Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

Cracks in Buildings

By M A Azeem
(10N01A0129)

What is CRACK?

Introduction

Why crack occurs?


Classification of CRACKS

How cracks occur by moisture


changes?

Moisture
Changes

Classification of materials based on


moisture movements

Reversible movement

Irreversible movement

Shrinkage
What is shrinkage?
Types of shrinkage
Effects of shrinkage on concrete
Factors affecting shrinkage

Shrinkage crack on:


slab

external wall

What is creep?

Creep

Creep phenomenon
Cracks due to creep in
Load bearing structures
Framed structures

Vertical cracks at junction of RCC column and


wall masonry in a load bearing structure

Horizontal cracks in brick walls of


a framed structure

Preventive measures of shrinkage &


creep cracks
Shrinkage cracks in masonry could be minimized by avoiding the use of rich cement

mortar in masonry.
This shrinkage cracks can also be minimized by delaying the plaster work till masonry

has dried after proper curing and has undergo most of its initial shrinkage.
To minimize the shrinkage cracks in plastering mortar, plaster should not be richer.
External walls of building are given on the outside finish of rich cement based material. In

such cases, in order to avoid shrinkage cracks the finish is divided into small panels of
dimensions varying between 0.5 to 1.0m by providing grooves of 8 to 10mm width in
both directions.

Preventive measures of shrinkage &


creep cracks
An effective method of controlling shrinkage cracks is the provision of movement joints i.e.,
expansion, control and slip joints.
Work done in cold weather will be less liable to shrinkage cracking than that done in hot weather.
Use concrete which has low shrinkage and low slump.
Do not adopt a very fast pace of construction.

When RCC and brick work occur in combination and are to be plastered over allow sufficient time
at least one month before taking up plaster work. Also provide a groove in plaster at the junction
or fix a 10cm wide strip of metal mesh over the junction to act as reinforcement for the plaster.

Thermal
Movement

How cracks occur by thermal


movement?

Parts of structure where thermal


cracks occur

Factors causing thermal movement

Identification
In Framed structures

In Load bearing structures

Preventive and precautionary measures


Concrete of slab should be of low shrinkage and low slump.
Construction of masonry over the slab should be deferred as much as possible (at least
one month) so that concrete undergoes some drying shrinkage prior to the
construction of parapet.
Wherever feasible, provision should be made in the design and construction of
structures for unrestrained movement parts, by introducing movement joints of
various types. Namely, expansion joints, control joints and slip joints.

Preventive and precautionary measures


Over roof slabs, a layer of some insulating material or some other material
having good heat insulation capacity, preferably along with a high reflectivity finish,
should be provided so as to reduce heat load on the roof slab.
In case of massive concrete structures, rise in temperature due to heat of
hydration of cement should be controlled by using of low-heat cement, use of
pozzolanas, pre-cooling of aggregates and mixing water, post-cooling of concrete
by circulating refrigerated water through pipes embedded in the body of the concrete
etc.

Settlement of
soil

Foundation movement
due to settlement of soil

Preventive and precautionary measures


Cracks due to foundation
settlement

Structural provision for horizontal


extension with an expansion joint

Elastic
Deformation

Diagonal cracks in brick wall

Causes

Preventive Measures

Cracks in load bearing masonry wall below


RCC slab

Causes

Preventive Measures

Vertical formation of cracks at the base of


parapet wall

Causes

Preventive Measures

Chemical
Reaction

Sulphate Attack
Carbonation
Corrosion of Reinforcement
Alkali-aggregate Reaction

Cracks due to carbonation

Vegetation

Cracks in walls due to vegetation

Cracks in foundation due to


vegetation

Preventive measures of cracks


due to vegetation

Building cracks due to vegetation

CHECK LIST

Moisture

S. No.

DESCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Length f the crack

4 feet

Width of the crack

2 mm

Depth of the crack

1 mm

Direction

Diagonal

Occurrence

Slab

Conclusion

Crack due to moisture

Moisture

S. No.

DESCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Length of the crack

6 feet 10 inches

Width of the crack

2 mm

Depth of the crack

1 mm

Direction

Horizontal

Occurrence

External wall

Conclusion

Crack due to moisture

Creep

S.
No.
1

DESCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Length of the crack

9 feet 11 inches

Width of the crack

2 mm

Depth of the crack

2.5 mm

Direction

Horizontal

Occurrence

Internal wall

Conclusion

Crack due to creep

Creep

S.
No.
1
2
3
4
5

DESCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Length of the crack


Width of the crack
Depth of the crack
Direction
Occurrence

Conclusion

10 feet
1.5mm
1mm
Vertical
Junction of RCC column
and brick masonry
Crack due to creep

Thermal Expansion

S.NO
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

DISCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Age of crack
Length of crack
Width of crack
Depth of crack
Direction
Pattern

7.

Conclusion

14 years
16 feet 4 inches
2 mm
2 mm
Horizontal
Parallel to movement of
parapet wall
Crack due to thermal
expansion

Foundation Movement

S.N
O.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

DISCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Age of crack
Length of crack
Width of crack
Depth of crack
Direction
Pattern

7.

Conclusion

10 years
8 feet
2 mm
4 mm
Diagonal
Wide at the top and narrow
at bottom
Crack due to foundation
movement

Foundation Movement

S.NO
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

DISCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

Age of crack
Length of crack
Width of crack
Depth of crack

10 years
7 feet
>1 mm
2 mm

5.
6.

Direction
Pattern

7.

Conclusion

Vertical to Diagonal
Wide at the top and narrow
at bottom
Crack due to foundation
movement

Elastic Deformation

S.NO.
1
2
3
4
5

DESCRIPTION
Length of the crack
Width of the crack
Depth of the crack
Direction
Occurrence

Conclusion

AT THE SITE
6 feet
2 mm
1 mm
Diagonal
Joint between slab and
floor
Crack due to elastic
Deformation

Elastic Deformation

S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

AT THE SITE

1
2

Length of the crack


Width of the crack

11feet
3 mm

Depth of the crack

2 mm

Direction

Diagonal

Occurrence

External wall

Conclusion

Crack due to Elastic


Deformation

Queries

The End