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Fundamentals of Human

Resource Management
Eighth Edition

DeCenzo and Robbins

Chapter 9
Managing Careers

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Introduction
• Traditionally, career
development referred to
programs offered by
organizations to help
employees advance within
the organization.
• Today, each individual
must take responsibility for
his or her career.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Introduction
• Organizations now focus on
matching the career needs of
employees with the requirements
of the organization.
• While many organizations still
invest in their employees, they
don’t offer career security and
they can’t meet the needs of
everyone in a diverse workforce.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
• Definition
– Pattern of work-related experiences that
span the course of a person’s life.
– Reflects any work, paid or unpaid.
– Broad definition helpful in today’s work
environment where employees and
organizations have diverse needs.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
Individual versus Organizational
Perspective
– Organizational career planning –
Developing career ladders, tracking
careers, providing opportunities for
development.
– Individual career development –
Helping employees identify their
goals and steps to achieve them.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
• Career Development versus
Employee Development
– Career development looks at the long-term
career effectiveness and success of
organizational personnel.
– Employee training and development
focuses on performance in the immediate
or intermediate time frames.
?

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
Value for the Organization
1. Ensures needed talent will be available.
2. Improves the organization's ability to
attract and retain talented employees.
3. Ensures that minorities and women get
opportunities for growth and
development.
4. Reduces employee frustration.
5. Enhances cultural diversity.
6. Promotes organizational goodwill.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
Value for the Individual
• Individuals’ external career
success is measured by criteria
such as:
– progression up the hierarchy, type of
occupation, long-term commitment,
and income.
• Internal career success is
measured by the meaningfulness
of one’s work and achievement of
personal life goals.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins
What is a Career?
Mentoring and Coaching
• Effective coaches give guidance through
direction, advice, criticism, and suggestion in
an attempt to aid the employee’s growth.
• Mentors are typically senior-level employees
who:
– support younger employees by vouching for them
– answering for them in the “highest circles”
– introducing them to others
– advising and guiding them through the corporate
system

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


What is a Career?
Mentoring and Coaching
• Disadvantages include:
– tendencies to perpetuate current styles and practices
– reliance on the coach’s ability to be a good teacher
• Considerations for organizations:
– coaching between employees who do not have a
reporting relationship
– ways to effectively implement cross-gender
mentoring

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Traditional Career Stages

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Traditional Career Stages
Exploration
• Includes school and early work
experiences, such as
internships.
• Involves:
– trying out different fields
– discovering likes and dislikes
– forming attitudes toward work
and social relationship patterns
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins
Traditional Career Stages
Establishment
• Includes:
– search for work
– getting first job
– getting evidence of “success” or “failure”
• Takes time and energy to find a “niche”
and to “make your mark”.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Traditional Career Stages
Mid-Career
• Challenged to remain
productive at work.
• Employee may:
– continue to grow
– plateau (stay competent but not
ambitious)
– deteriorate

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Traditional Career Stages
Late career
– Successful “elder states persons” can
enjoy being respected for their judgment.
Good resource for teaching others.
– Those who have declined may
experience job insecurity.
– Plateauing is expected; life off the job
increases in importance.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Traditional Career Stages
Decline (Late Stage)
• May be most difficult for those
who were most successful at
earlier stages.
• Today’s longer life spans and
legal protections for older
workers open the possibility for
continued work contributions,
either paid or volunteer.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins
Career Choices and
Preferences
• Good career choice outcomes provide
positive self-concept and opportunity to
do work we think is important.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Career Choices and
Preferences
Holland Vocational Preferences
• Three major components
– People have varying occupational
preferences
– If you think your work is important, you will
be a more productive employee
– You will have more in common with people
who have similar interest patterns

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Career Choices and
Preferences
Holland Vocational
Preferences
• Model identifies six
vocational themes
– Realistic
– Investigative
– Artistic
– Social
– Enterprising
– Conventional
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins
Career Choices and
Preferences
• Holland Vocational Preferences
– Preferences can be matched to work
environments; for example, social-
enterprising-conventional preference
structure matches career ladder in large
bureaucracy.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Career Choices and
Preferences
The Schein Anchors
• Personal value clusters determine what
is important to individuals.
– technical-functional competence
– managerial competence
– security-stability
– creativity
– autonomy-independence
• Success of person-job match
determines individual’s fit with the job.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins
Career Choices and
Preferences
Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies
• Four personality dimensions:
– Extraversion-Introversion
– Sensing-Intuitive
– Thinking-Feeling
– Judging-Perceiving

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Career Choices and
Preferences
Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies
• Assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) and identify 16
different personality types.
• Job characteristics can be matched to
individual preferences.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins


Enhancing Your Career
The individual holds primary responsibility for
his/her career. Suggestions on how to do that
are:

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins