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Stock Preparation

Description of Unit

Processes

ENCH4PM- Papermaking Technology Kamini Govender

211506055

2015

Introduction

Stock preparation occurs at the beginning of the papermaking process.

Introduction  Stock preparation occurs at the beginning of the papermaking process . 2 Figure 1:

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Figure 1: Process Flow Diagram of the Papermaking Process

Introduction

Stock preparation is the interface between the pulp mill/warehouse and the paper machine .

Pulp Mill
Pulp Mill
Raw stock
Raw stock

Stock Preparation

Finished stock
Finished stock
Paper Machine
Paper
Machine

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Objectives

Treat and modify the raw material stock

Finished stock meets the requirements of the paper machine and paper quality demands.

Produce an uniform papermaking finished stock :

stable paper machine operation

high standard of paper quality

Unit Processes

Pulping -Pulp is dispersed into water to form slurry.

Refining (or Beating)- Fibres are subjected to mechanical action to develop their optimal papermaking properties

Addition of Chemical Additives and Auxiliaries -A wide variety of mineral and chemical substances added, to improve strength and quality of paper or to assist the papermaking process.

Metering and Blending -The various fibrous and non-fibrous furnish components are continuously combined and blended to form the papermaking stock.

Process Flow Diagram

Process Flow Diagram Figure 2: Process Flow Diagram of Stock Preparation 6

Figure 2: Process Flow Diagram of Stock Preparation

PULPING AND DILUTION

Recycled Pulp:

Comes

from

newsprint.

recycled

waste

paper,

board

and

Type of pulp that completely or partially consists of recycled fibres

fibres can have very different origins and therefore also very different characteristics

Collected categories.

paper must first be sorted into different

Newsprint, tissue and paperboard are the products primarily produced using recycled paper as raw material.

PULPING AND DILUTION  Recycled Pulp :  Comes from newsprint. recycled waste paper, board and

also called deinked pulp (DIP). DIP is recycled paper which has been processed by chemicals, thus removing printing inks and other unwanted elements. The process is called deinking.

Figure 3: Pulping and Dilution

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PULPING AND DILUTION

PULPING AND DILUTION Figure 4: Collected Recycled paper 8

Figure 4: Collected Recycled paper

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Virgin Pulp :

is wood pulp from trees just cut down instead of being from a recycled source Pulping of wood can be done in two ways: mechanically or chemically.

Mechanical pulp:

separates fibers from each other by mechanical energy applied to the wood causing the gradual break of the bonds between the fibers and the release of fiber bundles, single fibers, and fiber fragments.

the wood

is

processed into fibre form

by

grinding it

against a fast

rotating stone or by chipping the wood into tiny pieces.

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Chemical Pulping :

the

wood

chips

are

cooked

in

a

chemical

solution at elevated

temperature and pressure to remove the lignin and leave behind the fibres.

The

fibres

in

the

resulting

pulp

are

very

clean

and

undamaged

compared to mechanical pulping.

The yield of chemical pulping amounts to approximately 50%, lower than mechanical pulping since some of the fibres are dissolve and

degraded in chemical pulping.

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Broke Pulp :

pulp

that

has been through the paper

machine (or part-way through)

for

some reason was not finished and

shipped

typically consists of material released from a break on the machine, trim from normal operations .

normally,

this paper

is re-pulped

and

returned to the process as broke.

PULPING AND DILUTION  Broke Pulp :  pulp that has been through the paper machine

Figure 5: Pulping and Dilution

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Pulps

are

subjected

to

mechanical

action

that

disperses dry, compact fibres into a water slush,

slurry or suspension. Extent of re-pulping-

sufficient to enable the slurry to be pumped

Adequate

to

totally

separate

and

disperse

all

fibres Pulping operation can be batch or continuous.

The different pulps going to the pulper have different energy requirements. Broke pulp requires less energy in most cases compared to virgin pulps.

PULPING AND DILUTION  Pulps are subjected to mechanical action that disperses dry, compact fibres into

Figure 5: Pulping and Dilution

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Common types of pulpers : Low and High Consistency Pulpers

PULPING AND DILUTION  Common types of pulpers : Low and High Consistency Pulpers Figure 6:

Figure 6: Low Consistency Pulper

PULPING AND DILUTION  Common types of pulpers : Low and High Consistency Pulpers Figure 6:

Figure 7: High Consistency Pulper

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PULPING AND DILUTION

Generally, energy requirements can be minimised by operating at the highest practical consistency (up to 18%) and at temperatures above 50°C (lower viscosity).

As consistency is increased , defibering is improved and energy consumption is significantly reduced.

In some cases , the pulper is not able to produce sufficient defibration (defibering, deflaking or disintegration). A deflaker is then used.

breaks the remaining flakes or fibre bundles into separate, wet, flexible, and externally fibrillated fibres.

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REFINING (OR BEATING)

Refining

is

one

of

the

most

important

operations

when

preparing papermaking fibers .

The term beating is applied to the batch treatment of stock in a Hollander beater or one of its modifications.

The

term

refining

is

used

when

the

pulps

are

passed

continuously through one or more refiners, whether in series or

in parallel. The terms refining and beating are used interchangeably.

REFINING (OR BEATING)

Refining develops different fiber properties in different ways for

specific grades of paper.

Aims

to

develop the

bonding ability of the fibers without

reducing their individual strength by damaging them.

So the refining process is based on the properties required in

the final paper.

Different types of fiber react differently because of differences

in their properties.

REFINING (OR BEATING)

The refining process must take into account the type of fibers.

During beating and refining, fibers randomly

and repeatedly

undergo

tensile,

compressive, shear and bending forces.

Effects of these forces:

removal of the primary wall, formation

of

fiber debris or ‘fines’ Penetration of water into the cell wall Increased fiber flexibility Increased strength of fiber-to-fiber bonds Reduced pulp drainability

REFINING (OR BEATING)  The refining process must take into account the type of fibers. 

Figure 8: Effect of refining

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REFINING (OR BEATING)

Types of Refining equipment:

Beaters:

Beating includes fibre separation, cutting and fibrillation or brushing effect.

However

the

action of the

beater is primarily of rubbing or

REFINING (OR BEATING)  Types of Refining equipment:  Beaters:  Beating includes fibre separation, cutting

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crushing nature.
crushing nature.

Figure 9: Hollander Beater

Figure 10: Hollander Beater

REFINING (OR BEATING)

Types of Refining equipment:

Refiners:

Beaters have been replaced with refiner

advantage consumption

of

low

space

requirement

and

less

energy

Refiners can

be used on continuous basis where fibres flow

parallel to the bars of the rotor.

Two types of Refiners:

Conical Refiner

Disc Refiner ( more recent)

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REFINING (OR BEATING)

Conical Refiner:

REFINING (OR BEATING)  Conical Refiner : Figure 11: Conical Refiner Figure 12: Conical Refiner blades
REFINING (OR BEATING)  Conical Refiner : Figure 11: Conical Refiner Figure 12: Conical Refiner blades

Figure 11: Conical Refiner

Figure 12: Conical Refiner blades

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REFINING (OR BEATING)

Disc Refiner:

REFINING (OR BEATING)  Disc Refiner: Figure 14: Refining Discs 21

Figure 13: Disc Refiner

REFINING (OR BEATING)  Disc Refiner: Figure 14: Refining Discs 21

Figure 14: Refining Discs

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REFINING (OR BEATING)

Disc Refiners advantages :

Lower energy consumption

More compact- small space requirement

Easier to maintain

Greater versatility in refiner disc design

Objective of refining : to develop and modify the pulp fibers in an optimal manner for the demands of the final paper product.

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ADDITION OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES

Essential

that

the

final

paper

produced has a

number of characteristics and properties suitable

for that specific paper use.

These properties can not be obtained with fibre alone .

Not sufficient to use different types or blends of plant fibres to create different products with the necessary conditions.

Need the addition of non-fibrous products to obtain the desired properties .

ADDITION OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES  Essential that the final paper produced has a number of characteristics

Two types of non-fibrous products:

Additives

Figure 15: Stock Blending and Mixing

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ADDITION OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES

Additives:

These are products added to the manufacturing process in order to change the characteristics of the paper.

The most commonly used are :

Loads and Pigments : inorganic by nature (of mineral origin) . Chemical composition is basically the same , the essential difference is the particle size, Pigments are smaller . Loading is applied to the mass whilst pigments are applied to the surface. Improves opacity and whiteness.

Loads : Talc and calcium sulphate

Pigments : Calcium carbonate and Titanium dioxide

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ADDITION OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES

Colorants: gives paper a specific colour, improving the tone of the paper at the same time.

Resins: provide resistance in wet conditions. Binding agents: Type of adhesive , binds the pigments and fibres together. Sizing agents: Control penetration of liquids

Dry and Wet strength adhesives: Improve the tensile strength and stiffness.

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ADDITION OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES

Auxiliaries:

Does not change the properties of the paper significantly.

Main purpose being to facilitate work and help in the manufacturing process.

The most commonly used are :

Anti-foaming agents: remove or impede the formation of the foam that is usually produced in different points of the paper machine.

Microbicides: prevent the possible growth of bacteria/ microorganisms.

Retention agents pieces of fibre

: improve binding of the different additives to the

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METERING AND BLENDING OF FURNISHES

The various fibrous and non-fibrous furnish components are

continuously combined and blended to from papermaking stock.

Accurate proportioning of pulps and additives into a uniform blend depends:

Control of consistency /concentration Flowrate of each component stream

Pulp component added- controlled dilution steps and mixing stages are necessary to achieve the desired level of control

Traditional Batch systems – now using continuous automated systems

Systems rely on modern consistency control loops and magnetic flow meters to regulate control valves .

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METERING AND BLENDING OF FURNISHES

METERING AND BLENDING OF FURNISHES 28 Figure 16: Typical Stock Proportioning system

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Figure 16: Typical Stock Proportioning system

METERING AND BLENDING OF FURNISHES

The blended furnish is then delivered to

the machine stock chest.

The machine chest – typically contains the final furnish mixture , in some cases small concentrations of additives may be added just prior to the paper machine.

Machine chest stock is continuously circulated before being transferred into the paper machine approach system.

METERING AND BLENDING OF FURNISHES  The blended furnish is then delivered to the machine stock

Figure 17: Stock Blending and Mixing

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REFERENCES

Smook GA (1992d) Preparation of papermaking stock. Handbook for Pulp & Paper Technologists, 2nd edn. Angus Wilde Publications, Vancouver, p 194

P. Bajpai (2012), Biotechnology for Pulp and Paper Processing, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, Chapter 2

TORRASPAPEL,S.A. (2008). About Paper : Paper Manufacturing. Retrieved from About Paper: www.torraspapel.com. 1 August 2015.

Sappi Idea Exchange. (2014). The Paper Making Process - From wood to coated paper. Retrieved from SAPPI:

www.ideaexchange.sappi.com/knowledgebank. 1 August 2015.

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