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Random Access Special Topic

ZTE University

Objects
After

the course,you will:

Know the details of channel and channel mapping


Understand UE power on procedure
Master UE random access procedure
Master UE initial attach procedure

Content
LTE channel introduction and channel mapping
UE power on procedure
UE random access procedure
Random access special scenarios application
UE attach signalling flow

LTE physical channel introduction

LTE downlink physical channel

Broadcast channel PBCH


Control channel PCFICH PHICH PDCCH
Service channel PDSCH
MBMS channel PMCH

LTE uplink physical channel

Control channel PUCCH


Service channel PUSCH
Random access channel PRACH

Downlink physical channel

PBCH ( Physical Broadcast Channel )

BCCH includes MIB and SIB MIB is mapping on


PBCH,SIB is mapping on PDSCH.
PBCH is in the first 4 OFDM symbols of subframe 0 1
time slot on time domain, and 6 central RBs on
frequecydomain,modulation is QPSK.
MIB includes downlink system bandwidth, system frame
number (SFN), PHICH duration.

Downlink physical channel

Control Channel PCFICH

PCFICH : Physical Control Format Indicator Channel


PCFICH are transmitted in each sub-frame, informing
UE of the OFDM symbols that PDCCH occupies in a
sub-frame. The OFDM symbols are indicated by CFI
which can be valued as 1, 2, 3, 4 (4 is reserved).
Modulation is QPSK
PCFICH is mapped to the four resource-element groups
in the first OFDM symbol in a downlink subframe.

Downlink physical channel

Control channel: PHICH

PHICH: Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel


Send NAK/ACK responding information for the PHICH
modulation is BPSK.
Multiple PHICH can be sent in a group at the same time.

ACK/NACK

1 PHICH group=8 PHICHs (normal cp)


1 PHICH group=4 PHICHs (extend cp)

Repetition
(RF=3)

Layer
Mapping

Modulation

Spreading &
scrambling

Precoding

RE mapping

OFDM
modulation

Downlink physical channel

Control channel: PDCCH

PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel


PDCCH sends scheduling information, transmission format,
resource allocation, uplink scheduling permission, power
control and uplink-transmission-related ACK/NACK.
PDCCH is mapped to the first n (n<=4) OFDM symbols in
each sub-frame. The value of n is indicated by CFI in the
PCFICH channel.
PDCCH supports 4 types of physical-layer formats which
occupy one, two, four, and eight CCEs respectively.

Downlink physical channel

Service Channel: PDSCH

PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel


PDSCH Bears service data, L3 signalling message,
paging and SIB information.
Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM.

Downlink physical channel

MBMS Channel: PMCH

Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)


If MBMS is support, MBMS sends cell MBMS broadcast
information.
Modulation:QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Downlink channel mapping


BCCH

PCCH

CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

MCCH

MTCH

Logical channel

Transmission channel
BCH

PCH

DL-SCH

MCH

Physical channel
PBCH

PDSCH

PDCCH

PMCH

Uplink physical channel

Control Channel PUCCH

PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel


PUCCH periodically feed back different CQI, PMI, RI,
HARQ-ACK SR.
For the same UE, PUCCH does not transmit with PUSCH.
PUCCH format:
PUCCH
format
1
1a
1b
2
2a
2b

Content
SR
ACK/NACK
ACK/NACK
CQI
CQI+ACK/NACK
CQI+ACK/NACK

Modylation
N/A
BPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK+BPSK
QPSK+BPSK

Size
N/A
1
2
20
21
22

Uplink physical channel

Service Channel: PUSCH

PUSCH : Physical Uplink Shared Channel


PUSCH Bears service data, L3 signalling message
Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM.
Localized resource allocation for PUSCH, consecutive
RBs are allocated to users PUSCH.

Uplink physical channel

PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel

During the random access procedure, UE send preamble


on PRACH.
PRACH occupies 6 RBs on frequency domain.
PRACH time domain structure

Preamble: CP + Sequence
There is a guarding interval behind Preamble.

Uplink physical channel

PRACH

Preamble generated by the Zadoff-Chu sequence in


zero-related region.
xu n e

un ( n 1)
N ZC

, 0 n N ZC 1

5 different preamble format:

Uplink physical channel

PRACH time damain format

Uplink physical channel

PRACH

Format0~3 frequency domain location

Subcarrier interval is 1.25KHz, 1/12 of normal subcarrier


bandwidth.
1 PRACH include 864 subcarrier (61212=864).
The length of preamble sequences is 839, mapped on the central
839 subcarrirs.

Uplink physical channel

PRACH

Format4 frequency domain location

Subcarrier interval 7.5KHz , half of normal subcarrier bandwidth.


1 PRACH include 144 subcarrier (6122=144) .
The length of preamble sequences is 139, mapped on the central
139 subcarrirs.

Uplink channel mapping

CCCH

DCCH

DTCH
Logical channel

Transmission channel
RACH

UL-SCH

Physical channel
PRACH

PUCCH

PUSCH

Physical layer signals

Downlink Physical Signal

Reference Signal

Synchronization Signal

Cell-Specific Reference Signal (CRS)


MBSFN Reference Signal
UE-Specific RS/Dedicate RS(DRS)
PSS : Primary Synchronization signal
SSS : Secondary Synchronization signal

Uplink Physical Signal

Demodulation RS(DMRS)
Sounding RS(SRS)

Downlink physical layer signals

Function of downlink reference signal

Downlink channel quality measurement


Downlink channel estimate, for UE to demodulate data
Downlink synchronization

Function of cell-specific reference signal

Cell-specific reference signals shall be transmitted in all


downlink subframes in a cell supporting PDSCH
transmission.
Cell-specific reference signals are transmitted on one or
several of antenna ports 0 to 3.
Cell-specific reference signals are defined for subcarrier
interval is 15kHz only.

Downlink physical layer signal

Cell-Specific Reference Signal

The RS location has the relation with PCI, antenna port


number, OFDM symbol sequence, slot number, CP mode,etc.

Normal CP Cell ID=0

Extend CP Cell ID=0

Downlink physical layer signal

MBSFN Reference Signal

Transmitted only when the PMCH is


transmitted. MBSFN reference signals are
transmitted on antenna port 4.
Defined for extended cyclic prefix only.

Extended CP f=15kHz

Extended CP
f=7.5kHz

Downlink physical layer signals

UE-Specific Reference Signal

Send to a dedicated user, the eNodeB will indicate sending this


signal or not, and indicate UE to demodulate use the signal or not.
Only transmitted on the RBs bearing PDSCH, using the antenna
port 5.

Normal CP 15kHz

Extend CP 15kHz

Downlink synchronization signals

LTE Synchronization Signal

PSS : Primary Synchronization Signal


SSS : Secondary Synchronization Signal

Function of Synchronization Signal

Get Physical Cell ID

Downlink synchronization

Dectect SSS to get PCI group number(0-167)


Dectect PSS to get ID in group(0-2)
PCI=3*group number+ID in group
PSS: 5ms synchronization
SSS: 10ms synchronization

Identify it is a FDD or TDD system and CP mode.

Downlink synchronization signals

SCH includes P_SCH and S_SCH. The frequency-domain


is located in the 72 subcarriers near direct current. Only 62
subcarriers are actually occupied. Other 10 subcarriers do
not hold synchronization sequences.
There are two same P-SCHs in a wireless frame. Their
time-domain is located in the last symbol of the slot no.0
and the last symbol of the slot no. 10.
There are also two S-SCHs
in a wireless frame. But their
x5 x 2 1
synchronization symbols are different. The time-domain is
located in the last symbol but one of the slot no.0, and the
last symbol but one of the slot no. 10.

Downlink synchronization signals

FS1, Normal CP

FS2, Extend CP

Uplink physical layer signal

DMRS( for PUSCH)

Generated by Zad-off Chu


seqence,maping on RE
without any proceess.
Transmitted on 4th OFDM
symbol of each slot, the
bandwidth of DMRS is same
with PRB for PUSCH.
Differerent users DMRS
sequence will have different
cyclic shift.

Normal CP

Uplink physical layer signal

Sounding RS: SRS

Used for uplink channel quality estimate and selection, uplink


scheduling.
Location: last SC-FDMA symbol of uplink subframe which configured
to send SRS, for UpPTS all the symbols can be used to transmit SRS.
SRS sub-frame configuration: UE read the broadcast information to
get which subframe will send SRS.
Duration: eNodeB will notice UE to send SRS once or all the time.
Period: eNodeB will notice SRS transmiting period, it can support 2
5 10 20 40 80 160ms

FDD Downlink Channel Location

FDD Downlink Channel Location

TDD Downlink Channel Location

Content
LTE channel introduction and channel mapping
UE power on procedure
UE random access procedure
Random access special scenarios application
UE attach signalling flow

LTE Physical Layer Procedure: Synchronization


Downlink initial synchronization:

UE searches cell, detects the

Downlink synchronization holding:

After cell search, UE measures

PSS and SSS to get the

the downlink signal arrival time

downlink initial synchronization.

periodically, adjusts the


downlink initial synchronization.

Uplink initial synchronization:

Uplink synchronization holding:

UE sends preamble on PRACH

eNodeB detects preamble,

reference signal, generates the

sends timing adjustment to UE.

time adjustment send to UE.

UE adjusts the sending time

eNodeB detects the uplink

UE receives TA information and

according to the timing

adjusts the uplink sending time

adjustment.

to hold uplink synchronization.

UE Power on Procedure

UE Power on Procedure

PLMN selection and cell selection

P-SCH S-SCH and PBCH has the same width and


position for all system bandwidth options. So UE can do
the cell search without kowning the system bandwith.

UE Power on Procedure

PLMN selection and cell selection


Automatic mode

Manual Mode

PLMN Selection
Indication to user
Location
Registration
response

PLMNs
available

PLMN
selected

Cell Selection
and Reselection

NAS Control
Radio measurements

Registration
Area
changes
Service requests

Location
Registration

UE Power on Procedure

PLMN selection

UE scan the whole channel in the band according to its


frequecy capability to find a available PLMN. UE will
search the cell with the strongest signal, and then read
the cell broadcast information to get the PLMN. If UE
read one or more than PLMN in one cell, UE will report
all the PLMN as the high quality PLMN whose signal
strength satisfy a dedicated threshold to the NAS layer.
If UE can read PLMN ID, but the signal strength doesnt
satisfy a dedicated threshold, UE also will report PLMN
to NAS layer with the measurment value.
PLMN selection result is given by NAS layer.
After selecting PLMN, UE will select serving cell.

UE Power on Procedure

Cell search purpose

Detect the Physical Cell-ID


Get the downlink time and frequency synchronization
Detect CP format normal or extended format
Detect eNodeB antenna port number
Read PBCH (Master Information Block)

Get system bandwidth, system frame number (SFN), PHICH


duration

UE Power on Procedure

Cell search type: Initial and Stored Information Cell Selection


Initial Cell Selection: According to its capability, UE scan
the whole channel in the band and find the best serving
cell on each carrier, if UE find, it wil select the cell as the
serving cell.
Stored Information Cell Selection: UE select the cell
according to the pre-stored cell frequency information.If
UE finds a proper cell, it will select this one as the serving
cell, or UE will initiate Initial Cell Selection.

UE Power on Procedure

Cell search

UE read the broadcast information

Content
LTE channel introduction and channel mapping
UE power on procedure
UE random access procedure
Random access special scenarios application
UE attach signalling flow

UE Random Access Procedure

Random access characteristic

Exists in both TD-LTE and FDD-LTE.


No relation with the scale of cell.
Divided into competitive and non- competitive random
access.

purpose of random access

During attach procedure


UE status changed from idle to connected.
During handover procedure
Get/ recover uplink synchronization
Request UE ID from eNodeB
Request uplink resoure from eNodeB

UE Random Access Procedure

Random access process can be used in the


following situations:

Access at RRC_IDLE status


Access when the wireless link fault occurs
Access in changeover
Access at RRC_Connected status

When there are downlink data (eg. The uplink is at nonsynchronization status.)
When there are uplink data (eg. The uplink is at nonsynchronization status or no PUCCH resource can be used for
scheduling request.)

UE Random Access Procedure

Random access categories:

Random access based on competitiveness

Used in the five mentioned situations


UE selects a preamble sequence randomly in the available
preamble set in a competitive way.
Possible collision: two UEs use the same preamble sequence.
Perform the synchronization process through four steps. The
fourth step is used to solve the collision.

Random access based on non-competitiveness

In handover or when the downlink data arrives


The eNB allocates a preamble sequence.
Perform the synchronization through three steps without solving
the collision.

UE Random Access Procedure

Preamble categories:

Preamble ID number depend on configuration,maxmum


64 0~63

Preamble A: 0~59
Preamble B: 4~59
Dedicated Preamble(remaining ID)

RA
UL
0 n PRBoffset
N RB
6

PRACH frequency domain location

First RB Number is congiured by L3 on OMC.

UE Random Access Procedure

Random Access Based on Competitiveness

UE Random Access Procedure

MSG1 send preamble sequence on PRACH

According to root sequence number, cyclic shift and


preamble formats , UE generates the preamble sequence.
Select preamble in group A/B randomly according to the
MSG3 size and pathloss information, then send the
preamble on PRACH.
According to the target PRACH received power, preamble
formats in BCCH and transmitting counter, UE caculates
the PRACH initial emission power.
eNB according to the received preamble measurement,
estimates the distance between UE and eNB,generates
the timing ajdustment.

UE Random Access Procedure

MSG2 Random Access Response

eNB Send RAR on the PDSCH, the location is indicated


by PDCCH and No HARQ.
MSG2 content:

Preamble indication
Timing adjustment information
Temporary C-RNTI
Msg3 resource allocation information

UE detects RA response in a time window after sending


MSG1. If UE fails to receive the RA respondence in a
time window, this RA process is terminated, otherwise it
goes to step3.

UE Random Access Procedure

MSG3

According to MSG2 TPC indication, estimate pathloss and RB number


forPUSCH, UE cacaulates the MSG3 transmitting power. Its open
loop power control.
According to random access response, UE send MSG3 on dedicated
resource. MSG3 needs HARQ.

MSG3 content:

In attach send RRC Connection Request on CCCH, include


NAS UE ID and establishment cause, but no NAS signalling
message.
In RRC Connection Re-establishment: Send RRCConnection
ReestablishmentRequest on CCCH no NAS message
In handover send Handover Confirm on DCCH with UE C-RNTI.
Other (uplink or downlink arrives):send UE C-RNTI.

UE Random Access Procedure

MSG4 contention resolution

Collision detect: eNB sends contention resolution ID ( UE


NAS ID ) on PDSCH or send C-RNTI on PDCCH to UE.
With HARQ
MSG4 content:

UE NAS ID
Resource allocation information

UE

If UE finds its own NAS-layer ID is sending, UE sends ACK and


temporary C-RNTI becomes C-RNTI.Uplink synchronization
finish.UE waits for being schedulled and send data on uplink.
If UE fails to detect NAS ID, there is a collision, UE waits a random
time and do random access again.

UE Random Access Procedure

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness

UE Random Access Procedure

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness

1) eNB send non-contention


Random Access Preamble to
UE,and this preamble is not
broadcasted in the Broadcast
information channel.

UE Random Access Procedure

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness

2)UE send dedicated preamble on RACH.


3) eNB generates the RAR on MAC layer, and send the
RAR in DL-SCH,random access success.

Content
LTE channel introduction and channel mapping
UE power on procedure
UE random access procedure
Random access special scenarios application
UE attach signalling flow

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness:


Scenario 4

eNB MSG0

Send Msg0 on PDCCH


Include Dedicated Preamble
and Mask Index
With HARQ
Initiated reason

UE is out of synchronization on
uplink,
Downlink data coming

No need to allocateC-Rnti in
Msg2

UE

UE

UE is Out of synchronization
and monitoring to receive
PDCCH order;
Send Msg1 with dedicated
preamble
Msg3 is not useful if there is
data ,sending data , or
sendingPadding

Msg0: Dedicated
Preamble ID
Mask Index
Msg1:
preamble

Msg2: RA response on
PDSCH
Delay about
5ms

eNB

Min delay
2ms

2
Timer

Msg3: connection
requirement, ect

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness:


Scenario 4 UE leave

eNB send MSG0 on PDCCH

Msg0 is send on PDCCH


Include Dedicated Preamble
and Mask Index
With HARQ
Initiated reason

UE

Out of Sync
Timer

UE is out of synchronization on
uplink,
Start timer and timer is time out.

purpose suspecting UE
leaving, so release connection
to avoid UE process hanging
No need to allocateC-Rnti in
Msg2
UE hardware problem or power
off, not camping in the network.

eNB

UE

Msg0: Dedicated
Preamble ID
Mask Index
Msg1:
preamble

Msg2: RA response on
PDSCH
Delay about
5ms

Min delay
2ms

2
Timer

Msg3: connection
requirement, ect

Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness :


Scenario 3

eNB send MSG0 on PDCCH

UE

Msg0 is send on PDCCH


Include Dedicated Preamble
and Mask Index
With HARQ
Initiated reason

Source eNB apply


dedicated preamble from
target eNB and then send
preamble to UE.

UE

Monitor to receive PDCCH


order.
Send Msg1 with dedicated
preamble

S-eNB

T-eNB

Measure
Report
Dedicated
Preamble
Mask Index

Msg0: Dedicated
Preamble ID
Mask
Index
Msg1:

preamble

Msg2: RA response on
PDSCH

Delay about
5ms

Msg3: connection requirement,


ect

Min delay
2ms

Random Access Based on Competitiveness:


Scenario 5

eNB

No need MSG4

Send Temporary C-Rnti in RAR.


MAC identifying Msg3 is for UE
re-synchronization
MAC notice L3 that UE resynchronization success.
L3 send RRC Connection
Reconfiguration to re-setup
connection.

UE

Uplink data coming but uplink is


at non synchronization.
Send RA request
Include C-Rnti in Msg3,and
scrambling MSG3 by Temporary
C-Rnti.

UE

eNB
Msg1: preamble

min delay
2ms
Msg2: RA response on PDSCH

Delay about
5ms
Msg3: connection requirement, ect

Content
LTE channel introduction and channel mapping
UE power on procedure
UE random access procedure
Random access special scenarios application
UE attach signalling flow

UE attach

Attach flow

UE attach

NAS connection setup

Rrcconection setup

S1connection setup

UE attach

Attach/dettach signalling flow