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You are on page 1of 39

Lecture 1.

Outline

Introduction

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and

Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Introduction

Lecturers:

Lectures

Dr. Szabolcs Rzsa

Department of Geodesy and Surveying,

K. building groundfloor 16.

Practicals

Dr. Lrnt Fldvry

Department of Geodesy and Surveying,

K. building groundfloor 16.

Mr. Albert Kiss

Department of Geodesy and Surveying

K. building groundfloor 16.

Introduction

Course details:

First part of a two-semester-course

4 hours/week (equally divided between lectures

and practicals)

Communication:

Activities involve lectures, practicals, tutorials and

a field practice

Lectures - provide the theoretical background of the

topics

Practicals - practical sessions, in which Youll carry

out measurements and process them.

Tutorials - if theres a need for additional guidance

in the preparation for assessments. Please note that

You have to arrange an appointment in due time.

Field practice - a 9-day-long intensive course after

the course Surveying II.

Introduction

Attendance:

Please attend all scheduled lectures,

seminars and practicals

Please note: attendance falling below 70% may

lead to failing the course irrespective of the

academic performance.

Introduction

Classroom tests:

Altogether 4 classroom assessments:

Practicals 1-4 (10 points)

Using a theodolite must pass

Practicals 10-11 (10 points)

Theory (involving the topics of the lectures)

80 points

Course Evaluation:

classrom test to pass the course.

Introduction

Learning resources:

Some of the lecture notes are available for

download on the website of the department:

http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html

lectures, too.

Youll be suplied with computational sheets, field

notes etc. during the course.

Textbook:

A. Bannister - S. Raymond - R. Baker: Surveying

(Seventh Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998)

Cca. 16000 HUF

Website

Lecture notes can be downloaded from:

http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html

Website

Outline

Introduction

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and

Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Historical Surveying

What is Surveying?

The art of making measurements of the relative

positions of natural and man-made features on the

Earths surface, and the presentation of this

information either graphically or numerically.

Since when?

The first surveying works date back to the antiquity,

the Greek provided the first account of surveying

techniques.

Euclid founded the theoretical background for

surveying by the development of his geometry.

Historical Surveying

Eratosthenes

(ca. 250 BC)

Spherical Earth

Historical Surveying

Outline

Introduction

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Surveying vs. Geodesy

in most languages there are no distinctions

between the terms

in English (according to Vanicek - Krakiwsky):

Surveying: the practice of positioning

Geodesy: the theoretical foundation of

surveying

Surveying as a profession.

Surveying:

The art of making measurements of the relative

positions of natural and man-made features on the

Earths surface, and the presentation of this

information either graphically or numerically.

Geodesy:

Geodesy is the discipline that deals with the

measurements and representation of the Earth,

including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional

time varying space.

Geodesy focus on the Earth and neglect any manmade features on it (e.g. buildings, public utilities,

etc.), while surveying use the results of geodesy for

positioning and mapping of these features.

Recall the definition of Surveying:

positioning is usually

The art of making measurements of the The

relative

separated

positions of natural and man-made features

on theinto horizontal (2D)

Earths surface, and the presentation ofand

thisvertical (1D) positioning.

information either graphically or numerically.

be achieved using satellite

techniques, too.

Absolute vs Relative positioning

Y

XP

dBP

dAP

B

(XB,YB)

YP

Control points

(known coords;

marked on the field)

(XA,YA)

l AB

X

Lets determine the position of a third, unknown point

(C).

We have two unknowns: XP, YP

two distances

two angles

dBP

dAP

dAP

(XB,YB)

A

(XA,YA)

Classification of Surveying

Plane Surveying

involved:

surface of earth can supposed to

be flat

to be parallel, when the l(A,B) is

small.

horizontal projection of the actual

field measurements

Geodetic Surveying

Classification of Surveying

large areas

surface of the Earth can not supposed to be flat

the curvature of the Earth is taken into account

and shape of the Earth and determining the gravity field of the Earth.

In order to use the relative positioning, a proper number of

control points are needed. These points:

are coordinated points;

are marked.

Control Networks

Why is it necessary to have a common countrywide

coordinate system?

Many engineering tasks cover a large area (highways,

bridges, tunnels, channels, land registry, etc.), where the

common coordinate system (reference system) should be

available.

The Control Network provide us with control points given in

the same refence system (coordinate system).

Thus measuring the relative positions of unknown points

using these control points, the coordinates of the new

points can be computed in the same reference system.

Surveyors are needed:

to maintain the geometric order during the

construction process

to provide fundamental data for the design

and planning process

to provide quantity control during the

construction process (for example: earthwork

quantities)

to monitor the structure after the construction

(subsidence, deformations,

etc.)

What is this?

Wrong

the

structure geometry,

is not functional!

Laying geometry

them in the

appropriate

outstanding structures can be created!

Surveying activities during the construction

process

Before Construction

Under construction

After construction

Planning and

data collection

phase

of construction

Final (as-built)

plan or map

on the construction

Observations

in the field

Field checks of

construction

Presenting

documentation

to the client

Processing the

observations

(office)

Providing data

and services to

the client

Deformation

Monitoring/

Load Tests

Drawing maps,

plans or providing

numerical data

Presenting

documentation

to the client

Outline

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and

Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Question 1:

What does the height (elevation) of a point mean?

Question 2:

What does it mean, when point B is at a higher

elevation than point A?

Answer 1:

The height of a point represents its energy level

above a reference level.

Answer 2:

For example water flows from point B to point A.

Definition of height systems:

The potential energy of a point should be represented by the

height of a point. Hence water should flow from the higher

elevation towards the lower elevation.

Should have metric unit.

What is the 0 level?

Since the height systems should represent the potential

energy level, we need a reference surface, which is an

equipotential surface of Earths gravity field.

The surface of calm water forms an equipotential surface

Mean Sea Level Kronstadt (Baltic Sea) is used in Hungary

(formerly Triest, Adriatic Sea).

Equipotential surfaces

B

A

HB

HA

MSL

equipotential

surface

Equipotential surface

(=)

horizontal surface

Gravity vector

(=)

vertical direction

1D position determination - determining the height

We can not determine absolute heights above the

reference level

Relative height determination - determining the height

differences

Levelling benchmarks are needed - control points for

which the elevation is known.

B

H BA H B H A

A

HB

HA

Reference level

How can we determine the height difference?

Two solutions:

setting a horizontal plane, and measuring the offset from this

plane

measuring the slope and slope distance between the points

Levelling

Trigonometrical height determination

B

l AB

H BA H B H A

A

HB

HA

Reference level

Outline

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and

Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Line of sight

A

(lA)

lA

equipo

tential

surfac

e

lB

(lB)

HAB

B

HAB=lA-lB=(lA)- A-(lB)+ B

aphy

topogr

HAB=(lA)-(lB)

Levelling

Over short distances the horizontal line and level line coincide.

For a distance of 100m the effect of the curvature is less than 1 mm.

The levelling device (called level) must be set up so, that the line of sight

is perpendicular to the gravity vector (plumb line). -> the line of sight is

horizontal.

Horizontal

line of sight

Graduated staff

Level

Graduated staff

Difference

in height

Levelling

Outline

Historical Surveying

Surveying - Science and

Profession

Methods of height determination

Levelling

The surveyors level

Tilting level

Bubble tube

Diaphragm

Tilting screw

Circular bubble

Tilting axis

Levelling head

Tangent screw (slow motion screw) - to finely rotate the

telescope along a vertical axis

How to set the line of sight to be exactly horizontal?

More general: how to set anything to be exactly horizontal?

The radius determines the sensitivity of the bubble

tube:

R1

R2

R1 greater than R2

given amount of inclination. The more the bubble

moves, the more sensitive the bubble tube is.

The determination of sensitivity:

R1

R1

l2 l1

radians

L

l1

L

l2

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