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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

11M012 VIBRATION AND CONDITIONS MONITORING

Objective:

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration of 1 DOF


system
To develop the governing equation of 2 DOF system for
vibration analysis.
To develop the governing equation of Multi DOF system for
vibration analysis.
To understand the role of condition monitoring in vibration
analysis.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Syllabus:
Unit I Introduction
Relevance of and need for vibration analysis - Mathematical
modeling of vibrating systems Discrete and continuous systems review of single-degree of freedom systems - free and forced
vibrations, Various damping models Ground vibration testing.
Unit II Two Degree-of-Freedom Systems
General solution to free vibration problem - damped free vibration Forced vibration of undamped system -dynamic vibration absorbers
- Technical applications Vibration test on torsion pendulum
Unit III Multi Degree-of-Freedom Systems

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Intelligent Control Group
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Free and forced vibrations of multi-degree of freedom systems in


longitudinal torsional and lateral modes -Matrix methods of solutionnormal modes - Orthogonally principle-Energy methods Introduction
to vibrations of plates Dynamics of rotating machinery

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Unit IV Vibration Control


Introduction Reduction of Vibration at the Source - Control of
Vibration by Structural design Material Selection Localized
additions Artificial damping Resilient isolation, Vibration
isolation Vibrations measurement on lathe
Unit V Condition based Maintenance Principles & Applications
Introduction - Condition Monitoring Methods - The Design of
Information system, selecting methods of monitoring, Machine
condition monitoring and diagnosis Vibration severity criteria
Machine Maintenance techniques Machine condition monitoring
techniques Vibration monitoring techniques Instrumentation
systems Choice of monitoring parameter Acoustic testing, Active
noise and vibration control
Textbooks
1. Singaresu S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations, Prentice Hall Publish,
New Delhi,2010.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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2. J. S. Rao , Vibratory Condition Monitoring of Machines, Narosa


Publishing House, New Delhi,2000.

ICG

Vibration of
Single Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Objective:

To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration for


engineering students.

Condition Monitoring

To develop the governing equation for Free & forced vibration


system.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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To analyze the influence of vibration in mechanical system.

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Introduction

Any motion that repeat itself after an interval of time is


called vibration or oscillation.

Theory of vibration deals with study of oscillatory motion


of body & the forces associated with them.

x (t ) A sin n t
.

x (t ) n A cos n t
..

x (t ) n2 A sin n t n2 x (t )

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

MATLAB code
%% Fundamental of vibration-P.senthil kumar
t=0:0.01:5;
w=10;
%% Displacement of system
x= 2.*sin(w.*t);
plot(t,x,'b')
hold on
%% Velocity of system
dx=2.*w.*cos(w.*t);
plot(t,dx,'r')
%% acceleration of system
d2x = -2.*w.*w.*sin(w.*t);
plot(t,d2x,'g')
title('motion of system')
xlabel('time(sec)')
ylabel(Amplitude')

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

MATLAB code

ICG

Vibration Terminology

The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its


equilibrium position is called the amplitude of vibration
(mm).

The number of cycles per unit time is called the frequency


of oscillation.(Hz)
1
f
t 2
The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is known
as the time period of oscillation.(sec)

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Condition Monitoring

2
t

In the previous
figure, the velocity
vector leads
displacement vector by known angle of 90degree.This
angle is known as phase angle.
P.Senthil Kumar
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If a system, after an initial disturbance, is left to vibrate on


its own, the frequency with which it oscillates without
external forces is known as its natural frequency.

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1 DOF system
Introduction

The number of coordinates that are required to specify the


motion of system in space is called degree of freedom.

When the maximum value of a range of frequency is twice


its minimum value, it is known as an octave band. For
example, each of the ranges 75 150 Hz, 150 300 Hz can
be called an octave band.

The various quantities encountered in the field of vibration


and sound (such as displacement, velocity, acceleration,
pressure, and power) are often represented using the
notation of decibel. A decibel (dB) is originally defined as a
ratio of electric powers:

Since electric power is proportional to the square of the


voltage (X), the decibel can also be expressed as

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

From Galileo to Rayleigh:

Galileo: Analysis of simple pendulum.

1 DOF system
Introduction

Sauveur: Nodes and loops.

problem
2 DOF system

Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica (1686).

Brook Taylor: Theory of vibrating string (1713).

Lagrange: Analytical solution of vibrating string.

DAlembert: wave equation

Coulomb: Experimental study on torsional vibration

Chladni: Theory of vibration of plate

Rayleigh:-method to find fundamental frequency.

Timoshenko: (vibration of beam, plate, deformation)

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

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Importance of vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction

Most human activities involve vibration .

problem
2 DOF system

Most prime movers have vibration problems.

Vibration causes excessive wear & failure of


components.

Multi DOF system

Vibration leads human discomfort & loss of efficiency.

Vibration is put to work in rotary conveyors, feeder, road

Condition Monitoring

simulator, Material testing apparatus.

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It is employed to simulate earthquakes.

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Vibration Analysis:
Analyze the influence of vibration in front suspension of
bicycle. Assume the bicycle system as single degree of
freedom.
1. Mathematical modeling:
..
m x kx

Multi DOF system

m
Condition Monitoring

..

2.

Governing Equation

m x kx 0

3. Solution

x A cos B sin
P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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( ms k )e 0
2

st

x Ce int

x Ce Ce st
s ( k / m)1/2 iwn
x A cos n t B sin n t

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4. Interpretation
..

m x kx 0

1 DOF system
Introduction

Multi DOF system

x.
x0 2 0
n

Condition Monitoring

Road profile
..

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n
1
fn

2 2

k
m

x (t ) Ce int X cos(nt )

problem
2 DOF system

P.Senthil Kumar

k
m

x
0

tan
x0n

Body travel

..
.

m x c x kx 0
L x x 5 x L[5F ]

X
5
2
F s s5

ICG

MATLAB : Simple m-k-c system

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Displacement (m)

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Time (sec)

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Overview

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

1 DOF
2 DOF
..

m x c x kx F
ms 2 cs k x F
P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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x
1
TF 2
F ms cs k

Multiple DOF

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Vibration control
Passive control:

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Select the value of K and C in such way


that will reduce vibration of system of
mass m.

m
k

In General , K & C values are constant.

Active control:

Condition Monitoring

E
-

PID

motor

1
ms 2 cs k

the value of K and C selected externally


using Feed back PID control.

In General , K & C values are variable

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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motor

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Elements of Vibration
Three major elements of vibrating systems are,
Mass
Spring
Damper

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

The mass or inertia element is assumed to be a rigid body;


it can gain or lose kinetic energy whenever the velocity of
the body changes.
..

mx

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Intelligent Control Group
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From Newton s second law of motion, the product of the


mass and its acceleration is equal to the force applied to
the mass.
..

F mx

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

A spring is said to be linear if the elongation or


reduction in length x is related to the applied force F as
X0

X1

problem
2 DOF system

F kx

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

Applied force (F) = - spring force

1 2
U kx
2

For nonlinear spring,

F F F ( x x )
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F ( x ) F F ( x )

dF
1 d F 2
( x )
( x)
2
dx
2! dx

F k x

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Combination of spring

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

x1

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

x2

Spring in parallel

F F1 F2
Kx K1 x1 K 2 x2
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Intelligent Control Group
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keq k1 k 2

Spring in series

x x1 x2
F F
F

K K1 K 2

1
1 1

keq k1 k2

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The mechanism by which the vibration energy is


gradually converted into heat or sound is known as

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

damping.

Viscous Damping

Coulomb Damping

Hysteretic Damping

du

dy
F v

A h

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Intelligent Control Group
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F cv

A
h

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1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Harmonic Analysis

Harmonic means series of sine and cosine terms.

The simplest type of periodic motion.

Any periodic motion can be represented by Fourier series


as harmonic function.

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

xA
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Intelligent Control Group
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a0
x (t ) an cos nt bn sin nt
2 n 1

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Matlab : Harmonic Analysis

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Classification of vibration

Free vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction

Forced vibration

problem
2 DOF system

Un damped vibration

Damped vibration

Linear vibration

Non linear Vibration

Deterministic vibration (Excitation)

Random vibration (Excitation)

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

Free Undamped vibration

1Introduction
DOF system
Introduction
Free vibration
problem
Undamped
2 DOF
system
Damped

When no external force acts on body, after giving it an


initial displacement, then the body is said to be under
free vibration. The frequency of vibration is called natural
frequency.

If there is no loss of energy through out the motion of


system, the free vibration is called undamped vibration.
..
m x kx+

Forced
vibration
Multi
DOF
system
Harmonic Excitation
Undamped
Condition
Monitoring
Damped

Base Excitation
Rotating Unbalance

F =0
From equilibrium method,

v 0

..

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m x kx k F W
..

m x kx 0

F+W
k W mg

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Governing Equation using other method:

1Introduction
DOF system
Introduction
Free vibration
problem
Undamped
2 DOF
system
Damped
Forced
vibration
Multi
DOF
system

D Alembert Principle

Energy Principle

F ma 0

d
T U 0

dt

..

kx m x 0
..

m x kx 0

Harmonic Excitation
Undamped
Condition
Monitoring
Damped
Base Excitation
Rotating Unbalance

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.
1

1
2
2
m
x

kx
0

2
2

..

m x kx 0

Rayleigh method

K .Emean P.Eextreme
1
1
m 2 x 2 kx 2
2
2

P.Senthil Kumar

d
dt

k
m

x X sin t
.

x X cos t X
1
1
KE mv 2 m 2 x 2
2
2
1 2
PE kx
2

ICG

solution
..

m x kx 0
1 DOF system
Introduction

( ms 2 k )e st 0

problem
2 DOF system

x Ae int

Multi DOF system

x Ae st
s k / m iwn

x (0) x0

x A1eint A2e int

x (0) x0

X i
X i
A1 e
A2 e
2
2
X i (nt ) i (nt )

x (t ) e
e
2

Condition Monitoring

x (t ) X cos(n t )
x (0) x0 X cos
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x (0) x0 n X sin

x.
x0 2 0
n

x
0

tan
x0n

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Interpretation
x (t ) x0 cos(n t )

x (t ) x0n sin(n t )

x (t ) x0n2 cos(n t )

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x X 0 sin(n t 0 )
P.Senthil Kumar
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X0

x.
x0 2 0
n

x 10sin(0.9977t / 2) 10cos(0.9977t )

x
0 tan 0. n

x0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Example: Vibration in water tank


The column of the water tank shown in Fig.is 300 ft high and
is made of reinforced concrete with a tubular cross section of
inner diameter 8 ft and outer diameter 10 ft. The tank weighs
600000 lb when filled with water. By neglecting the mass of
the column and assuming the Young s modulus of reinforced
concrete as 4e6 psi, Determine the vibration response of the
water tank due to an initial transverse displacement of 10 in.

l 300 ft
Di 8 ft
D0 10 ft
W 6 105 Ib

P.Senthil Kumar
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E 4 106 psi
x0 10 inch

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

x X 0 sin(n t 0 )
3EI
k 3 1545.6672 Ib / inch
l

k
0.9977rad / sec
m

X0

x.
x0 2 0 x0 10 in
n

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

d 04 d i4 600.955 104 in 4

64

0 tan 0. n

2
x0

x 10sin(0.9977t / 2) 10cos(0.9977t )

x 10 0.9977 cos 0.9977t


2

..

x 10 0.9977 2 sin 0.9977t


2

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..

x max 9.9540 in / sec 2

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Review: Solution of differential equation


..

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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m x c x kx 0

ms 2 cs k 0

b b2 4ac
s
2a

s a, b

x (t ) C1e at C1e bt

s a, a

x (t ) ( A Bt )e at

s a ib,
a ib

x (t ) Xe at sin(bt )

ICG

Free Damped vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

In the study of vibration the process of energy dissipation


is generally referred to as damping. The most common
type of energy dissipating element is viscous damper.
Viscous damping force is proportional to velocity of mass
and act in the direction opposite to velocity of mass.
..

m x k ( x ) mg c x
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

..

m x c x kx 0
c
k
2
s

0
ms cs k 0
m
m
2

s1,2

c
k
c

2m
m
2m

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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k
c

is zero , negative or positive

2
m
m

k
c

2
m
m

cc 2mn

n 2 1 n

c
c

cc 2mn

ICG

..

ms 2 cs k 0

m x c x kx 0

s1,2 2 1 n
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Case:1 Under damped system 1

s1,2 i 1 2 n

Multi DOF system

s1,2 n id

Condition Monitoring

d n 1 2

Xe nt

x (t ) Xe nt sin(d t )

xi
Xe nti
nti d entd
xi 1 Xe
xi
ln
n td
xi d

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1
1
1

sin(d t )

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Case:2 critical damped system 1

s1,2 i 1 2 n n

ms 2 cs k 0

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

cc 2mn

x (t ) ( A Bt )e

n t

x (0) x0 A

x (0) x 0

x (t ) n Ae nt Bnte nt Be nt

Multi DOF system

B x 0 n x0

x (0) x0 n x0 0 B

Condition Monitoring

( A Bt )

e nt

x (t ) x0 x 0 n x0

t e nt

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s1,2 i 1 2 n 2 1 n

1 DOF system
Introduction

x (t ) C e

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Case:3 over damped system

C1

C e

2 1 n t

x0n 1 x 0
2

2n 2 1

2 1 n t

C2

x0n 1 x 0
2

2n 2 1

Condition Monitoring

C1+C2
t
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ICG

MATLAB VERIFICATION

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x (t ) x0 x 0 n x0

x (t ) Xe nt sin(d t )
P.Senthil Kumar
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x (t ) C e
1

2 1 n t

1 t

Ce
2

t e nt

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Shock absorber for automobile:


A motorcycle of mass 200 kg with shock absorber is subjected
to an initial vertical velocity due to a road bump, the resulting
displacement-time curve is to be as indicated in Fig. Find the
necessary stiffness and damping constants of the shock
absorber. Also verify the response of shock absorber using
MATLAB.

Multi DOF system

x1.5

Condition Monitoring

x1
4

x2

x1.5
4

.25 m

2ms
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x2.5

x2
4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Approach: We need to find k & C value. First find coefficient


of damping from logarithmic decrement . Then find critical
damping and natural frequency of a suspension system.
Now we can find k & C directly.
x1
ln(16) 2.7726
x2

ln

2
td

2
1

2.7726

0.4037

d 1 2 n

c cc 2mn

k mn2

xmax 1 2 Xe nt
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Intelligent Control Group
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x (t ) Xe nt sin d t 0.455e 0.4037nt sin d t

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1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Matlab code:

ICG

Harmonically Excited vibration

1 DOF system
Introduction

When the body vibrates under the influence of external


force, then the body is said to be under excited vibration.

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )
P.Senthil Kumar
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xh (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin n t X sin(d t )

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Harmonically excitation of undamped system


..

m x kx F
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

F F0 cos t F0et

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )

xh (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin n t X cos(t )


st
x p (t ) X cos t
cos t
2

1
n
m 2 X cos t kX cos t F0 cos t
X

F0
F0 / k
st

2
m 2
k m 2

1
1


k
n

x (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin n t
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x (t ) X cos(t )

F0
cos t
2
k m

F0
cos t
2
k m

F X cos t

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

x (t ) C1 cos n t C2 sin nt
x (0) x0 C1 0

problem
2 DOF system

F0
k m 2

F0
cos t
2
k m

C1 x0

x (t ) nC1 sin n t nC2 cos n t


Multi DOF system

F0
sin t
2
k m

x (0) x 0 nC2
Condition Monitoring

F0
k m 2

x0
C2
n
.

F0
x0

x (t ) x0
cos

sin n t
n
2
k

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Intelligent Control Group
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xh x p

x (t ) x p (t )

st

1
n

st

cos t

st
st M f
2
1 r

ICG

st

x (t ) x p (t )

1
1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

st
st M f
2
1 r

x (t )
Case:1

Multi DOF system

Case:2

0 / n 1

/ n (Resonance)
1

Condition Monitoring

Case:3

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/ n 1

Harmonically excited Force: (for Damped system)

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Consider a spring mass damper system subjected to forced


vibration then the equation of motion becomes
..

x ( t ) xh ( t ) x p ( t )

m x c x kx F

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

x p (t ) A1 sin t A2 cos t X sin(t )


.

Multi DOF system ..

x p (t ) A1 cos t A2 sin t

x p (t ) 2 A1 sin t 2 A2 cos t 2 x p

Condition Monitoring

m 2 x p c x p kx p F

2
k

xp c xp F
.

F F0 sin t

k m A sin t A cos t c A cos t A sin t F sin t


k m A c A sin t c A k m A cos t F sin t

k m A c A
2

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F0

m 2
c A2 F0
1

1
k
k
k

P.Senthil Kumar

c A1 k m 2 A2 0
c A1
m 2
1
A2 0
k
k

m
c A2 F0
1 k A1 k k

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction

problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

c
c

cc 2mn

c 2mn

1 r A 2r A
2

X0

1 r X

A
1 r 2r
2

Intelligent Control Group


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c
2n 2
2mn

2r
2
k
k
n
n

2
1 2 A1 2r A2 X 0
n

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar

c A1
m 2
1
A2 0
k
k

xp

2 2

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

2
2r A1 1 2 A2 0
n

2r A1 1 r 2 A2 0
A2

2 r X 0

1 r 2 2r

(1 r 2 ) sin t 2 r cos t

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

sin(t )

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Magnification factor vs Frequency Ratio

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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x p max

X0

1 r 2r
2 2

MF

x p max
X0

1
2 2

1
2

n
n

ICG

1. For undamped system, M tends to infinity at r=1.


1 DOF system
Introduction

2. For damping factor >1, M will reduce for all values of r.

problem
2 DOF system

3. Increasing the value of damping factor will reduce the


value of M for specified r.

Multi DOF system

4. When r =0 the value of M=1.


5. The reduction in M in the presence of damping is very

Condition Monitoring

significant at or near resonance .


6. M tends to 0 when r tends to infinity.
7. The maximum value of M occur when damping factor <
1/sqrt(2).

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ICG

Phase angle vs Frequency Ratio

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group

tan

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2
n
2

1
n

ICG

Harmonically Base Excitation

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

..

m x c( x y ) k ( x y ) 0
..

Y Y sin t

m x c x kx c y ky Yc cos t Yk sin t
..

m x c x kx c y ky A sin(t )
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A Y k ( c )
2

c
tan
k

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

The ratio of the amplitude of the response X(t) to that of the


base motion y(t), is called the displacement transmissibility.
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

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Transmissibility Ratio:

ICG

1. The value of damping ratio is unity for small values of r.


1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

2. For an undamped system, Td tends to infinity

at

resonance.
3. The value of Td is less than unity for r >sqrt(2)

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

4. The value of Td is unity for all values of

ratio at r

=sqrt(2)
5. For r <sqrt(2), Smaller damping ratios lead to larger
values of Td.
6. On the other hand, for r>sqrt(2), smaller values of
damping ratio lead to smaller values of Td.

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Harmonically Rotating unbalance ( Damped system)

ICG

Transfer Function Approach

The transfer-function approach, based on Laplace


transforms, is commonly used for the formulation and
solution of dynamic problems in the controls literature. It
can also be conveniently used for solving forced-vibration
problems.

The transfer function of a linear, time-invariant differential


equation is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of
the output or response function to the Laplace transform
of the input or forcing function, assuming zero initial
conditions.

The general procedure used to find the transfer function


of a linear differential equation involves taking the Laplace
transforms of both sides, assuming zero initial conditions,
and solving for the ratio of the output Laplace transform
and the input Laplace transform.

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Introduction
Derive the transfer function of a viscously
damped single-degree-of-freedom system
subjected to external force f(t) as shown in Fig

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

Vibration of
Single Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

Multi DOF system

To introduce the fundamental concept of vibration for


Engineering students.

Condition Monitoring

To develop the governing equation for Free & forced


vibration system.

To analyze the influence of vibration in mechanical


system.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system

Problem:1
1. A simple harmonic motion has a amplitude of .30 cm and
period of 0.20 sec. Determine the maximum velocity and
acceleration.

x (t ) A cos t
.

Multi DOF system

x (t ) A cos t

Condition Monitoring

..

x (t ) 2 A cos t

2
2 f
t

31.416 rad / s

9.425 cm / s

296.089 cm / s 2

2. A harmonic motion has a frequency of 15 cycles/second


and its maximum velocity is 5m/sec. Determine its
amplitude, period and max acceleration.
.

x (t ) A cos t
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..

x (t ) 2 A cos t

5m / s

471.24 m / s 2

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 2

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem 4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem :6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
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Problem: 7

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

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Problem:8

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:9

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:10

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:11

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:12

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:13

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:14

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:15

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:16

ICG

Vibration of
Two Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

Multi DOF system

To develop the governing equation for Free & forced


vibration of 2 DOF system.

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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To analyze the influence of dynamic vibration absorber.

ICG

Introduction

The number of degree of freedom that the system


posses is equal to number of independent coordinates
necessary to describe the motion of system.

The system that require two independent coordinates to


describe the motion is called 2 DOF system

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:1
Determine the Equation of motion and natural
frequency of given spring mass system.
..

m1 x1 k1 x1 k 2 ( x1 x2 ) 0
..

m2 x 2 k2 ( x2 x1 ) 0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:2

..

m1 x1 k ( x1 x2 ) 0
..

m2 x 2 k ( x2 x1 ) 0

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:3

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:4

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Coupled coordinates::

ICG

Equation of motion for coupled coordinates:

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring
..

m x ( k1 k2 ) x ( k1l1 k 2l2 ) 0
..

J (k1l1 k2l2 ) x ( k1l 21 k2l 2 2 ) 0

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Principal coordinates::
Here two different coordinates coupled
together to get solution for vibrating system.
Such coordinates are called principal or
natural coordinates.

Condition Monitoring

The main advantage of using principal


coordinates is that the resulting uncoupled
equations of motion can be solved
independently of one another.
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring
..

m x ( k1 k2 ) x (k1l1 k 2l2 ) 0

..

J (k1l1 k2l2 ) x (k1l 21 k 2l 2 2 ) 0


P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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m 2 2k

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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X 1
X 0
2
m 2k 2
k

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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X 2 (1) m1 ( k1 k2 )
r1 (1)
2
X1
k2
2

2
X 2 (2) m2 ( k2 k3 )
r2 (2)
5
X1
k2

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

x (t ) Xe nt sin
1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

0;

1 2 n t

X 0.455 m

x1

ln ln(16) 2.7726
2
x2
1
d 2

2
2

d n 1 2

x (t ) .455e .40373.4338t sin

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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0.4037

n 3.4338 rad / sec

1 0.4037 2 3.4338t

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:4

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:5

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:6

ICG

1 DOF system
Introduction
problem
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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Problem:7

ICG

General form of 2 DOF system :

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

m11
m
21

..

m12 x1 c11

..
m22 c21
x 2

c12
c
22

x.
1 k11
.
k21
x2

k 12 x 1
f1
k x f
2
22 2

ICG

Transfer Function Approach:


1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

Forced vibration analysis of 2 DOF system using Transfer function:

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:11 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com
8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

% Ex5_20.m
tspan = [0: 0.01: 20];
y0 = [0.2; 1.0; 0.0; 0.0];
[t,y] = ode23('dfunc5_15', tspan, y0);
subplot (211)
plot (t,y (:, 1));
xlabel ('t');
ylabel ('x1 (t)');
%dfunc5_15.m
subplot (212)
function f = dfunc5_15(t,y)
plot (t,y (:, 3));
f = zeros(4, 1);
xlabel ('t');
ylabel ('x2 (t)'); f(1) = y(2);
f(2) = cos(3*t)- 4*y(2) + y(4)- 5*y(1) + 2*y(3);
f(3) = y(4);
f(4) = cos(3*t) + 0.5*y(2)- y(4) + y(1) -1.5*y(3);

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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8/11/15 04:52:12 PM

ICG

Vibration of
Multi Degree of Freedom system

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Objective:

Multi DOF system

To develop the governing equation for Multi DOF system.

To solve problem related to Multi DOF system.

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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ICG

1 DOF system

Introduction:

The system having more than one degree of freedom are


known as multi degree of freedom system.

2 DOF system

Multi DOF system

It becomes very difficult to find

solution for multi DOF

system.

Condition Monitoring

Methods like matrix method, Rayleigh method, Holzer


method, Dunkerley method, stodla method can be used to
find solution for multi DOF system.

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ICG

1 DOF system

Influence coefficient:

The equation of motion for Multi DOF can be expressed


interms of influence coefficient.(aij)

2 DOF system

x1 a11F1 a12 F2 a13 F3

Multi DOF system

x2 a21F1 a22 F2 a23 F3

Condition Monitoring

x3 a31F1 a32 F2 a33 F3


..

F1 m1 x1 m1 2 A1 sin t

P.Senthil Kumar
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ICG

Matrix method:
Find natural frequency of given system using matrix method.
..

m1 x1 k1 x1 k2 ( x1 x2 ) 0

1 DOF system

..

2 DOF system

m2 x2 k 2 ( x2 x1 ) k3 ( x3 x2 ) 0
..

m3 x3 k3 ( x2 x3 ) 0
Multi DOF system

..

m1 x1 ( k1 k2 ) x1 k2 x2 0
..

Condition Monitoring

m2 x2 k2 x1 ( k3 k 2 ) x2 k 3 x3 0
..

m3 x3 k3 x2 k3 x3 0
m1 0
0 m
2

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0
0

m3

x..
1 k1 k 2
k 2
..

k3 k 2
x 2 k2
..
0
k3
x
3


..

m x k x 0

0
k3

k 3

x1
x2 0
x3

ICG

..

m x k x 0

1 DOF system

x.. m 1 k x 0

2 DOF system

x.. c x 0

Multi DOF system

I c 0
c m

Condition Monitoring

m2

m 1

adj m 1
3 0
m
m
0

c x 2 x 0

1 0 0 k1 k2
1

0 1 0
k2

m
0
0 0 1

k2
k3 k 2
k3

I c 0
k /m
0
2k / m
k /m
2k / m
k /m 0

0
k /m
k / m

P.Senthil Kumar

3 5 2k / m 6 k 2 / m 2 k 3 / m 3 0

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.44

k
k
k
, 1.24
, 1.80
m
m
m

0
m2
0

0
1 0 0
1

0
0 1 0

m
2
m
0 0 1

c x x 0

0
k3

k3

2 1 0
k

1 2 1

m
0 1 1

ICG

Matrix iteration method:


Find natural frequency of given system using matrix iteration method.
x1 a11F1 a12 F2 a13 F3

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

x3 a31F1 a32 F2 a33 F3

x2 a21F1 a22 F2 a23 F3

x1 2ma11 x1 2 2ma12 x2 2 ma13 x3 2


x2 2ma12 x1 2 2ma22 x2 2 ma23 x3 2

2k

x3 2ma13 x1 2 2ma32 x2 2 ma33 x3 2


Multi DOF system

a11 a12 a13 a21 a31

1
2k

a22 a23 a32

a 13
2a 23

2a 33

1
k

1
m 2
k
1

Condition Monitoring

x1
2a11 2a12
x m 2 2a
2a22
21
2

x3
2a31 2a32

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Intelligent Control Group
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x1
x
2
x3

2m

x1
x2
x3

1
1
1

2 x

1
m 2
3

1 3
x2
k
2
x

5 3
1 3
2

1
k
3
k
3
k

3
5
a33
2k
2k
1
2 k

3
2 k

2k

x1
x2
x3

k
2m
k
m

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

First iteration
x1
x
2
x3

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1
1

2
1

2
m

3
1
1 3

k
2
1

5
1 3
2

1
1

Second iteration

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.2
1 3

k
2
2.6

5
1 3
2

x1
2 1
x 2.5 m 2.2
2
k
x3
2.6

Third iteration

P.Senthil Kumar

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.555
1 3

k
2
3.133

5
1 3
2

1
2 1
m

2.2
4.5
2.555

2.6
3.133

1
2
m

2.555
5.12

k
3.133

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

Fourth

iteration

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.61
1 3

k
2
3.22

5
1 3
2

m 2
1 5.22
k

1 .437

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
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k
m

1
2
m

2.61
5.22

k
3.22

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

Matrix iteration method:


Find natural frequency of given system using matrix iteration method.
x1 a11F1 a12 F2 a13 F3

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

x2 a21F1 a22 F2 a23 F3

x3 a31F1 a32 F2 a33 F3

x1 ma11 x1 2 ma12 x2 2 ma13 x3 2


x2 ma12 x1 2 ma22 x2 2 ma23 x3 2

x3 ma13 x1 2 ma32 x2 2 ma33 x3 2


Multi DOF system

a11 a12 a13 a21 a31

1
k

a22 a23 a32

2
k

a33

3
k

Condition Monitoring

x1
a11 a12
x m 2 a
a22
21
2

x3
a31 a32

a 13
a 23

a 33

x1
x2
x3

1
1

1 1
2 3

2 3

x1
x2
x3

m
k
m

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

x1
x
2
x3

1
2

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

First iteration
x1
x
2
x3

Intelligent Control Group


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1
1

2
1

2
m

3
1
1 3

k
2
1

5
1 3
2

1
2

Second iteration

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.2
1 3

k
2
2.6

5
1 3
2

x1
2 1
x 2.5 m 2.2
2
k
x3
2.6

Third iteration

P.Senthil Kumar

1
1
1

2
1

2
m

3
2.555
1 3

k
2
3.133

5
1 3
2

1
2 1
m

2.2
4.5
2.555

2.6
3.133

1
2
m

2.555
5.12

k
3.133

1
2.61

3.22

ICG

Condition Monitoring
What is machine vibration?

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Machine vibration is simply the back and forth movement of


machines or machine components. Any component that
moves back and forth or oscillates is vibrating.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

What Causes Machine Vibration?


Almost all machine vibration is due to one or more of these
causes:
(a) Repeating forces
(b) Looseness
(c) Resonance

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Why Monitor Machine Vibration?


Monitoring the vibration characteristics of a machine gives
us an understanding of the 'health' condition of the
machine. We can use this information to detect problems
that might be developing.
Why be concerned about the condition of a machine?
Why not just continue to run the machine until it
breaks down and then repair it?
Operating a machine until it breaks down might be
acceptable if the machine were a 'disposable' one. Most
machines, however, are not 'disposable' due to their cost.
If we regularly monitor the conditions of machines we will
find any problems that might be developing, therefore we
can correct the problems even as they arise.
In contrast, if we do not monitor machines to detect
unwanted vibration the machines are more likely to be
operated until they break down.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

Common problem avoided by machine condition


monitoring method:
(a) Severe Machine Damage
Machine vibration that is not detected early enough will often
lead to severe machine damage requiring costly repairs or
even total machine replacement.
However, if the condition of a machine is monitored regularly,
potential problems can be detected and corrected - at an
early stage when the repair required is simpler, faster, and
cheaper.
This is similar to our own health. Regular visits to a doctor
help us to detect problems early and so avoid the large costs
of remedying severe health damage.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

(b) High Power Consumption


A machine that is vibrating consumes more power. As well
as the power required for the machine to perform its
intended function, additional power is also required to
sustain the vibration. We can minimize this problem by
regularly monitoring and maintaining the machine.
(c) Machine Unavailability
Because an unmonitored machine is more likely to break
down, it is more often out of action. However, the cost of
procuring and operating a machine is normally justified by
its availability to process goods efficiently, or by its
availability to convert raw material into cash.
A machine should be consistently available to generate the
money to justify its investment. Regular monitoring helps
ensure that a machine is always available to generate
money.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system

Accumulation of Unfinished Goods


Because an unmonitored machine is prone to breaking
down it is often unavailable. Goods still in the making tend
to get stuck at the input point of the machine.
This leads to unnecessary wastage the waiting goods run
the risk of spoiling, occupy floor space, and tie up money.

Multi DOF system


Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Unnecessary Maintenance
To constantly ensure proper
companies stop running
predetermined schedules to
regardless of whether or
malfunctioning.

machine condition, some


machines according to
adjust and replace parts
not the machines are

As a result, machines are often stopped unnecessarily to


replace parts that are still good and to correct problems that
do not exist. We can avoid such waste if the machines are
regularly monitored and repaired only when necessary.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Quality Problems
Sometimes a machine can be running into trouble even
though it appears to be functioning normally. This is a
dangerous situation.
If not caught early, the problem could lead to poor quality
products being made, large yield losses, rework costs, or
worse still, warranty returns by irate customers. A machine
that is regularly monitored is less likely to lead to such
problems.
Occupational Hazards
Due to the noise and shaking they create, vibrating
machines can cause occupational hazards and human
discomfort. Human discomfort results in a loss to the
company as workers who feel unwell will not be fully
productive.
Also, unexpected machine breakdowns leave workers with
no work, and production planners with frustration.

ICG

1 DOF system

Types of Vibration Monitoring Parameters


Vibration amplitude may be measured as a displacement, a
velocity, or acceleration. Vibration amplitude measurements
may either be relative, or absolute.

2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

An absolute vibration measurement is one that is relative to


free space. Absolute vibration measurements are made with
seismic vibration transducers. Seismic vibration transducers
include swing coil velocity transducers, accelerometers and
velometers.
A relative vibration measurement is one that is relative to a
fixed point on the machine. Relative vibration
measurements are generally limited to displacement
measurements, the displacement of the bearing journal
relative to the bearings being the predominate example.

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Displacement
Displacement measurement is the distance or amplitude
displaced from a resting position. The SI unit for
distance is the meter. Displacement vibration
measurements are generally made using displacement
eddy current transducers.
Velocity
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with
respect to change in time. The SI unit for velocity is
meters
per
second
(m/s),
Velocity
vibration
measurements are generally made using either swing
coil velocity transducers or acceleration transducers with
either an internal or external integration circuit.
Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with
respect to change in time. The SI unit for acceleration is
meters
per
second.
Acceleration
vibration
measurements
are
generally
made
using
accelerometers.

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system

Vibration Monitoring Sensors & Selections.

1. Displacement Sensor
2. Velocity Sensor
3. Acceleration Sensor
Case study : turbine

Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

Case study : rotating part

ICG

Condition Monitoring:

A more satisfactory compromise in terms of


maintenance strategy is to carry out preventive
maintenance at what may be irregular intervals, but to
determine these intervals by the actual condition of the
machine at the time.

For such condition-based maintenance to be possible, it


is essential to have knowledge of the machine condition
and its rate of change with time.

The main function of condition monitoring is to provide


this knowledge.

There are two main methods used for condition


monitoring, and these are trend monitoring and
condition checking.

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

ICG

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com

First iteration

ICG

Trend monitoring is the continuous or regular


measurement and interpretation of data, collected
during machine operation, to indicate variations in the
condition of the machine or its components, in the
interests of safe and economical operation.

Condition checking is where a check measurement is


taken with the machine running, using some suitable
indicator such as, again, one of those listed in Fig.2,
and this is then used as a measure o the machine
condition at that time. To be effective the measurement
must be accurate and quantifiable, and there must be
known limiting values which must not be exceeded for
more than a certain number of permitted further running
hours.

1 DOF system
2 DOF system
Multi DOF system
Condition Monitoring

P.Senthil Kumar
Intelligent Control Group
www.icgindia.weebly.com