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Technology Project
Management
by Jack T. Marchewka

Power Point Slides by Jack T Marchewka, Northern Illinois University

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Chapter 11
Managing Organizational
Change, Resistance, and
Conflict

Learning Objectives

Describe the discipline of organizational change management and its


role in assessing the organizations readiness and capability to
support and assimilate a change initiative.
Describe how change can be viewed as a process and identify the
emotional responses people might have when faced with change.
Describe the framework for managing change that will be introduced.
Apply the concepts and ideas in this chapter in order to develop a
change management plan. This plan should focus on assessing the
organizations willingness and ability to change, developing a change
strategy, implementing and tracking the progress toward achieving
the change and then evaluating whether the change was successful,
and documenting the lessons learned from those experiences.
Discuss the nature of resistance and conflict and apply several
techniques for dealing with conflict and resistance in an efficient and
effective way.

IT Systems can be a
technical success but an
organizational failure.

False Beliefs
People want this change.
Monday morning well turn on the new system and
theyll use it.
A good training program will answer all of their
questions and then theyll love it.
Our people have been through a lot of changewhats
one more change going to matter?
We see the need for helping our people adjust, but we
had to cut something
They have two choices: they can change or they can
leave.

However, the results may be


quite different
The change may not occur.
People will comply for a time and then do
things to get around the change.
Users will accept only a portion of the
change.
The full benefits of the project are never
realized or are realized only after a great
deal of time and resources have been
expended.

Change Management

The transforming of the organization


so it is aligned with the execution of
a chosen corporate business
strategy. It is the management of
the human element in a large-scale
change project.
Gartner Group

Reactions to Change
What changes are you currently
experiencing?
School
Family
Personal

We have all been through change - but


how do we think about and manage it?

Future Shock

Assimilation Points Used

Assimilation is the process we use to


adjust to positive or negative changes.

Figure 11.1

Change
Threshold

The Nature of Change


Whether we view change as positive
(anticipation) or negative (dread), there is
a certain amount of stress that
accompanies each change.
Change is a Process
Change is Emotional
Change has an Impact

Change is a Process
Driving Forces

Present
State

Unfreezing

Force Field Analysis Lewin, 1951

Resisting Forces

Transition
State

Changing

Desired
State
Refreezing

Figure 11.2

Change Can be Emotional


active

Emotional
Response
anger
acceptance

bargaining
stability

passive

denial
shock

Elizabeth Kubler- Ross, 1969

testing
depression

Time

Change Has an Impact


On Different Areas of the Organization
People

Structure

Technology

Task
Figure 11.4: Leavitts Model of Organizational Change

Reactions to Change
Change may
be an ending
mean giving something up
be stressful
be easier for those initiating the change
provide a basis for resistance and conflict
change the rules for success

The Change Management Plan

Figure 11.3

Assess Willingness, Readiness,


and Ability to Change
Sponsor
Initiating vs. sustaining sponsor

Change Agents
The project manager and team

Targets of Change
The users
Must understand
The real impacts of the change
The breadth of change
Whats over and whats not
Whether the rules for success have changed

Develop or Adopt a Strategy for


Change
RationalEmpirical Approach
Picture, Purpose, Part to Play

Normative-Reeducation Approach
Focus on the core values, beliefs, and established
relationships that make up the culture of the group.

Power-Coercive Approach
Compliance through the exercise of power

Environmental-Adaptive Approach
Although people may avoid disruption and loss, they
can still adapt to change

Implement the Change Management


Plan and Track Progress
Communication
Watch out for the rumor mill!
Media is important
Must flow in both directions
What you dont say is as important as what
you do say!
Hit the circle!

Evaluate Experience and


Develop Lessons Learned
Experiences should be documented and
made available to other project teams
Lessons learned provide a foundation for
knowledge management and can be used
to create new best practices

DEALING WITH RESISTANCE


AND CONFLICT

Resistance should be anticipated from the outset of the


project. Rumors and gossip will add fuel to the fire and
the change effort can easily run out of steam if those
affected by the change begin to resist. Resistance can
be either overt, in the form of memos, meetings, etc., or
covert, in the form of sabotage, foot dragging, politicking,
etc. Once the change is compromised, management
and the project team will lose credibility, and the
organization may become resistant to all future changes.

Although conflict is one of the things most of us


dislike intensely, it is inevitable. Most often when
we try to avoid conflict, it will nevertheless seek us
out. Some people wrongly hope that conflict will go
away if it is ignored. In fact, conflict ignored is more
likely to get worse, which can significantly reduce
project performance. The best way to reduce
conflict is to confront it.
(Verma, 1998, p. 367)

Types of Conflict
Traditional View
All conflict should be avoided
why cant we all just get along?

Contemporary View
Conflict is inevitable and natural
Positive conflict stimulates ideas
Lets agree to disagree!

Negative Conflict can be damaging

Interactionist View
Conflict is necessary for performance
Devils advocate

Approaches to Conflict
Avoidance
Retreat, withdraw, or ignore conflict

Accommodation
Appease the parties in conflict

Forcing
Dominant authority resolves conflict

Compromise
Bargaining

Collaboration
Confronting and attempting to solve the problem by
incorporating different ideas, viewpoints, and perspectives.

Choosing the Best Approach


Each conflict situation is unique and the choice
of an approach to resolve conflict depends on:
Type of conflict and its relative importance to the
project.
Time pressure to resolve the conflict.
Position of power or authority of the parties involved.
Whether the emphasis is on maintaining the goals or
objectives of the project or maintaining relationships.

A dilemma seeks to obtain both


goals simultaneously, not
eschew either.
Robert McLaren
Organizational Dilemmas

Overcoming Resistance
Polarity Mapping
(Barry Johnson: Polarity Mapping:Identifying &
Managing Unsolvable Problems)

Polarities are defined as any pair of


independent opposites
centralization vs. decentralization
individual vs. team
stability vs. change

We often frame pairs of choices, when in fact


a better approach is to recognize the good/bad
of each and strive for the best of both.

Polarity Mapping
Helps people get away from seeing only their
current initiative as being the solution to the
problem
Recognizes that one half of the polarity must be
managed Not a case of choosing one idea over another

New Terminology
Crusaders
those who want to shift emphasis to a
different pole

Tradition Bearers
those who recognize the upside of the current
pole and the downside of the pole the
Crusaders are advocating

Everyones concerns are valid to ensure


the success of the shift - not inhibit it

Polarity Mapping

Polarity Mapping

Pursue the upsides


Attempt to avoid the downsides
Provides relief for those with valid concerns
Avoids labeling one as not being a team
player or as a resistor

For those advocating a change, it forces them


to recognize that an initiative can only be
successful if the upsides, or positive aspects,
are carried forward in the new environment.

Successful change management means


understanding that change is difficult,
treating people humanely, allowing time
for them to turn the corner, and trading
your control for their individual selfdirection and ingenuity.

Hamilton Strategic Management Group, Inc.