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Our entitlements as citizens of a country and

as human beings

Legal/Constitutional Rights come from the

May come from the universally understood

moral rights of human beings as embodied in

the universal declaration of human rights
that encompasses the entire humanity
Philippine Constitution
Provides certain rights to the citizens
Ex: right to vote

There cannot be rights without duties

Duties = Obligations
Ex: right to vote is correlated with duty

to vote wisely

Rights give power to exercise

freedom of choice.

Rights can be defined as:

1. Absence of prohibitions against pursuit

of activities and interests

2. Authority and empowerment to act on
something that will secure our interests
of others
3. Existence of prohibitions or
requirements on others to enable the
individual to pursue his/her interests

Negative Rights
Duty of others not to interfere in the

exercise of a persons rights

Positive Rights
Duty of government and other agencies

to facilitate the exercise of our rights

Education Act of the Philippines

Details additional rights to parents,

students, and teachers among others

Section 8 Chapter 2
Rights of Parents who have children
enrolled in a school

(Section 8...)
1. Right to organize by themselves and/or

with teachers

for the purpose of providing a forum for

discussion of matters relating to total
school program, and for ensuring the full
cooperation of parents and teachers in the
formulation and efficient implementation of
such programs

2. Right to access any official record of

their children under their parental


Section 14 D uties ofParents

1. Help carry out educational

objectives in accordance with

national goals
2. Enable their children to obtain
elementary education and shall
strive to let them obtain secondary
and higher education
3. Cooperate with the school in the
implementation of the school

Section 9 Rights ofStudents

1. Receive relevant quality education
2. Freely choose their field of study and to

continue their course

3. School guidance and counselling
4. Access to his own school records
5. Issuance of official certificates, diplomas,
transcript of records, grades, transfer
credentials, etc. Within 30 days from

Section 9 Rights ofStudents

6. Publish student newspaper and similar

publications; and to invite resource persons

for assemblies, symposia, etc.
7. Free expression of opinions and suggestions,
and to effective channels of communication
8. Form, establish, join and participate in
organizations and societies recognized by
the school
9. Be free from involuntary contributions,
except those approved by their own
organizations or societies