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unit

Protection

Two types
non unit

line
Compare
Unit type

non unit type


(distance)
Primary & Back up protections
local

remote

Zone of protection

#1

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Distance relays(non- unit)


Z1, Z2 , Z0
Ia1, Ia2 , Ia0
relay

#2

fault

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Distance Relay

Expressions for Impedance calculations(Positive sequence impedance


Phase to Ground Fault(a-g)
VA= Ia1 Z1 + Ia2 Z2 + Ia0 Z0
= Ia1 Z1 + Ia2 Z2 + Ia0 Z0- Ia0 Z1+ Ia0 Z1
=Z1[Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 ] + Z1
=Z1[ Ia + 3kIa0 ]

Z0 - Z1
Z1

Ia0

K: Zero sequence compensation factor K= Z0 - Z1


3 Z1

#3

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Phase to Phase fault(b-c)


Ib = - Ic ; Ib0 = - 0 ; Ic0 = - 0 ;
Vb= Ib1 Z1 + Ib2 Z2 = Ib Z1
Vc= Ic1 Z1 + Ic2 Z2 = Ic Z1
Vb Vc
Ib Ic

#4

Z1[Ib Ic ]
[Ib Ic ]

= Z1

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+JX

Load
-R

No Load

Reverse
-JX
#5

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Poly-phase protection
3 ph-ph
3 ph-G

relays
T3

T3

Z3

T2
Z2
T1
Z1

Z4

T2
Z2

T1
Z1

Relay

Reverse
fault

#6

Forward

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jx
jx

Z3
Z2
Z1

Z2
Z1

Z3

R
Z4

Z4

- Transients in voltage & current inputs


- Load Encroachment
- Tolerance for fault resistance(RF)
- Power swing effects
- Parallel lines; Mutual coupling
#7

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Switched Distance protection


Switching networks to ensure measuring elements connected to
correct phase under fault conditions
Switching networks controlled by fault detectors responsive to
current, impedance or combination of current and voltage.
Limitations: Operating time increases
First to identify the fault phases
To switch the measuring elements to correct phases

#8

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Ex: Zone-1 Operation requires 3 functions


starting
Phase selection
measurement
Poly phase distance protection
Does not use special switching or phase
selective networks but use special combination
of relaying signals

#9

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Starting relays

Operates for selected phases depending on type of fault and energie


switching networks for measuring elements
Overcurrent starter relays
Current setting considerations:
Depends on max load current, max. sound phase currents
To provide back-up function
Under voltage starter relays
Resistance earthed systems(3 phase to neutral connected under
voltage element)
Impedance starter relay
Improves fault coverage
#10

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Distance protection based on information links


To avoid delayed operation for internal faults beyond zone-1 setting
Provides co-ordinated tripping between line ends
Information link through pilot-wire, power line carrier.
Tripping Schemes
Received signal is used for direct tripping
Received signal and the conditions of the relays at the receiving end
Three basic arrangements based on trip command
Direct inter tripping
permissive under reach
permissive over reach
#11

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Direct tripping
operation of relays at either end initiate tripping at that end and
transmits the information to initiate tripping by remote end relays
should ensure correct tripping in the presence of interference
Probability of incorrect tripping as speed of communication channel
increases
Applied mainly to transformer feeder where circuit breaker is not
associated with transformer
Permissive inter tripping
Tripping action of received signal is made dependant on fault
detecting relay
Reduces the risk of unwanted tripping due to noise/interference
#12

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Permissive under reach


i.

With independent control


Operates independently of the received inter trip signal
Instantaneous operation of Zone-2 and operation of receive
relay results in tripping

ii. Accelerated distance protection


Permissive inter trip over reaching
Zone-1 relays with extended reach

Tripping at each end depends on the operation of zone-1 relay at


both ends
#13

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Disadvantage
For low fault level, tripping at one end is delayed, resulting in delayed
operation
Blocking Schemes
blocks the operation on detecting reverse faults at a relay location
either end blocks the operation of other

#14

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What is apparent impedance & why ?

I1

I2

2
If2

If1

ZR = V1
I1
Z1

#15

If
Z2

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Case 1: I 2
Z R Z1 Z 2

I1 I f 1

Case 2:V1 Z 2 . I f 1 Z1 . I1 Z 2 I1 I 2 Z1 . I1
I2

V1
ZR
. Z 2 Z1 Z 2
I1
I1

#16

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Relay
ZA

EA
I relay =

I relay

ZL

ZB

EB 0

EA - EB

ZT
ZT =ZA +ZB + ZL

EA-I relay ZA
V
relay
Zseen (relay)=
=
I relay
I relay
EA
= -ZA +
ZT
EA - EB
= -ZA +ZT

#17

E
1- B
EA

= -ZA +ZT

= -ZA +ZT
2

1
1- cos + jsin

1- j cot

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X
-ZB
-ZT/2
=1800

EA > 1
EB

-ZL

EA = 1
EB
R
Power swing
-ZA

EA < 1
EB

Power swing condition


#18

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x
Allowance for fault
resistance

Reduces the
resistance reach

a
e

f
R
d

#19

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Parallel lines a and b are introduced to reduce reach for the


following reasons:
To avoid the tripping of a healthy line when load encroaches the
relay characteristic (especially during peak load conditions)
Reduces the effect of power swings on the operation of the relay
C & D
resistance

provides allowance for fault

e & f lines provides directional feature for the


parallelogram Characteristic

#20

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JX

LINE
3RD ZONE

LOAD IMPEDANCE

0
40

80

120

160

240

1ST ZONE

280

320

R(ohms)

LOAD IMPEDANCE AREAS FOR A TYPICAL 132 kv LINE

#21

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JX

400

LINE

300
3RD ZONE

200
1ST ZONE

100
LOAD IMPEDANCE
100

200

300

400

500

R(ohms)

LOAD IMPEDANCE AREAS FOR A TYPICAL 400 kv LINE

#22

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X-axis
XF

: setting angle
RB

RF

R-axis

XB
QUADRILATERAL CHAR OF TRACTION REALY
#23

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Vcos *Icos+Vsin * Isin


=
Rcal
Icos *Icos+Isin * Isin

Xcal =

Logic:

Vsin *Icos-Vcos * Isin


Icos *Icos+Isin * Isin

a) DISTANCE PROTECTION

XB<Xcal<Xf
RB +

Xcal
< Rcal< Rf + Xcal
tan
tan

#24

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OP. Point

X-Axis: Resistance in ohms


30
Y-Axis: Resistance in ohms
25
20

Trip

15

No Trip

10
5

Phase-Ground Fault

Load = 500A

-5

Power Factor = 0.8 Lagging

-10

Fault Location = 7.15 km

-15
-20

From relaying point


-10

10

20

30

40

50

Variation of fault impedance measured by the relay with sample


#25

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X-Axis

X5
X3

Zone 3
X2

Zone 2

Power Swing Zone

X1

Zone 1
1

RB 3
2

Zone 4

RBS

RF

RFS

R-Axis

X4
X6

Quadrilateral characteristic of distance relay


#26

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Relay Logic (For All zones; Fault Quadrilateral)


X4 < Xcal < X3
RB+Xcal cot 1 < Rcal < RF + Xcal cot 1
Additional relay Logic For Zone Detection
Zone-1 If R < 0; -R tan 3 < X < X
cal
cal
cal
1
If Rcal > 0; -Rcal tan 2 < Xcal< X1
Zone-2
If Rcal < 0; -Rcal tan 3 < Xcal< X2
If Rcal > 0; -Rcal tan 2 < Xcal< X2

Zone-3 R & X reach in Fault Quadrilateral and if not detected in Zone-1


Or Zone-2
Zone-4
Zone-3 reverse reach
#27

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Power Swing (Power Swing Quadrilateral)


X3 < Xcal < X4 And RF + Xcal cot 1< Rcal < RB + Xcal cot 1
And
X6 < Xcal < X5 And RBS + Xcal cot 1< Rcal < RFS + Xcal cot 1

#28

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Relay Logic
The fault detection characteristic can be realised by simple logic
Expressions given by,
If XB1< Xcal < XF1; RB1 < Rcal < RF1
OR
If XF1< Xcal < XF2; RB1 (Xcal < XF1)*cot < Rcal <
RF1 + (Xcal - XF1)*cot
OR
If XB2< Xcal < XB1; RB1 + (Xcal - XB1)*cot < Rcal <
RF1 - (Xcal - XB1)*cot
OR
If XF2< Xcal < XF OR XB < Xcal < XB2 ; RB < Rcal < RF

#29

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Where RF, RF1 and RB , RB1 are resistance reach setting in the
forward and reverse direction respectively. XF, XF1 and XF2
are forward reactance reach settings. XB, XB1 and XB2
are reverse reactance reach settings. is the setting angle.
Rcal and Xcal are computed values of R and X

#30

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Power Swings
Surges of Power resulting after the removal of a short circuit.

Resulting from connecting a generator to the system at an instant whe


they are out of phase(Loss of Synchronism).
Power Swing Blocking

Measured impedance should lie in power swing band for more than th
preset value of the timer (in ms)
Relay operation blocked for few seconds

#31

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X
Zone-3
Zone-2
(R3X3)
(R2X2)
(R1X1)

Zone-1

offset

#32

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Z1
cos
R1 =
Z
Z1
sin
X1 =
Z
Z2
R2 =
Z
Z2
X2 =
Z

cos
sin

Z3
R3 =
Z

cos

Z3
X3 =
Z

sin

#33

Zone-1

Zone-2
Zoffset
2
Zoffset
2

cos
Zone-3
sin

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Relay Settings
Z1, Z2, Z1

Zone-1, Zone-2 & Zone-3 forward reach settings


Reverse reach setting for Zone-3

Zoffset

Characteristic angle to suit line angle(450 750)


,

#34

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Generalized Equations for Circular characteristic


r2 = (Rcal - R) 2 + (Xcal -X ) 2
Rcal , Xcal : Measured values of Resistance & Reactance computed
using relaying algorithm
R, X : Relay reach settings, (R1 - X1) for Zone-1,
(R2 X2) for Zone-2 , (R3 X3) for Zone-3
r : computed value
, , of radius

#35

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Fault Detection Logic


r2 < r2th
r2th : Stored threshold values of square of radius . Compared for three
Different zones (zone detection)
Timers of predetermined relays are initiated if the fault is detected
in Zone-2 and Zone-3

#36

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XF

Additional fault
coverage
XF2

XF1

Load

Load
RB

RB1

RF1

RF

XB1
XB2

XB

Fault characteristic of Distance Relay


#37

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Conclusions
digital distance relaying schemes based on DSP processors
have led to the reassessment of relaying algorithms for
developing high performance numeric distance relays.
Suitable pre-filtering techniques based on IIR and FIR filters
improves the performance of numeric relays.
Evaluation studies show that short data window algorithms can
be used for high speed distance designs
Multiprocessor based configuration for high speed and accurate
distance relay designs has been proposed.
The reliability of multiprocessor based relays can be improved
by executing several algorithms in parallel and by OR/AND
gating their outputs to issue trip signal during faults.
#38

Power Research & Development