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The Nature of a Magnetic

Field
Magnetism
Force of attraction or repulsion that acts
between magnets and other magnetic
materials

Flux lines
Show direction and intensity of this field
at all points

The Nature of a Magnetic


Field
Field is strongest at poles
Direction is from N to S

Unlike poles attract


Like poles repel

Introduction
Unlike electric field lines, the lines of
magnetic flux form closed loops.
A magnetic circuit is a closed path
followed by lines of magnetic flux.
A copper wire, because of its high
conductivity, confines the electric current
within itself.
Similarly, a ferromagnetic material (such
as iron or steel), due to its high
permeability, confines magnetic flux within
itself.
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Ch. 6 Magnetic Circuits

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Magnetic Fields
In the region surrounding a permanent

magnet there exists a magnetic field, which


can be represented by magnetic flux lines
similar to electric flux lines.
Magnetic flux lines differ from electric flux
lines in that they dont have an origin or
termination point.
Magnetic flux lines radiate from the north
pole to the south pole through the magnetic
bar.

Magnetic Fields
Continuous magnetic flux lines will strive to

occupy as small an area as possible.


The strength of a magnetic field in a given
region is directly related to the density of flux
lines in that region.
If unlike poles of two permanent magnets are
brought together the magnets will attract, and
the flux distribution will be as shown below.

Magnetic Fields
If like poles are brought

together, the magnets will


repel, and the flux
distribution will be as
shown.
If a nonmagnetic material,
such as glass or copper, is
placed in the flux paths
surrounding a permanent
magnet, there will be an
almost unnoticeable
change in the flux
distribution.

Magnetic Fields
Magnetic fields can be
visualized as lines of flux that
form closed paths.
Using a compass, we can
determine the direction of the
flux lines at any point.
Note that the flux density
vector B is tangent to the lines
of flux.

Magnetic Fields
Flux and Flux Density
In the SI system of units, magnetic flux

is measured in webers (Wb) and is


represented using the symbol
The number of flux lines per unit area is
called flux density (B). Flux density is
measured in teslas (T).
Its magnitude is determined by the

following equation:

Electromagnetism
A wire carrying a
current I causes a
magnetomotive
force (m.m.f) F
this produces a
magnetic field
F has units of
Amperes
for a single wire F
is equal to I

Magnetic Field Strength


(H)
The mmf per metre length of the magnetic

circuit is termed as the magnetic field


strength, magnetic field intensity, or
magnetizing force.
It units are ampere-turns per metre (At/m) .
Its value is independent of the medium .

F IN
H
l
l

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Ch. 6 Magnetic Circuits

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Magnetic Permeability
()

If the core of the toroid is vacuum or air,


the magnetic flux density B in the core
bears a definite ratio to the magnetic field
strength H.
This ratio is called permeability of free
space.
Thus, for B
vacuum or air, 7

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0 4 10 Tm/A

Ch. 6 Magnetic Circuits

15

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Magnetic Fields
Permeability
If cores of different materials with the same physical

dimensions are used in the electromagnet, the strength of


the magnet will vary in accordance with the core used.
The variation in strength is due to the number of flux lines
passing through the core.
Magnetic material is material in which flux lines can readily
be created and is said to have high permeability.
Permeability () is a measure of the ease with which
magnetic flux lines can be established in the material.
Flux density at a point is determined by the field strength and the
material present

B H

Or

B 0 r H

where is the permeability of the material,

FIGURE 1: Defining the


magnetizing force of a magnetic
circuit

Illustrations of the right-hand rule

FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR ON A


MAGNETIC FIELD

Flemings Left Hand Rule

Magnitude of the Force experienced by the


Conductor :

The magnetic flux produced is


determined by the permeability of
the material present
a ferromagnetic material will increase
the flux density