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RS232 and RS485


Fundamental
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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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What:

RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Duration:

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Level:

Basic

c o d e e -v o lu tio n

RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

Modules Contents

What is RS232

RS-232 Signals

RS-232 Line Driver

RS-232 Speed

RS-232 SW settings

What is RS-485

RS-485 Line Driver

RS-485 Network

RS-485 Half-duplex

RS-485 Full-duplex

RS-485 and DL devices

RS-232 vs RS-458

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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What is RS-232

RS-232 is a popular communications interface for connecting


modems and data acquisition devices (i.e. GPS receivers,
electronic balances, data loggers, ...) to computers.

RS-232 can be plugged straight into the computers serial port


(know as COM or Comm port).

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-232 Signals

Architecturally RS-232 is a
bi-directional point to point
link.
(serial port - PC side)

Two independent channels are


established for two-way (fullduplex) communications.

RS-232 can also carry


additional signals used for flow
control (RTS, CTS) and modem
control (DCD, DTR, DSR, RI).

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-232 Signals

Common 25 pin D-shell connector pinout used for


asynchronous data communications.

Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
20
22

Signal
PGND Protective Ground
TXD Transmit Data
RXD Receive Data
RTS Ready To Send
CTS Clear To Send
DSR Data Set Ready
SG Signal Ground
CD Carrier Detect
DTR Data Terminal Ready
RI Ring Indicator

(serial port - PC side)

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-232 Line Driver

Unbalanced Line Drivers

Each signal appears on the interface connector as a voltage with


reference to a signal ground.

The idle state (MARK) has the signal level negative with
respect to common whereas the active state (SPACE) has the
signal level positive respest to the same reference.

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-232 Speed

How fast can RS-232 be?

The maximum speed, according to the standard, is 20kbit/s.


However, modern equipment can operate much faster than this. (i.e.
Lynx can reach 115200 baud.)

The length of the cable also plays a part in


maximum speed.
The longer the cable and the slower the speed at which you can obtain
accurate results.
A large wire capacitance and inductance limits the maximum length of
the cable and/or the maximum speed; Moreover higher is the
capacitance of the cable higer is the interference between two adjacent
signal wire.
50 feet (15m) @ max baudrate is commonly quoted as the maximum
distance.
It is not specified in EIA standard but its recommended respect these
values.

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-232 sw settings

One byte of async data has:

Start Bit = 1 (always)

Stop bits = 1 (or 2)

Data Bits = 8 (or 7)

Parity = NONE (or EVEN or ODD)

+ 25

- 25

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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What is RS-485

What is RS-485?
RS-485 is a EIA standard interface which is very common in the
data acquisition world

RS-485 provides balanced transmission line which also can be


shared in Multidrop mode.

It allows high data rates communications over long distances in


real world environments.

How fast can RS-485 be?

RS-485 was designed for greater distance and higher baudrates


than RS-232.

According to the standard, 100kbit/s is the maximum speed and


distance up to 4000 feet (1200 meters) can be achieved.

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

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RS-485 Line Driver

Balanced Line Drivers


Voltage produced by the driver appears across a pair of signal
wires that transmit only one signal. Both wires are driven opposite.

RS-485 driver has always the Enable direction control signal.

Differential system provides noise immunity, because much of the


common mode signal can be rejected by the receiver. So ground
shifts and induced noise signals can be nullified.

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

RS-485 Network

RS-485 provides Half-Duplex, Multidrop communications over a


single twisted pair cable.

The standard specifies


up to 32 drivers and
32 receivers can share
a multidrop network
Terminator resistors
avoid reflected signal

SLAVE-1

MASTER

SLAVE-2

SLAVE-3

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

RS-485 Half-duplex

Datalogic uses Half-Duplex configurations for Data Collecting


and Master/Slave layouts.

Usually we talk about Multidrop


network (i.e. MX4000,DPS9000)

RTX485+
RTX485TX
ENABLE
RX

485GND

TX
ENABLE

Slave 1

RX

TX
ENABLE

Slave 2

RX

TX
ENABLE
RX

Slave N

Master
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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

RS-485 Full-duplex

Potentially RS-485 interface can also use 4-wires to comunicate in


multidrop mode but...

TX485+
TX
ENABLE
RX

TX485-

TX
ENABLE

RX485+

RX

RX485485GND
Other device
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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

RS-232 vs RS-485

The architectural difference between RS-232 and RS-485 is


that 232 is a bi-directional point to point link, whereas 485 is
a single channel bus.

Electrically, each 232 signal uses a single wire with symmetric


voltages about a common ground wire. 485 uses two wires to
carry the single signal differentially.

The big difference to the software is that only one device on a


485 bus can transmit at a time, whilst there is not similar
limitation on RS232 because is a peer-to-peer link .

c o d e e -v o lu tio n

RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

RS-232 vs RS-485
RS-232

RS-485

Mode of Operation

Total Number of Drivers


1 DRIVER
32 DRIVER
and Receivers on One Line 1 RECEIVER
32 RECEIVER
Maximum Cable Length
50 FEET
4000 FEET
Maximum Data Rate @Max length
20kb/s 100kb/s
Driver Output Signal Level
(Loaded Min.)
Loaded +/-5V to +/-15V
+/-1.5V
Driver Output Signal Level
(Unloaded Max)
Unloaded
+/-25V +/-6V
Driver Load Impedance
3k to 7k
54

SINGLE-ENDED DIFFERENTIAL

Max. Driver Current in


High Z State
Power On

Max. Driver Current in


High Z State
Power Off
Slew Rate (Max.)
30V/S N/A
Receiver Input Voltage Range
Receiver Input Sensitivity
+/-3V
Receiver Input Resistance
3k to

N/A

N/A

+/-6mA @ +/-2v

+/-100uA

+/-15V -7V to +12V


+/-200mV
7k
12k
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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

Data Format and Protocols

Information content passing through peer-to-peer connection


is packed in a very simple structure:

<Header-string> <Code identifier ><INFO-FIELD><Terminatorstring>

<Header-string> and <Terminator-string> are both configurable


via software (device configuration parameters)

Most common generic Handshake are available/selectable with


RS232 interface:

Hardware (RTS-CTS)

Software XON/XOFF

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RS232 and RS485 Fundamental

Confidential Documentation

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