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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

AT

Based On

Double Sided Plated


Through Hole
Printed Circuit

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and


electrically connect electronic component using conductive pathways.

It is simply a plate made up of dielectric material with very thin layer


of copper on it.

The thickness of dielectric material(BASE) of PCB vary from .6 to 3.5


mm and thickness of Copper layer is between 17 to 35 micron

NEED OF PCB

Every electronic component has wire leads and PCB has holes drilled
for mechanical support and electronic connection of each wire of
every component.

These components' leads are then passed through the holes and
soldered to the PCB trace. Which makes electrical connection of
components with Conductive Pathways.

DISADVANTAGE OF SINGLE SIDED


PCB

In Single Sided PCBs Components are connected to each other via


copper tracks at one side, While Components are mounted on another
side.
In Single Sided PCBs we cant mount components on both sides.
Which Results in BIG Circuit
Boards as Shown

EVOLUTION OF DOUBLE SIDED


BOARDS

As Single Sided PCBs fails on large Space Requirement, Then Double


Sided PCBs has came into Practice.

Now, We can place Components as well as Current Pathways on both


sides.

But we have to make electrical connection With Jumper (a wire) which


may disconnected from circuit under certain Circumstances.

PTH BOARDS

Metallization of holes by copper plating has been practiced instead of


Jumper in 1950s.

Since

PWB

substrate

is

an

insulating

material,

and

therefore

nonconductive, holes must be metallized first before subsequent


copper plating can take place.

The usual metallization procedure is to catalyze the holes with


palladium catalyst followed by electroless
copper plating.

STEPS FOR PCB MAKING

Design Formation

Base Material Selection

Electro less Process

Screen Printing

Etching

Solder Masking

HAL

BBT

PCB DESIGN MAKING

Design and layout broadly includes the perspective of total system


hardware, which includes not only the printed circuit but each and
every component in its final form.

Which Includes Board size, Number of layers, Pad stack sizes, Hole
sizes, Layer thickness, Board thickness, Supply and ground layer
thickness and Component details with specifications

Factors that Vary Design are:-

Resistance & Conductor Dimensioning.

Electromagnetics.

Ground Considration.

SCHEMATIC CAPTURE

Draw Circuit as it is in computer or graph.

Analyze it.

You should have Correct Dimension Footprint of every Component in


Layout Plus also.

FORWARD ANNOTATION

Now we have to forward annotate the circuit into Layout Plus.

This Converts Schematic Components into Layout Foot Prints.

Now we have Components with Net List.

Net list is an Special Feature by which we can detect which pin of an


component is connected to another pin
of Component.

MANUAL CONNECTION &


AUTOROUTING

Now, our next step is to Inter Connect Components with each other
as per NETLIST.

One can also do this by AutoRouting.

You can start the autorouter by selecting Autoroute Board from


the menu bar. The autorouter will begin routing the board

DESIGNED PCB

3D VIEW
With 3d View we can check it out whether the physical appearance
of any
component may or may not overlap each other.

BASE MATERIAL

FR(Flame Retardent)-1, the most rarely used PCB material. In which


paper and phenol is used as laminate material.
FR-2,
FR-3, with Combination of Paper-Epoxy
FR-4, with glass-epoxy as laminate material. It is the most common
PCB material.

STEP -1 SHEARING

When copper-clad laminates are to be sheared, the shear should be


set with adequate Spacing between them.

Now we have to add some dimensions in design size as margin. Using


margin has a safety measure to protect the corners from any type of
damage during processing.

STEP-2 DRILLING

Usually we Drill holes with the help of CNC Drilling Machine.

For

Drilling,

We

create

program

according

to

our

Drilling

requirements . The bit of CNC machine moves in X & Y Direction for


Drilling a hole.

STEP-3 ELECTROLESS PROCESS

After Drilling, Now we have to make Drilled hole Conductive so that


current from one Side of PCB can flow to another without JUMPER.
We made this possible with the help of Electroless Process.
The function of the ELECTROLESS copper operation is to metalize the
entire board with a thin deposit of copper.
This Process includes processes like Cleaning, Activator solution Dip,
Copper Solution Dip etc.

ELECTROPLATING

Because we obtain a thin layer of copper at the surface inside the hole
of PCB so we have to make it thicker so that layer got RIGIDNESS

To Achieve this we do Electroplating In which, we deposit Copper from


anode(Copper Bar) to Cathode(PCB).
After electroplating now we have 20 microns of copper at the surface
of PCB.

NEGATIVE PRINTING

The photographic image is transferred to copper clad laminate by the


screen printing technique.
This technique has been used for a long time for printing cloth, panels
and so on, and reaches its maximum degree of accuracy when applied
to PCB manufacture

In the process of negative printing the portion where tracks and pads
are situated is kept open. Rest of the portion of PCB is covered with
etch resistive ink. User can use any color of etch resist ink.

ELECTROPLATING AND TINPLATING

Electroplating is done to increase the thickness of Tracks(paths) so


that it can withstand with more current and Voltage.
Now tin plating is also done on copper plated PCB tracks to protect
them from Ammonia Reaction during Etching.

AMMONIA ETCHING

Alkaline etching with ammonium hydroxide is increasingly used


because of its continuous operation, compatibility with most metallic
and organic resists, high capacity for dissolved copper, and fast etch
rates.
Etching solutions are operated at 120 to 130F and are well suited to
spray etching.
Efficient exhaust systems are required because ammonia fumes are
released during operation.
Cu + Cu(NH3)42+ 2Cu(NH3)4+
4Cu(NH3)2+ + 8NH3 + O2 + 2H2O 4Cu(NH4)42+ + 4OH-


GREEN MASKING

Masking is the process just same as the Screen printing process.


In this process the solder masking ink is used to avoid any cause of
short circuit.
The master artwork for solder resist pattern is prepared and then the
solder mask is applied to PCB by screen printing.
The PCBs are dried in air and then thermally cured in the hot air
electric oven at 120 C, for about 60 min.

HAL (HOT AIR LEVELLING)

The bare copper on the printed circuit board generally tends to


deteriorate with time resulting in an inferior appearance and making
soldering difficult.
So, we coat the remaining copper pads with Solder and tin mixture.
These solder coatings have very good shelf life, short solder wetting
time during assembly and very high mechanical stability.
Due to the presence of solder on copper, the PCB can withstand
multiple soldering and de-soldering operations during the assembly
cycle, with no adverse effect on the solderability of the board.

LEGEND PRINTING

To facilitate assembly and repair jobs, the position and the value of
the component is marked on each side of the PCB.
This process is same as masking and printing but white colored ink is
used at the place of green and blue.

FINAL SHEARING, ROUTING ETC.

As the last step of PCB Manufacturing ,final Shearing and Routing is


done.

Now we cut PCB according to original Required Size Required

Routing is the Process by which any desired shape is given to PCB like
circle, Triangular etc

BBT

Bare board testing generally checks for short-circuits between tracks and
continuity of tracks.

These tests can be performed by fully automatic machines which can test up to
50,000 nodes and networks.

The cuts and shorts in case of single-sided and double-sided PCBs can also be
detected by the age-old method of visual inspection by optical means.

Visual inspection is a very manual approach in that it makes use of people,


good lighting, some type of training defining what is acceptable and what is
not, and good operator judgment.

Usually a comparison to a known good product or the artwork is made.


If the operator has seen the board often, he or she becomes more skilled at
finding faults and looking for faults in likely locations.

As product complexity has increased, we find that many modern products are
not suited to this method.

BBT

CAPITAL REQUIRED TO SETUP PCB INDUSTRY


SINGLE SIDED PCB INDUSTRY COST
Starts from Rs. 5,00,000 (without Land
and Building)
DOUBLE SIDED PCB INDUSTRY COST
Starts from Rs. 25,00,000 (Without Land
and Building)
MULTI LAYER PCB INDUSTRY COST
Starts From Rs. 5,00,00,000 (Without land
and Building)

THANKS!!...