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Naming

Covalent
Molecules
9.2
Naming Molecules
 Binary molecular compound
 Covalently bonded compound containing only two
different elements
 Composed of 2 different nonmetals
 No ions or metals
Naming Binary Molecular
Compounds
1.Name the 1st element first using complete name.
2.Name the 2nd element using the root of the
element and adding the suffix –ide
3.Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms
that are present in the compound
1. Exception: first element in formula never uses
mono-
4.Hydrogen bonded to 7A halogens (drop mono)

Prefixes Nonmetal roots
H - hyd
1 - mon(o)
 C - carb
 2 - di
 N - nitr
 3 - tri
 P - phosph
 4 - tetr(a)
 As - arsen
 5 - pent(a)
 O - ox
 6 - hex(a)
 S - sulf
 7 - hept(a)
 Se - selen
 8 - oct(a)
 F - fluor
 9 - non(a)
 Cl - chlor
 10 - dec(a)
 Br - brom
 I - iod
Practice problems:
1.CO 1.Carbon monoxide
2.P2O5 2.Diphosphorus pentoxide
3.CCl4 3.Carbon tetrachloride
4.As2O3 4.Diarsenic trioxide
5.Nitrogen trifluoride
5.NF3
6.Sulfur dioxide
6.SO2
7.
More practice…
1.H2O 
Di hydrogen monoxide
Nitrogen trihydride
2.NH3
Dinitrogen tetrahydride
3.N2H4
Dinitrogen monoxide
4.N2O
Nitrogen monoxide

5.NO
1. 1.Water
2.Ammonia
Common
3.Hydrazine
names
4.Nitrous oxide
5.Nitric oxide
6.
Acids
 Molecules can be put in aqueous solution
(water) and they make acids
 Compound classified as an ACID if it releases
H+ ions when put in water solution
 Only name acids if molecule is put in water!!!
 Two types
 BinaryAcids
 Oxyacids
Binary Acids
 Hydrogen & one other element
 Sometimes there are more than 2 elements
 To name hydrogen, use prefix Hydro-
 Second element use Root (or form of root)
followed by suffix –ic
 If there are more than 2 elements involved, use the
root of the polyatomic ion that acid contains
 Add the word acid to the end
 Example: HCl
 Hydrochloric acid
 Example: HCN
 Hydrocyanic acid


Oxyacids
 Acidsthant contain OXYANION
 What is an oxyanion?
 Polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
 First:Determine anion present
 Use a form of the root of the anion
 Add suffix
 Anion suffix –ate….oxyacid suffix= -ic
 Anion suffix –ite….oxyacid suffix= -ous
 Add the word acid
 Example:HNO3
 Oxyanion: nitrate NO3-
 Oxyacid name: nitric acid Hydrogen is
 Example:HNO2 not named in
 Oxyanion: nitrite NO2- oxyacids!!!
 Oxyacid: nitrous acid
Naming acids summary
Practice…
1.HI 1.Hydroiodic acid
2.HClO3 2.Chloric acid
3.H2SO4 3.Sulfuric acid
4.H2S 4.Hydrosulfuric acid
5.Chlorous acid
5.HClO2

First determine if it’s a Binary


acid or an oxyacid
Name to formulas
 Write the symbols for the elements in the
order mentioned in the name.
 Write subscripts indicated by the prefixes. If
the first part of the name has no prefix,
assume it is mono.
 Prefixes tell you SUBscripts for each element
 Example
 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4

Writing Formulas for Binary
Covalent Compounds: Examples
1 mono
2 di
nitrogen dioxide NO2
3 tri
4 tetra
5 penta diphosphorus pentoxide P2O5
6 hexa
7 heptaa
8 octa
xenon tetrafluoride XeF4
9 nona
10 deca sulfur hexafluoride SF6
* Second element in
‘ide’ from

* Drop –a & -o
before ‘oxide’
Air Pollution Class Work
Formula of Name of Formula of Name of Acid
Pollutant Molecule Acid
 Many common air
pollutants form
acids when
SO2
dissolved in a
water solution
 Complete the
Carbonic
following table acid

NO2
HNO3

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