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# ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## 11M012 VIBRATION AND CONDITIONS MONITORING

Objective:

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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## To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration of 1 DOF

system
To develop the governing equation of 2 DOF system for
vibration analysis.
To develop the governing equation of Multi DOF system for
vibration analysis.
To understand the role of condition monitoring in vibration
analysis.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Syllabus:
Unit I Introduction
Relevance of and need for vibration analysis - Mathematical
modeling of vibrating systems Discrete and continuous systems review of single-degree of freedom systems - free and forced
vibrations, Various damping models Ground vibration testing.
Unit II Two Degree-of-Freedom Systems
General solution to free vibration problem - damped free vibration Forced vibration of undamped system -dynamic vibration absorbers
- Technical applications Vibration test on torsion pendulum
Unit III Multi Degree-of-Freedom Systems

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## Free and forced vibrations of multi-degree of freedom systems in

longitudinal torsional and lateral modes -Matrix methods of solutionnormal modes - Orthogonally principle-Energy methods Introduction
to vibrations of plates Dynamics of rotating machinery

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## Unit IV Vibration Control

Introduction Reduction of Vibration at the Source - Control of
Vibration by Structural design Material Selection Localized
additions Artificial damping Resilient isolation, Vibration
isolation Vibrations measurement on lathe
Unit V Condition based Maintenance Principles & Applications
Introduction - Condition Monitoring Methods - The Design of
Information system, selecting methods of monitoring, Machine
condition monitoring and diagnosis Vibration severity criteria
Machine Maintenance techniques Machine condition monitoring
techniques Vibration monitoring techniques Instrumentation
systems Choice of monitoring parameter Acoustic testing, Active
noise and vibration control
Textbooks
1. Singaresu S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations, Prentice Hall Publish,
New Delhi,2010.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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## 2. J. S. Rao , Vibratory Condition Monitoring of Machines, Narosa

Publishing House, New Delhi,2000.

ICG

Vibration of
Single Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Objective:

## To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration for

engineering students.

Condition Monitoring

system.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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## To analyze the influence of vibration in mechanical system.

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Introduction

## Any motion that repeat itself after an interval of time is

called vibration or oscillation.

## Theory of vibration deals with study of oscillatory motion

of body & the forces associated with them.

x (t ) A sin n t
.

x (t ) n A cos n t
..

x (t ) n2 A sin n t n2 x (t )

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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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MATLAB code
%% Fundamental of vibration-P.senthil kumar
t=0:0.01:5;
w=10;
%% Displacement of system
x= 2.*sin(w.*t);
plot(t,x,'b')
hold on
%% Velocity of system
dx=2.*w.*cos(w.*t);
plot(t,dx,'r')
%% acceleration of system
d2x = -2.*w.*w.*sin(w.*t);
plot(t,d2x,'g')
title('motion of system')
xlabel('time(sec)')
ylabel(Amplitude')

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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MATLAB code

ICG

Vibration Terminology

## The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its

equilibrium position is called the amplitude of vibration
(mm).

## The number of cycles per unit time is called the frequency

of oscillation.(Hz)
1
f
t 2
The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is known
as the time period of oscillation.(sec)

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

2
t

In the previous
figure, the velocity
displacement vector by known angle of 90degree.This
angle is known as phase angle.
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## If a system, after an initial disturbance, is left to vibrate on

its own, the frequency with which it oscillates without
external forces is known as its natural frequency.

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

## The number of coordinates that are required to specify the

motion of system in space is called degree of freedom.

## When the maximum value of a range of frequency is twice

its minimum value, it is known as an octave band. For
example, each of the ranges 75 150 Hz, 150 300 Hz can
be called an octave band.

## The various quantities encountered in the field of vibration

and sound (such as displacement, velocity, acceleration,
pressure, and power) are often represented using the
notation of decibel. A decibel (dB) is originally defined as a
ratio of electric powers:

## Since electric power is proportional to the square of the

voltage (X), the decibel can also be expressed as

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

Importance of vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system

components.

## Vibration is put to work in rotary conveyors, feeder, road

Condition Monitoring

## simulator, Material testing apparatus.

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## It is employed to simulate earthquakes.

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Vibration Analysis:
Analyze the influence of vibration in front suspension of
bicycle. Assume the bicycle system as single degree of
freedom.
1. Mathematical modeling:
..
m x kx

## Multi DOF system

m
Condition Monitoring

..

2.

Governing Equation

m x kx 0

3. Solution

x A cos B sin
P.Senthil Kumar
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( ms k )e 0
2

st

x Ce int

x Ce Ce st
s ( k / m)1/2 iwn
x A cos n t B sin n t

ICG

4. Interpretation
..

m x kx 0

1 DOF system
Introduction

## Multi DOF system

x.
x0 2 0
n

Condition Monitoring

..

## Intelligent Control Group

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n
1
fn

2 2

k
m

x (t ) Ce int X cos(nt )

problem
2 DOF system

P.Senthil Kumar

k
m

x
0

tan
x0n

Body travel

..
.

m x c x kx 0
L x x 5 x L[5F ]

X
5
2
F s s5

ICG

## MATLAB : Simple m-k-c system

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Displacement (m)

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Time (sec)

ICG

Overview

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

1 DOF
2 DOF
..

m x c x kx F
ms 2 cs k x F
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x
1
TF 2
F ms cs k

Multiple DOF

ICG

Vibration control
Passive control:

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

## Select the value of K and C in such way

that will reduce vibration of system of
mass m.

m
k

## In General , K & C values are constant.

Active control:

Condition Monitoring

E
-

PID

motor

1
ms 2 cs k

## the value of K and C selected externally

using Feed back PID control.

## In General , K & C values are variable

P.Senthil Kumar
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motor

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Elements of Vibration
Three major elements of vibrating systems are,
Mass
Spring
Damper

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

## The mass or inertia element is assumed to be a rigid body;

it can gain or lose kinetic energy whenever the velocity of
the body changes.
..

mx

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## From Newton s second law of motion, the product of the

mass and its acceleration is equal to the force applied to
the mass.
..

F mx

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

## A spring is said to be linear if the elongation or

reduction in length x is related to the applied force F as
X0

X1

problem
2 DOF system

F kx

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

1 2
U kx
2

## For nonlinear spring,

F F F ( x x )
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F ( x ) F F ( x )

dF
1 d F 2
( x )
( x)
2
dx
2! dx

F k x

ICG

Combination of spring

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

x1

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

x2

Spring in parallel

F F1 F2
Kx K1 x1 K 2 x2
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keq k1 k 2

Spring in series

x x1 x2
F F
F

K K1 K 2

1
1 1

keq k1 k2

ICG

## The mechanism by which the vibration energy is

gradually converted into heat or sound is known as

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

damping.

Viscous Damping

Coulomb Damping

Hysteretic Damping

du

dy
F v

A h

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F cv

A
h

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Harmonic Analysis

## Any periodic motion can be represented by Fourier series

as harmonic function.

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

xA
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a0
x (t ) an cos nt bn sin nt
2 n 1

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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## Matlab : Harmonic Analysis

ICG

Classification of vibration

Free vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction

Forced vibration

problem
2 DOF system

Un damped vibration

Damped vibration

Linear vibration

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

1Introduction
DOF system
Introduction
Free vibration
problem
Undamped
2 DOF
system
Damped

## When no external force acts on body, after giving it an

initial displacement, then the body is said to be under
free vibration. The frequency of vibration is called natural
frequency.

## If there is no loss of energy through out the motion of

system, the free vibration is called undamped vibration.
..
m x kx+

Forced
vibration
Multi
DOF
system
Harmonic Excitation
Undamped
Condition
Monitoring
Damped

Base Excitation
Rotating Unbalance

F =0
From equilibrium method,

v 0

..

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m x kx k F W
..

m x kx 0

F+W
k W mg

ICG

## Governing Equation using other method:

1Introduction
DOF system
Introduction
Free vibration
problem
Undamped
2 DOF
system
Damped
Forced
vibration
Multi
DOF
system

D Alembert Principle

Energy Principle

F ma 0

d
T U 0

dt

..

kx m x 0
..

m x kx 0

Harmonic Excitation
Undamped
Condition
Monitoring
Damped
Base Excitation
Rotating Unbalance

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.
1

1
2
2
m
x

kx
0

2
2

..

m x kx 0

Rayleigh method

K .Emean P.Eextreme
1
1
m 2 x 2 kx 2
2
2

P.Senthil Kumar

d
dt

k
m

x X sin t
.

x X cos t X
1
1
KE mv 2 m 2 x 2
2
2
1 2
PE kx
2

ICG

solution
..

m x kx 0
1 DOF system
Introduction

( ms 2 k )e st 0

problem
2 DOF system

x Ae int

x Ae st
s k / m iwn

x (0) x0

## x A1eint A2e int

x (0) x0

X i
X i
A1 e
A2 e
2
2
X i (nt ) i (nt )

x (t ) e
e
2

Condition Monitoring

x (t ) X cos(n t )
x (0) x0 X cos
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x (0) x0 n X sin

x.
x0 2 0
n

x
0

tan
x0n

ICG

Interpretation
x (t ) x0 cos(n t )

x (t ) x0n sin(n t )

x (t ) x0n2 cos(n t )

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x X 0 sin(n t 0 )
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X0

x.
x0 2 0
n

x 10sin(0.9977t / 2) 10cos(0.9977t )

x
0 tan 0. n

x0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## Example: Vibration in water tank

The column of the water tank shown in Fig.is 300 ft high and
is made of reinforced concrete with a tubular cross section of
inner diameter 8 ft and outer diameter 10 ft. The tank weighs
600000 lb when filled with water. By neglecting the mass of
the column and assuming the Young s modulus of reinforced
concrete as 4e6 psi, Determine the vibration response of the
water tank due to an initial transverse displacement of 10 in.

l 300 ft
Di 8 ft
D0 10 ft
W 6 105 Ib

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E 4 106 psi
x0 10 inch

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

x X 0 sin(n t 0 )
3EI
k 3 1545.6672 Ib / inch
l

k
m

X0

x.
x0 2 0 x0 10 in
n

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

d 04 d i4 600.955 104 in 4

64

0 tan 0. n

2
x0

x 10sin(0.9977t / 2) 10cos(0.9977t )

2

..

## x 10 0.9977 2 sin 0.9977t

2

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..

ICG

## Review: Solution of differential equation

..

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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m x c x kx 0

ms 2 cs k 0

b b2 4ac
s
2a

s a, b

x (t ) C1e at C1e bt

s a, a

x (t ) ( A Bt )e at

s a ib,
a ib

x (t ) Xe at sin(bt )

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

## In the study of vibration the process of energy dissipation

is generally referred to as damping. The most common
type of energy dissipating element is viscous damper.
Viscous damping force is proportional to velocity of mass
and act in the direction opposite to velocity of mass.
..

m x k ( x ) mg c x
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

..

m x c x kx 0
c
k
2
s

0
ms cs k 0
m
m
2

s1,2

c
k
c

2m
m
2m

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k
c

2
m
m

k
c

2
m
m

cc 2mn

n 2 1 n

c
c

cc 2mn

ICG

..

ms 2 cs k 0

m x c x kx 0

s1,2 2 1 n
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

s1,2 i 1 2 n

## Multi DOF system

s1,2 n id

Condition Monitoring

d n 1 2

Xe nt

x (t ) Xe nt sin(d t )

xi
Xe nti
nti d entd
xi 1 Xe
xi
ln
n td
xi d

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1
1
1

sin(d t )

ICG

## Case:2 critical damped system 1

s1,2 i 1 2 n n

ms 2 cs k 0

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

cc 2mn

x (t ) ( A Bt )e

n t

x (0) x0 A

x (0) x 0

x (t ) n Ae nt Bnte nt Be nt

## Multi DOF system

B x 0 n x0

x (0) x0 n x0 0 B

Condition Monitoring

( A Bt )

e nt

x (t ) x0 x 0 n x0

t e nt

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ICG

s1,2 i 1 2 n 2 1 n

1 DOF system
Introduction

x (t ) C e

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

## Case:3 over damped system

C1

C e

2 1 n t

x0n 1 x 0
2

2n 2 1

2 1 n t

C2

x0n 1 x 0
2

2n 2 1

Condition Monitoring

C1+C2
t
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ICG

MATLAB VERIFICATION

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x (t ) x0 x 0 n x0

x (t ) Xe nt sin(d t )
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x (t ) C e
1

2 1 n t

1 t

Ce
2

t e nt

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

## Shock absorber for automobile:

A motorcycle of mass 200 kg with shock absorber is subjected
to an initial vertical velocity due to a road bump, the resulting
displacement-time curve is to be as indicated in Fig. Find the
necessary stiffness and damping constants of the shock
absorber. Also verify the response of shock absorber using
MATLAB.

## Multi DOF system

x1.5

Condition Monitoring

x1
4

x2

x1.5
4

.25 m

2ms
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x2.5

x2
4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## Approach: We need to find k & C value. First find coefficient

of damping from logarithmic decrement . Then find critical
damping and natural frequency of a suspension system.
Now we can find k & C directly.
x1
ln(16) 2.7726
x2

ln

2
td

2
1

2.7726

0.4037

d 1 2 n

c cc 2mn

k mn2

xmax 1 2 Xe nt
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## x (t ) Xe nt sin d t 0.455e 0.4037nt sin d t

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Matlab code:

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

## When the body vibrates under the influence of external

force, then the body is said to be under excited vibration.

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )
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ICG

## Harmonically excitation of undamped system

..

m x kx F
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

F F0 cos t F0et

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )

## xh (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin n t X cos(t )

st
x p (t ) X cos t
cos t
2

1
n
m 2 X cos t kX cos t F0 cos t
X

F0
F0 / k
st

2
m 2
k m 2

1
1

k
n

x (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin n t
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x (t ) X cos(t )

F0
cos t
2
k m

F0
cos t
2
k m

F X cos t

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

x (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin nt
x (0) x0 C1 0

problem
2 DOF system

F0
k m 2

F0
cos t
2
k m

C1 x0

## x (t ) nC1 sin n t nC2 cos n t

Multi DOF system

F0
sin t
2
k m

x (0) x 0 nC2
Condition Monitoring

F0
k m 2

x0
C2
n
.

F0
x0

x (t ) x0
cos

sin n t
n
2
k

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xh x p

x (t ) x p (t )

st

1
n

st

cos t

st
st M f
2
1 r

ICG

st

x (t ) x p (t )

1
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

st
st M f
2
1 r

x (t )
Case:1

## Multi DOF system

Case:2

0 / n 1

/ n (Resonance)
1

Condition Monitoring

Case:3

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/ n 1

ICG

## Consider a spring mass damper system subjected to forced

vibration then the equation of motion becomes
..

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )

m x c x kx F

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

.

## Multi DOF system ..

x p (t ) A1 cos t A2 sin t

x p (t ) 2 A1 sin t 2 A2 cos t 2 x p

Condition Monitoring

m 2 x p c x p kx p F

2
k

xp c xp F
.

F F0 sin t

## k m A sin t A cos t c A cos t A sin t F sin t

k m A c A sin t c A k m A cos t F sin t

k m A c A
2

## Intelligent Control Group

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F0

m 2
c A2 F0
1

1
k
k
k

P.Senthil Kumar

c A1 k m 2 A2 0
c A1
m 2
1
A2 0
k
k

m
c A2 F0
1 k A1 k k

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

c
c

cc 2mn

c 2mn

1 r A 2r A
2

X0

1 r X

A
1 r 2r
2

## Intelligent Control Group

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c
2n 2
2mn

2r
2
k
k
n
n

2
1 2 A1 2r A2 X 0
n

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar

c A1
m 2
1
A2 0
k
k

xp

2 2

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

2
2r A1 1 2 A2 0
n

2r A1 1 r 2 A2 0
A2

2 r X 0

1 r 2 2r

(1 r 2 ) sin t 2 r cos t

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

sin(t )

ICG

## Magnification factor vs Frequency Ratio

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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x p max

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

MF

x p max
X0

1
2 2

1
2

n
n

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system

## 3. Increasing the value of damping factor will reduce the

value of M for specified r.

## 4. When r =0 the value of M=1.

5. The reduction in M in the presence of damping is very

Condition Monitoring

## significant at or near resonance .

6. M tends to 0 when r tends to infinity.
7. The maximum value of M occur when damping factor <
1/sqrt(2).

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ICG

## Phase angle vs Frequency Ratio

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group

tan

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2
n
2

1
n

ICG

## Harmonically Base Excitation

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

..

m x c( x y ) k ( x y ) 0
..

Y Y sin t

m x c x kx c y ky Yc cos t Yk sin t
..

m x c x kx c y ky A sin(t )
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A Y k ( c )
2

c
tan
k

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## The ratio of the amplitude of the response X(t) to that of the

base motion y(t), is called the displacement transmissibility.
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Transmissibility Ratio:

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

## 2. For an undamped system, Td tends to infinity

at

resonance.
3. The value of Td is less than unity for r >sqrt(2)

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

## 4. The value of Td is unity for all values of

ratio at r

=sqrt(2)
5. For r <sqrt(2), Smaller damping ratios lead to larger
values of Td.
6. On the other hand, for r>sqrt(2), smaller values of
damping ratio lead to smaller values of Td.

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

## The transfer-function approach, based on Laplace

transforms, is commonly used for the formulation and
solution of dynamic problems in the controls literature. It
can also be conveniently used for solving forced-vibration
problems.

## The transfer function of a linear, time-invariant differential

equation is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of
the output or response function to the Laplace transform
of the input or forcing function, assuming zero initial
conditions.

## The general procedure used to find the transfer function

of a linear differential equation involves taking the Laplace
transforms of both sides, assuming zero initial conditions,
and solving for the ratio of the output Laplace transform
and the input Laplace transform.

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Introduction
Derive the transfer function of a viscously
damped single-degree-of-freedom system
subjected to external force f(t) as shown in Fig

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

Vibration of
Single Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

## To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration for

Engineering students.

Condition Monitoring

vibration system.

## To analyze the influence of vibration in mechanical

system.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Problem:1
1. A simple harmonic motion has a amplitude of .30 cm and
period of 0.20 sec. Determine the maximum velocity and
acceleration.

x (t ) A cos t
.

## Multi DOF system

x (t ) A cos t

Condition Monitoring

..

x (t ) 2 A cos t

2
2 f
t

9.425 cm / s

296.089 cm / s 2

## 2. A harmonic motion has a frequency of 15 cycles/second

and its maximum velocity is 5m/sec. Determine its
amplitude, period and max acceleration.
.

x (t ) A cos t
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..

x (t ) 2 A cos t

5m / s

471.24 m / s 2

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 2

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem :6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem: 7

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:8

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:9

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:10

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:11

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:12

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:13

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:14

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:15

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:16

ICG

Vibration of
Two Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

## Multi DOF system

vibration of 2 DOF system.

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

Introduction

## The number of degree of freedom that the system

posses is equal to number of independent coordinates
necessary to describe the motion of system.

## The system that require two independent coordinates to

describe the motion is called 2 DOF system

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:1
Determine the Equation of motion and natural
frequency of given spring mass system.
..

m1 x1 k1 x1 k 2 ( x1 x2 ) 0
..

m2 x 2 k2 ( x2 x1 ) 0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:2

..

m1 x1 k ( x1 x2 ) 0
..

m2 x 2 k ( x2 x1 ) 0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:4

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Coupled coordinates::

ICG

## Equation of motion for coupled coordinates:

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring
..

m x ( k1 k2 ) x ( k1l1 k 2l2 ) 0
..

## J (k1l1 k2l2 ) x ( k1l 21 k2l 2 2 ) 0

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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Principal coordinates::
Here two different coordinates coupled
together to get solution for vibrating system.
Such coordinates are called principal or
natural coordinates.

Condition Monitoring

## The main advantage of using principal

coordinates is that the resulting uncoupled
equations of motion can be solved
independently of one another.
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring
..

m x ( k1 k2 ) x (k1l1 k 2l2 ) 0

..

## J (k1l1 k2l2 ) x (k1l 21 k 2l 2 2 ) 0

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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m 2 2k

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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X 1
X 0
2
m 2k 2
k

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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X 2 (1) m1 ( k1 k2 )
r1 (1)
2
X1
k2
2

2
X 2 (2) m2 ( k2 k3 )
r2 (2)
5
X1
k2

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

x (t ) Xe nt sin
1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

0;

1 2 n t

X 0.455 m

x1

ln ln(16) 2.7726
2
x2
1
d 2

2
2

d n 1 2

## x (t ) .455e .40373.4338t sin

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0.4037

## n 3.4338 rad / sec

1 0.4037 2 3.4338t

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem:7

ICG

## General form of 2 DOF system :

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

m11
m
21

..

m12 x1 c11

..
m22 c21
x 2

c12
c
22

x.
1 k11
.
k21
x2

k 12 x 1
f1
k x f
2
22 2

ICG

## Transfer Function Approach:

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

## Forced vibration analysis of 2 DOF system using Transfer function:

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

% Ex5_20.m
tspan = [0: 0.01: 20];
y0 = [0.2; 1.0; 0.0; 0.0];
[t,y] = ode23('dfunc5_15', tspan, y0);
subplot (211)
plot (t,y (:, 1));
xlabel ('t');
ylabel ('x1 (t)');
%dfunc5_15.m
subplot (212)
function f = dfunc5_15(t,y)
plot (t,y (:, 3));
f = zeros(4, 1);
xlabel ('t');
ylabel ('x2 (t)'); f(1) = y(2);
f(2) = cos(3*t)- 4*y(2) + y(4)- 5*y(1) + 2*y(3);
f(3) = y(4);
f(4) = cos(3*t) + 0.5*y(2)- y(4) + y(1) -1.5*y(3);

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

ICG

Vibration of
Multi Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

## To solve problem related to Multi DOF system.

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system

Introduction:

## The system having more than one degree of freedom are

known as multi degree of freedom system.

2 DOF system

## solution for multi DOF

system.

Condition Monitoring

## Methods like matrix method, Rayleigh method, Holzer

method, Dunkerley method, stodla method can be used to
find solution for multi DOF system.

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ICG

1 DOF system

Influence coefficient:

## The equation of motion for Multi DOF can be expressed

interms of influence coefficient.(aij)

2 DOF system

## x2 a21F1 a22 F2 a23 F3

Condition Monitoring

## x3 a31F1 a32 F2 a33 F3

..

F1 m1 x1 m1 2 A1 sin t

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ICG

Matrix method:
Find natural frequency of given system using matrix method.
..

m1 x1 k1 x1 k2 ( x1 x2 ) 0

1 DOF system

..

2 DOF system

m2 x2 k 2 ( x2 x1 ) k3 ( x3 x2 ) 0
..

m3 x3 k3 ( x2 x3 ) 0
Multi DOF system

..

m1 x1 ( k1 k2 ) x1 k2 x2 0
..

Condition Monitoring

m2 x2 k2 x1 ( k3 k 2 ) x2 k 3 x3 0
..

m3 x3 k3 x2 k3 x3 0
m1 0
0 m
2

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0
0

m3

x..
1 k1 k 2
k 2
..

k3 k 2
x 2 k2
..
0
k3
x
3

..

m x k x 0

0
k3

k 3

x1
x2 0
x3

ICG

..

m x k x 0

1 DOF system

x.. m 1 k x 0

2 DOF system

x.. c x 0

## Multi DOF system

I c 0
c m

Condition Monitoring

m2

m 1

3 0
m
m
0

c x 2 x 0

1 0 0 k1 k2
1

0 1 0
k2

m
0
0 0 1

k2
k3 k 2
k3

I c 0
k /m
0
2k / m
k /m
2k / m
k /m 0

0
k /m
k / m

P.Senthil Kumar

3 5 2k / m 6 k 2 / m 2 k 3 / m 3 0

## Intelligent Control Group

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.44

k
k
k
, 1.24
, 1.80
m
m
m

0
m2
0

0
1 0 0
1

0
0 1 0

m
2
m
0 0 1

c x x 0

0
k3

k3

2 1 0
k

1 2 1

m
0 1 1

ICG

## Matrix iteration method:

Find natural frequency of given system using matrix iteration method.
x1 a11F1 a12 F2 a13 F3

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

## x1 2ma11 x1 2 2ma12 x2 2 ma13 x3 2

x2 2ma12 x1 2 2ma22 x2 2 ma23 x3 2

2k

Multi DOF system

1
2k

## a22 a23 a32

a 13
2a 23

2a 33

1
k

1
m 2
k
1

Condition Monitoring

x1
2a11 2a12
x m 2 2a
2a22
21
2

x3
2a31 2a32

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x1
x
2
x3

2m

x1
x2
x3

1
1
1

2 x

1
m 2
3

1 3
x2
k
2
x

5 3
1 3
2

1
k
3
k
3
k

3
5
a33
2k
2k
1
2 k

3
2 k

2k

x1
x2
x3

k
2m
k
m

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

First iteration
x1
x
2
x3

## Intelligent Control Group

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1
1

2
1

2
m

3
1
1 3

k
2
1

5
1 3
2

1
1

Second iteration

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.2
1 3

k
2
2.6

5
1 3
2

x1
2 1
x 2.5 m 2.2
2
k
x3
2.6

Third iteration

P.Senthil Kumar

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.555
1 3

k
2
3.133

5
1 3
2

1
2 1
m

2.2
4.5
2.555

2.6
3.133

1
2
m

2.555
5.12

k
3.133

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

Fourth

iteration

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.61
1 3

k
2
3.22

5
1 3
2

m 2
1 5.22
k

1 .437

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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k
m

1
2
m

2.61
5.22

k
3.22

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

## Matrix iteration method:

Find natural frequency of given system using matrix iteration method.
x1 a11F1 a12 F2 a13 F3

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

## x1 ma11 x1 2 ma12 x2 2 ma13 x3 2

x2 ma12 x1 2 ma22 x2 2 ma23 x3 2

Multi DOF system

1
k

## a22 a23 a32

2
k

a33

3
k

Condition Monitoring

x1
a11 a12
x m 2 a
a22
21
2

x3
a31 a32

a 13
a 23

a 33

x1
x2
x3

1
1

1 1
2 3

2 3

x1
x2
x3

m
k
m

P.Senthil Kumar
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x1
x
2
x3

1
2

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

First iteration
x1
x
2
x3

## Intelligent Control Group

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1
1

2
1

2
m

3
1
1 3

k
2
1

5
1 3
2

1
2

Second iteration

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.2
1 3

k
2
2.6

5
1 3
2

x1
2 1
x 2.5 m 2.2
2
k
x3
2.6

Third iteration

P.Senthil Kumar

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.555
1 3

k
2
3.133

5
1 3
2

1
2 1
m

2.2
4.5
2.555

2.6
3.133

1
2
m

2.555
5.12

k
3.133

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

Condition Monitoring
What is machine vibration?

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

## Machine vibration is simply the back and forth movement of

machines or machine components. Any component that
moves back and forth or oscillates is vibrating.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

## What Causes Machine Vibration?

Almost all machine vibration is due to one or more of these
causes:
(a) Repeating forces
(b) Looseness
(c) Resonance

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

## Why Monitor Machine Vibration?

Monitoring the vibration characteristics of a machine gives
us an understanding of the 'health' condition of the
machine. We can use this information to detect problems
that might be developing.
Why be concerned about the condition of a machine?
Why not just continue to run the machine until it
breaks down and then repair it?
Operating a machine until it breaks down might be
acceptable if the machine were a 'disposable' one. Most
machines, however, are not 'disposable' due to their cost.
If we regularly monitor the conditions of machines we will
find any problems that might be developing, therefore we
can correct the problems even as they arise.
In contrast, if we do not monitor machines to detect
unwanted vibration the machines are more likely to be
operated until they break down.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## Common problem avoided by machine condition

monitoring method:
(a) Severe Machine Damage
Machine vibration that is not detected early enough will often
lead to severe machine damage requiring costly repairs or
even total machine replacement.
However, if the condition of a machine is monitored regularly,
potential problems can be detected and corrected - at an
early stage when the repair required is simpler, faster, and
cheaper.
This is similar to our own health. Regular visits to a doctor
help us to detect problems early and so avoid the large costs
of remedying severe health damage.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

## (b) High Power Consumption

A machine that is vibrating consumes more power. As well
as the power required for the machine to perform its
intended function, additional power is also required to
sustain the vibration. We can minimize this problem by
regularly monitoring and maintaining the machine.
(c) Machine Unavailability
Because an unmonitored machine is more likely to break
down, it is more often out of action. However, the cost of
procuring and operating a machine is normally justified by
its availability to process goods efficiently, or by its
availability to convert raw material into cash.
A machine should be consistently available to generate the
money to justify its investment. Regular monitoring helps
ensure that a machine is always available to generate
money.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

## Accumulation of Unfinished Goods

Because an unmonitored machine is prone to breaking
down it is often unavailable. Goods still in the making tend
to get stuck at the input point of the machine.
This leads to unnecessary wastage the waiting goods run
the risk of spoiling, occupy floor space, and tie up money.

## Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Unnecessary Maintenance
To constantly ensure proper
companies stop running
predetermined schedules to
regardless of whether or
malfunctioning.

## machine condition, some

machines according to
not the machines are

## As a result, machines are often stopped unnecessarily to

replace parts that are still good and to correct problems that
do not exist. We can avoid such waste if the machines are
regularly monitored and repaired only when necessary.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Quality Problems
Sometimes a machine can be running into trouble even
though it appears to be functioning normally. This is a
dangerous situation.
If not caught early, the problem could lead to poor quality
products being made, large yield losses, rework costs, or
worse still, warranty returns by irate customers. A machine
that is regularly monitored is less likely to lead to such
problems.
Occupational Hazards
Due to the noise and shaking they create, vibrating
machines can cause occupational hazards and human
discomfort. Human discomfort results in a loss to the
company as workers who feel unwell will not be fully
productive.
Also, unexpected machine breakdowns leave workers with
no work, and production planners with frustration.

ICG

1 DOF system

## Types of Vibration Monitoring Parameters

Vibration amplitude may be measured as a displacement, a
velocity, or acceleration. Vibration amplitude measurements
may either be relative, or absolute.

2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

## An absolute vibration measurement is one that is relative to

free space. Absolute vibration measurements are made with
seismic vibration transducers. Seismic vibration transducers
include swing coil velocity transducers, accelerometers and
velometers.
A relative vibration measurement is one that is relative to a
fixed point on the machine. Relative vibration
measurements are generally limited to displacement
measurements, the displacement of the bearing journal
relative to the bearings being the predominate example.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Displacement
Displacement measurement is the distance or amplitude
displaced from a resting position. The SI unit for
distance is the meter. Displacement vibration
measurements are generally made using displacement
eddy current transducers.
Velocity
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with
respect to change in time. The SI unit for velocity is
meters
per
second
(m/s),
Velocity
vibration
measurements are generally made using either swing
coil velocity transducers or acceleration transducers with
either an internal or external integration circuit.
Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with
respect to change in time. The SI unit for acceleration is
meters
per
second.
Acceleration
vibration
measurements
are
generally
using
accelerometers.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

## Vibration Monitoring Sensors & Selections.

1. Displacement Sensor
2. Velocity Sensor
3. Acceleration Sensor
Case study : turbine

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

## Case study : rotating part

ICG

Condition Monitoring:

## A more satisfactory compromise in terms of

maintenance strategy is to carry out preventive
maintenance at what may be irregular intervals, but to
determine these intervals by the actual condition of the
machine at the time.

## For such condition-based maintenance to be possible, it

is essential to have knowledge of the machine condition
and its rate of change with time.

this knowledge.

## There are two main methods used for condition

monitoring, and these are trend monitoring and
condition checking.

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

First iteration

ICG

## Trend monitoring is the continuous or regular

measurement and interpretation of data, collected
during machine operation, to indicate variations in the
condition of the machine or its components, in the
interests of safe and economical operation.

## Condition checking is where a check measurement is

taken with the machine running, using some suitable
indicator such as, again, one of those listed in Fig.2,
and this is then used as a measure o the machine
condition at that time. To be effective the measurement
must be accurate and quantifiable, and there must be
known limiting values which must not be exceeded for
more than a certain number of permitted further running
hours.

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com