP address will be considered free and can be
assigned to another client
If the user wishes to change IP address then they can do
so by typing "ipconfig /release", followed by "ipconfig
/renew" in the command prompt
Addresses can be reserved for a MAC address or a host
name so these clients will have a fixed IP address that is
configured automatically.

Most Internet Service Providers use DHCP to assign new IP addresses to client
computers when a customer connects to the internet - this simplifies things at user
level.

Setting up a DHCP Server

Installing the DHCP server is made quite easy in Windows 2003. By using the
"Manage your server" wizard,

Setting up a DHCP Server

Setting up a DHCP Server

Scope: A scope is a collection of IP addresses for computers on a subnet that use DHCP

The next window will ask you to define the range of addresses that the scope will
distribute across the network and the subnet mask for the IP address. Enter the
appropriate details and click next

You are shown a window in which you must add any exclusions to the range of IP
addresses you specified in the previous window. If for example, the IP address
10.0.0.150 is that of the company router then you won't want the DHCP server to
be able to distribute that address as well. In this example I have excluded a range
of IP addresses, 10.0.0.100 to 10.0.0.110, and a single address, 10.0.0.150. In this
case, eleven IP's will be reserved and not distributed amongst the network clients.

It is now time to set the lease duration for how long a client can use an IP address
assigned to it from this scope. It is recommended to add longer leases for a fixed
network (in the office for example) and shorter leases for remote connections or
laptop computers. In this example I have set a lease duration of twelve hours
since the network clients would be a fixed desktop computer in a local office and
the usual working time is eight hours.

You are given a choice of whether or not you wish to configure the DHCP options
for the scope now or later. If you choose Yes then the upcoming screenshots will
be of use to you. Choosing No will allow you to configure these options at a later
stage.

The router, or gateway, IP address may be entered in next. The client computers
will then know which router to use

In the following window, the DNS and domain name settings can be entered. The
DNS server IP address will be distributed by the DHCP server and given to the
client.

If you have WINS setup then here is where to enter the IP Address of the WINS
server. You can just input the server name into the appropriate box and press
"Resolve" to allow it to find the IP address itself.

The last step is to activate the scope - just press next when you see the window
below. The DHCP server will not work unless you do this.

The DHCP server has now been installed with the basic settings
in place. The next stage is to configure it to the needs of your
network structure.

Configuring a DHCP server

The address pool displays a list of IP ranges assigned for distribution and
IP address exclusions.
You are able to add an exclusion by right clicking the address pool text
on the left hand side of the mmc window and selecting "new exclusion
range".
This will bring up a window (as seen below) which will allow you to enter
an address range to be added.
Entering only the start IP will add a single IP address.

DHCP servers permit you to reserve an IP address for a client. This means that the
specific network client will have the same IP for as long as you wanted it to.
To do this you will have to know the physical address (MAC) of each network
card. Enter the reservation name, desired IP address, MAC address and
description - choose whether you want to support DHCP or BOOTP and press
add.
The new reservation will be added to the list. As an example, I have reserved an IP
address (10.0.0.115) for a client computer called Andrew.

If you right click scope options and press "configure options" you will be taken to
a window in which you can configure more servers and their parameters. These
settings will be distributed by the DHCP server along with the IP address. Server
options act as a default for all the scopes in the DHCP server. However, scope
options take preference over server options.